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Sooyeon Lee, Yandong Zhou, Donald L Gill, Shannon L Kelleher
SLC30A2 encodes a zinc (Zn) transporter (ZnT2) that imports Zn into vesicles in highly-specialized secretory cells. Numerous mutations and non-synonymous variants in ZnT2 have been reported in humans and in breastfeeding women; ZnT2 variants are associated with abnormally low milk Zn levels and can lead to severe infantile Zn deficiency. However, ZnT2-null mice have profound defects in mammary epithelial cell (MEC) polarity and vesicle secretion, indicating that normal ZnT2 function is critical for MEC function...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yimeng Cai, Catherine P Kirschke, Liping Huang
Zinc is a vital co-factor for insulin metabolism in the pancreatic β-cell, involved in synthesis, maturation, and crystallization. Two families of zinc transporters, namely SLC30A (ZNT) and SLC39A (ZIP) are involved in maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis in mammalian cells. Single nuclear polymorphisms or mutations in zinc transporters have been associated with insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in both humans and mice. Thus, mice can be useful for studying the underlying mechanisms of zinc-associated risk of T2D development...
April 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
Carlos Tejeda-Guzmán, Abraham Rosas-Arellano, Thomas Kroll, Samuel M Webb, Martha Barajas-Aceves, Beatriz Osorio, Fanis Missirlis
Membrane transporters and sequestration mechanisms concentrate metal ions differentially into discrete subcellular microenvironments for usage in protein cofactors, signaling, storage, or excretion. Here we identify zinc storage granules as the insect's major zinc reservoir in principle Malpighian tubule epithelial cells of Drosophila melanogaster The concerted action of Adaptor Protein-3, Rab32, HOPS and BLOC complexes as well as of the white-scarlet (ABCG2-like) and ZnT35C (ZnT2/ZnT3/ZnT8-like) transporters is required for zinc storage granule biogenesis...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Sooyeon Lee, Olivia C Rivera, Shannon L Kelleher
An important feature of the mammary gland is its ability to undergo profound morphological, physiological, and intracellular changes to establish and maintain secretory function. During this process, key polarity proteins and receptors are recruited to the surface of mammary epithelial cells (MECs), and the vesicle transport system develops and matures. However, the intracellular mechanisms responsible for the development of secretory function in these cells are unclear. The vesicular zinc (Zn2+ ) transporter ZnT2 is critical for appropriate mammary gland architecture, and ZnT2 deletion is associated with cytoplasmic Zn2+ accumulation, loss of secretory function and lactation failure...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yarden Golan, Taiho Kambe, Yehuda G Assaraf
Breast milk is the optimal nutrient mix for infants until the age of 6 months. However, in some cases, due to genetic alterations as well as nutrient deficiencies in nursing mothers, infants may suffer from inadequate levels of micronutrients upon exclusive breastfeeding. In this respect, transient neonatal zinc deficiency (TNZD) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the zinc transporter SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene, resulting in poor secretion of zinc into the breast milk. Consequently, infants exclusively breastfed with zinc-deficient breast milk develop severe zinc deficiency...
October 18, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Bo Deng, Xihong Zhou, Jie Wu, Ciming Long, Yajun Yao, Hongxing Peng, Dan Wan, Xin Wu
An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P < 0...
October 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Abigail B Podany, Justin Wright, Regina Lamendella, David I Soybel, Shannon L Kelleher
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Defects in Paneth cell (PC) function are associated with microbial dysbiosis and intestinal inflammation. PC granules contain antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and substantial stores of zinc (Zn). We hypothesized that Zn, transported into the granule through the Zn transporter (ZnT)2, is critical for signature PC functions. METHODS: ZnT2 was localized to PC granules using immunofluorescence and sucrose gradient fractionation in wild-type (wt) mice, and consequences of ZnT2 loss were characterized in ZnT2 knockout (ZnT2ko) mice...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
M Chevallet, B Gallet, A Fuchs, P H Jouneau, K Um, E Mintz, I Michaud-Soret
Increased production and use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in consumer products has prompted the scientific community to investigate their potential toxicity, and understand their impact on the environment and organisms. Molecular mechanisms involved in ZnO-NP toxicity are still under debate and focus essentially on high dose expositions. In our study, we chose to evaluate the effect of sub-toxic doses of ZnO-NPs on human hepatocytes (HepG2) with a focus on metal homeostasis and redox balance disruptions...
