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A J Byrne, M Weiss, S A Mathie, S A Walker, H L Eames, D Saliba, C M Lloyd, I A Udalova
Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a key transcription factor involved in the control of the expression of proinflammatory cytokine and responses to infection, but its role in regulating pulmonary immune responses to allergen is unknown. We used genetic ablation, adenoviral vector-driven overexpression, and adoptive transfer approaches to interrogate the role of IRF5 in pulmonary immunity and during challenge with the aeroallergen, house dust mite. Global IRF5 deficiency resulted in impaired lung function and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition...
October 19, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Joachim Heinrich, Guo Feng, Mary Jo Trepka
BACKGROUND: Although mercury exposure has been associated with several adverse health effects, the association with childhood asthma is under-investigated. Therefore, we explore the association between mercury and childhood asthma in a population with low mercury levels. METHODS: Mercury levels were measured in blood and urine in 1,056 children aged 5-14 years. In addition to including questions about asthma diagnosis and wheezing, the study measured bronchial hyper-responsiveness and allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens...
October 6, 2016: Epidemiology
Eric Lavigne, Antonio Gasparrini, David M Stieb, Hong Chen, Abdool S Yasseen, Eric Crighton, Teresa To, Scott Weichenthal, Paul J Villeneuve, Sabit Cakmak, Frances Coates, Mark Walker
BACKGROUND: Daily changes in aeroallergens during pregnancy could trigger early labor, but few investigations have evaluated this issue. This study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to aeroallergens during the week preceding birth and the risk of early delivery among preterm and term pregnancies. METHODS: We identified data on 225,234 singleton births that occurred in six large cities in the province of Ontario, Canada, from 2004 to 2011 (April to October) from a birth registry...
September 28, 2016: Epidemiology
Melanie M Makhija, Rachel G Robison, Deanna Caruso, Miao Cai, Xiaobin Wang, Jacqueline A Pongracic
BACKGROUND: Sensitization in adults has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate patterns of allergen sensitization in parents of food allergic children and to compare self-report of allergic disease with specific IgE (sIgE) measurements. METHODS: A total of 1,252 mothers and 1,225 fathers of food allergic children answered standardized questionnaires about demographics, home environment, history of atopic diseases, and food allergy...
October 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Jennifer A Lucas, Sheniz Moonie, Kimberly Olsen-Wilson, Mary Beth Hogan
OBJECTIVE: The majority of pediatric asthma is atopic, but whether pediatric obese asthma is atopic is indeterminate in the literature. In Nevada, children become sensitized to aeroallergens, a risk factor for asthma, at young ages. Additionally, Nevada children have high rates of obesity. Our objective is to determine whether elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with asthma severity, allergen sensitization, and polysensitization. METHODS: Medical records from a pediatric allergy clinic provided BMI percentile, physician-diagnosed asthma severity, skin prick test data, and sociodemographics such as age, race, sex, and insurance status from asthmatic patients...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
E Gómez Torrijos, P Sánchez Miranda, P Donado Palencia, A Castro Jimenez, J Rodriguez Sánchez, Y Mendez Díaz, L Moreno Lozano, R García Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory emerging disease of the oesophagus with immunoallergic aetiology. Until now, few studies about this disease in children and adolescents have been published Objectives: To study the demographic, clinical, serologic, endoscopic-histological and allergologic characteristics of the patients and their atopic and digestive comorbidities. METHODOLOGY: It is an prospective observacional study in children and adolescents (<16 years) assessed in a multidisciplinary specialized eosinpophilic esopahgitis unit in a tertiary referral centre in the central region of Spain carried out between 2011-2015...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Juan Carlos Lopez-Rodriguez, Rodrigo Barderas, Mercedes Echaide, Jesus Perez-Gil, Mayte Villalba, Eva Batanero, Antonio Cruz
Aeroallergens are airborne substances -mainly proteins- capable of triggering Th2-immune responses in respiratory allergies. They enter into the body through the upper airways, reaching the mucosa afterwards. Mucosae lining at the luminal side consists of an epithelial barrier completely covered by mucus and pulmonary surfactant. Both, pulmonary surfactant and plasma membrane of the epithelial cells represent two physiological phospholipid-based barriers where allergens first impact before triggering their biological effects...