October 26, 2016: Nanoscale
Chao Wang, Jianjun Lu, Le Zhou, Jun Li, Jiaman Xu, Weijian Li, Lili Zhang, Xiang Zhong, Tian Wang
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are widely used and possess great potentials in agriculture and biomedicine. It is inevitable for human exposure to these nanoparticles. However, no study had been conducted to investigate the long term effects of nano-ZnOs. This study aimed at investigating effects of nano-ZnOs on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) in mice from week 3 to 35. After the characteristics of nano-ZnOs were determined, they were added into the basal diet at 0, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg...
2016: PloS One
Stephen R Hennigar, Alyssa M Kelley, James P McClung
Zinc is an essential nutrient for humans; however, a sensitive biomarker to assess zinc status has not been identified. The objective of this systematic review was to compile and assess studies that determined zinc transporter and/or metallothionein expression in various blood cell types and to determine their reliability and sensitivity to changes in dietary zinc. Sixteen studies were identified that determined the expression of zrt-, irt-like protein (ZIP) 1 [solute carrier family (SLC) 39A1], ZIP3 (SLC39A3), ZIP5 (SLC39A5), ZIP6 (SLC39A6), ZIP7 (SLC39A7), ZIP8 (SLC39A8), ZIP10 (SLC39A10), ZIP14 (SLC39A14), zinc transporter (ZnT)1 (SLC30A1), ZnT2 (SLC30A2), ZnT4 (SLC30A4), ZnT5 (SLC30A5), ZnT6 (SLC30A6), ZnT7 (SLC30A7), ZnT9 (SLC30A9), and/or metallothionein in various blood cells isolated from healthy adult men and women in response to zinc supplementation or depletion...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Hua Wang, Ying Wang, Qing-Li Bo, Yan-Li Ji, Lu Liu, Yong-Fang Hu, Yuan-Hua Chen, Jun Zhang, Ling-Li Zhao, De-Xiang Xu
Cadmium (Cd) is linked with increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Nevertheless, the mechanism remains unknown. This study established a mouse model of Cd-induced FGR through two exposure methods. Pregnant mice were either administered with CdCl2 (5, 50 and 250ppm) throughout pregnancy through drinking water or intraperitoneally injected with CdCl2 (4.5mg/kg) on GD9. As expected, fetal weight and crown-rump length were reduced in a gender-independent manner. Interestingly, Mt1 and Mt2, two metallothionein genes, were up-regulated in maternal liver...
August 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Naoya Itsumura, Yoshie Kibihara, Kazuhisa Fukue, Akiko Miyata, Kenji Fukushima, Risa Tamagawa-Mineoka, Norito Katoh, Yukina Nishito, Riko Ishida, Hiroshi Narita, Hiroko Kodama, Taiho Kambe
BACKGROUND: Infants are vulnerable to zinc deficiency. Thus, abnormally low breast milk zinc levels cause transient neonatal zinc deficiency (TNZD) in breast-fed infants. TNZD has been considered to be rare because of a paucity of citations in the published literature. However, recent studies of affected mothers identified four missense mutations in the solute carrier family 30 member 2 gene (SLC30A2), which encodes the zinc transporter, ZnT2. METHODS: Genetic analyses of SLC30A2/ZnT2 in three Japanese mothers secreting low-zinc milk (whose infants developed TNZD) were performed...