October 10, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Filippo Ricciardiello, Elena Cantone, Teresa Abate, Antonella M Di Lullo, Flavia Oliva, Maurizio Iengo, Giuseppe De Bernardo
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates endoscopic and quality of life (QoL) outcomes in two groups, composed by both allergic (A) and non-allergic (N-A) adolescents undergoing septoplasty with concurrent turbinate surgery by radiofrequency treated after surgery with nasal spray containing liposomes and vitamins A and E. METHODS: This double-blind randomized study was carried out on 40 patients (22 males, 18 females, mean age 15.5 ± 1.0 years) undergoing septoplasty and volumetric tissue reduction of inferior turbinates by radiofrequency for post-traumatic deformities and severe nasal obstruction...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Márcia B Silva, Ana L M Amor, Leonardo N Santos, Alana A Galvão, Aida Y Oviedo V, Eduardo S Silva, Cynara Gomes Barbosa, Philip J Cooper, Camila A Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia Ribeiro, Neuza Maria Alcântara-Neves
In the present article, we provide shortly, data on risk factors for acquiring Toxocara spp. infection and investigate possible associations between this infection with atopy and asthma in school children of a small town and its semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil. The data set are composed by demographic, social and home environment variables. The detection of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and specific IgE to aeroallergens was determined by ELISA and ImmunocAP/Phadiatrope systems, respectively. The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled "Risk factors for Toxocara spp...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Joaquín Sastre, Marina Sastre-Ibañez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent insights into how molecular diagnosis can improve indication and selection of suitable allergens for specific immunotherapy and increase the safety of this therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: As specific allergen immunotherapy targets specific allergens, identification of the disease-eliciting allergen is a prerequisite for accurate prescription of treatment. In areas of complex sensitization to aeroallergens or in cases of hymenoptera venom allergy, the use of molecular diagnosis has demonstrated that it may lead to a change in indication and selection of allergens for immunotherapy in a large proportion of patients when compared with diagnosis based on skin prick testing and/or specific IgE determination with commercial extracts...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Andrew W Kam, Winnie Wy Tong, Jenna M Christensen, Constance H Katelaris, Janet Rimmer, Richard J Harvey
OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of airborne allergen (aeroallergen) sensitisation in the Greater Sydney area (Sydney), and their relationships with climate, coastal proximity and environment (urban v regional). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients who underwent aeroallergen skin prick testing at three Sydney allergy clinics, January 2001 - October 2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Proportions of patients sensitised to specific aeroallergen types; relationships between sensitisation patterns and climate and geography...
October 3, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Andriana I Papaioannou, Aris Spathis, Konstantinos Kostikas, Petros Karakitsos, Spyros Papiris, Christos Rossios
Asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease caused by association of genetic and environmental factors and its incidence has significantly increased over the latest years. The clinical manifestations of asthma are the result of airway hyper-reactivity to a variety of triggers such as aeroallergens, viral and bacterial components. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pathogen associated molecular pattern receptors, which are also expressed in the lung tissue as well as in several cells of the innate and adaptive immune system...
September 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Fatemeh Moheimani, Alan C-Y Hsu, Andrew T Reid, Teresa Williams, Anthony Kicic, Stephen M Stick, Philip M Hansbro, Peter A B Wark, Darryl A Knight
Asthma is a global health problem with increasing prevalence. The airway epithelium is the initial barrier against inhaled noxious agents or aeroallergens. In asthma, the airway epithelium suffers from structural and functional abnormalities and as such, is more susceptible to normally innocuous environmental stimuli. The epithelial structural and functional impairments are now recognised as a significant contributing factor to asthma pathogenesis. Both genetic and environmental risk factors play important roles in the development of asthma with an increasing number of genes associated with asthma susceptibility being expressed in airway epithelium...
2016: Respiratory Research
Sunil K Ahuja, Muthu Saravanan Manoharan, Nathan L Harper, Fabio Jimenez, Benjamin D Hobson, Hernan Martinez, Puraskar Ingale, Ya-Guang Liu, Andrew Carrillo, Zheng Lou, Dean L Kellog, Seema S Ahuja, Cynthia G Rather, Robert E Esch, Daniel A Ramirez, Robert A Clark, Kari Nadeau, Charles P Andrews, Robert L Jacobs, Weijing He
BACKGROUND: An emerging paradigm holds that resistance to the development of allergic diseases, including allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR), relates to an intact epithelial/epidermal barrier during early childhood. Conceivably, the immunologic and genomic footprint of this resistance is preserved in nonatopic, nonallergic adults and is unmasked during exposure to an aeroallergen. OBJECTIVE: To obtain direct support of the epithelial/epidermal barrier model for AR...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Stephan Gabet, Jocelyne Just, Rémy Couderc, Nathalie Seta, Isabelle Momas
BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitisation is poorly documented in infants. This study aims to provide new insights into allergic sensitisation patterns and related factors in infancy. METHODS: This study concerns 1860 infants involved in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) population-based birth cohort who had a standardised health examination when 18 months old, from 2004 to 2008. Sensitisation was assessed by measurements of serum specific IgE to 12 food and 4 inhalant allergens and defined by IgE≥0...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Alessandra Ghiani, Maurizio Bruschi, Sandra Citterio, Ezio Bolzacchini, Luca Ferrero, Giorgia Sangiorgi, Riccardo Asero, Maria Grazia Perrone
Pollen aeroallergens are present in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) where they can be found in coarse biological particles such as pollen grains (aerodynamic diameter dae>10μm), as well as fragments in the finest respirable particles (PM2.5; dae<2.5μm). Nitration of tyrosine residues in pollen allergenic proteins can occur in polluted air, and inhalation and deposition of these nitrated proteins in the human respiratory tract may lead to adverse health effects by enhancing the allergic response in population...
September 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Pablo Rodríguez Del Río, Carmen Vidal, Jocelyne Just, Ana I Tabar, Inmaculada Sanchez-Machin, Peter Eberle, Jesus Borja, Petra Bubel, Oliver Pfaar, Pascal Demoly, Moises A Calderón
BACKGROUND: Safety data on "real-life" allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in children and adolescents is usually extrapolated from studies in adults. METHODS: Patients aged 18 or under initiating aeroallergen AIT were evaluated in a prospective European survey. Patient profiles and systemic reactions (SRs) were recorded. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for SRs. RESULTS: A total of 1,563 patients (mean±SD age: 11...
September 17, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Jakob Stokholm, Astrid Sevelsted, Ulrik D Anderson, Hans Bisgaard
Introduction Preeclampsia reflects an unusual increase in systemic inflammation during pregnancy. We studied associations between preeclampsia and asthma, allergy and eczema in Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) and in national registries. Methods COPSAC2000 is a high-risk birth cohort of 411 Danish children. Asthma, allergy and eczema were diagnosed prospectively, and lung function measured at age 1mo and 7yrs. Sensitization was evaluated at age 6mo, 18mo, 4yrs and 6yrs by skin prick tests and IgE measurements...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Stephan Löser, Lisa G Gregory, Youming Zhang, Katrein Schaefer, Simone A Walker, James Buckley, Laura Denney, Charlotte H Dean, William O C Cookson, Miriam F Moffatt, Clare M Lloyd
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified the ORMDL3 (ORM (yeast)-like protein isoform 3) gene locus on human chromosome 17q to be a highly significant risk factor for childhood-onset asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate in vivo the functional role of ORMDL3 in disease inception. METHODS: An Ormdl3 deficient mouse was generated and the role of ORMDL3 in the generation of allergic airways disease to the fungal aeroallergen Alternaria alternata determined...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
John W Steinke, Larry Borish
OBJECTIVE: To review the current knowledge surrounding different chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) presentations and the relative roles of nasal polyps, eosinophilia, and allergies in discerning phenotypes. DATA SOURCES: PubMed literature review. STUDY SELECTIONS: Articles discussing the various phenotypes of CRS with emphasis on pathologic and immune mechanistic studies that distinguish disease. RESULTS: Current guidelines primarily separate CRS based on the presence or absence of nasal polyps...
September 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
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