October 2016: Pediatric Research
Yarden Golan, Naoya Itsumura, Fabian Glaser, Bluma Berman, Taiho Kambe, Yehuda G Assaraf
A gradually increasing number of transient neonatal zinc deficiency (TNZD) cases was recently reported, all of which were associated with inactivating ZnT2 mutations. Here we characterized the impact of three novel heterozygous ZnT2 mutations G280R, T312M, and E355Q, which cause TNZD in exclusively breastfed infants of Japanese mothers. We used the bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to provide direct visual evidence for the in situ dimerization of these ZnT2 mutants, and to explore their subcellular localization...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Taiho Kambe, Kazuhisa Fukue, Riko Ishida, Shiho Miyazaki
Zinc nutrition is of special practical importance in infants and children. Poor zinc absorption causes zinc deficiency, which leads to a broad range of consequences such as alopecia, diarrhea, skin lesions, taste disorders, loss of appetite, impaired immune function and neuropsychiatric changes and growth retardation, thus potentially threatening life in infants and children. In addition to dietary zinc deficiency, inherited zinc deficiency, which rarely occurs, is found during the infant stage and early childhood...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Nicholas H McCormick, Sooyeon Lee, Stephen R Hennigar, Shannon L Kelleher
During lactation, highly specialized secretory mammary epithelial cells (MECs) produce and secrete huge quantities of nutrients and nonnutritive factors into breast milk. The zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT4 (SLC30A4) transports Zn into the trans-Golgi apparatus for lactose synthesis, and across the apical cell membrane for efflux from MECs into milk. This is consistent with observations in "lethal milk" (lm/lm) mice, which have a truncation mutation in SLC30A4, and present with not only low milk Zn concentration, but also smaller mammary glands, decreased milk volume, and lactation failure by lactation day 2...
January 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Samina Alam, Stephen R Hennigar, Carla Gallagher, David I Soybel, Shannon L Kelleher
The zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 (SLC30A2) is expressed in specialized secretory cells including breast, pancreas and prostate, and imports Zn into mitochondria and vesicles. Mutations in SLC30A2 substantially reduce milk Zn concentration ([Zn]) and cause severe Zn deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants. Recent studies show that ZnT2-null mice have low milk [Zn], in addition to profound defects in mammary gland function during lactation. Here, we used breast milk [Zn] to identify novel non-synonymous ZnT2 variants in a population of lactating women...
December 2015: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Sooyeon Lee, Stephen R Hennigar, Samina Alam, Keigo Nishida, Shannon L Kelleher
The zinc transporter ZnT2 (SLC30A2) imports zinc into vesicles in secreting mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and is critical for zinc efflux into milk during lactation. Recent studies show that ZnT2 also imports zinc into mitochondria and is expressed in the non-lactating mammary gland and non-secreting MECs, highlighting the importance of ZnT2 in general mammary gland biology. In this study we used nulliparous and lactating ZnT2-null mice and characterized the consequences on mammary gland development, function during lactation, and milk composition...
May 22, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Stephen R Hennigar, Shannon L Kelleher
Mammary epithelial cells undergo widespread lysosomal-mediated cell death (LCD) during early mammary gland involution. Recently, we demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a cytokine released during early involution, redistributes the zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 to accumulate Zn in lysosomes and activate LCD and involution. The objective of this study is to determine how TNFα retargets ZnT2 to lysosomes. We tested the hypothesis that TNFα signaling dephosphorylates ZnT2 to uncover a highly conserved dileucine motif (L294L) in the C-terminus of ZnT2, allowing adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) to bind and traffic ZnT2 to lysosomes...
October 2015: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yarden Golan, Bluma Berman, Yehuda G Assaraf
Zinc plays a crucial role in numerous key physiological functions. Zinc transporters (ZnTs) mediate zinc efflux and compartmentalization in intracellular organelles; thus, ZnTs play a central role in zinc homeostasis. We have recently shown the in situ dimerization and function of multiple normal and mutant ZnTs using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). Prompted by these findings, we here uncovered the heterodimerization, altered subcellular localization, and function of multiple ZnTs in live cells using this sensitive BiFC technique...
April 3, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Stephen R Hennigar, Young Ah Seo, Supriya Sharma, David I Soybel, Shannon L Kelleher
Mammary gland involution is the most dramatic example of physiological cell death. It occurs through an initial phase of lysosomal-mediated cell death (LCD) followed by mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Zinc (Zn) activates both LCD and apoptosis in vitro. The Zn transporter ZnT2 imports Zn into vesicles and mitochondria and ZnT2-overexpression activates cell death in mammary epithelial cells (MECs). We tested the hypothesis that ZnT2-mediated Zn transport is critical for mammary gland involution in mice. Following weaning, ZnT2 abundance increased in lysosomes and mitochondria, which paralleled Zn accumulation in each of these organelles...
2015: Scientific Reports
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