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Primary Prevention CAD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325803/coronary-artery-disease-in-athletes-an-adverse-effect-of-intense-exercise
#1
REVIEW
Hélder Dores, Pedro de Araújo Gonçalves, Nuno Cardim, Nuno Neuparth
Regular physical exercise is responsible for various health benefits, and is recommended for primary and secondary cardiovascular (CV) prevention. Despite these recognized benefits, various clinical events can occur in athletes, including acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death (SCD); the main cause of SCD in veteran athletes is coronary artery disease (CAD). The relationship between intense exercise training and CAD is controversial, and a U-shaped association has been hypothesized. If this is the case, screening for subclinical CAD in older athletes may be justified, and various different methodologies have been proposed...
January 8, 2018: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325539/chinese-cervicocephalic-artery-dissection-study-ccads-rationale-and-protocol-for-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Zhu Zhu, Yuyuan Xu, Yilong Wang, Zhenhua Zhou, Xiang Han, Aihua Liu, Jing Peng, Yi Xu, Luyao Wang
BACKGROUND: Cervicocephalic artery dissection (CAD) is an important etiology of stroke in the youth. Findings from recent studies suggest it a "group of disease entities" with different underlying etiologies, presentations and prognosis, necessitating an integral study including various types of CAD to get a better understanding of this disease. In addition, Chinese patients with CAD are likely to carry different features from their western counterparts, which remains uncertain yet. Chinese Cervicocephalic Artery Dissection Study (CCADS) therefore aims at exploring the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical/radiological features, diagnosis and prognosis of CAD in Chinese patients...
January 11, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319564/genetics-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-coronary-artery-disease
#3
Robert Roberts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review is to describe the genetic risk variants that have been discovered predisposing to coronary artery disease (CAD) and how they are utilized to stratify for risk of CAD. RECENT FINDINGS: Over 90 genetic risk variants have been discovered that predispose to risk for CAD. SUMMARY: The total genetic risk burden for CAD is proportional to the number of risk variants inherited and can be combined into a single number referred to as the genetic risk score (GRS)...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281605/trends-in-cardiovascular-risk-profiles
#4
REVIEW
Samir Kapadia
Outcomes for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have improved in the past 20 years likely due to advances in clinical care such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, antiplatelet agents, and reduced time to cardiac cauterization procedures. But how have the risk factors for CAD changed in the past 2 decades? Analysis of nearly 4,000 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at a tertiary care center found that patients presenting with acute STEMI are younger and more obese than in the past...
December 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018039/the-ocean-lifeguard-drowning-prevention-paradigm-how-and-where-do-lifeguards-intervene-in-the-drowning-process
#5
William Koon, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Linda Quan
Drowning is a global health problem that can be addressed with multiple strategies including utilisation of lifeguards in recreational swim areas. However, few studies have described lifeguard prevention activities. We conducted a retrospective analysis using lifeguard activity data collected in real time with a Computer-Aided-Dispatch (CAD) system to characterise the nature of lifeguard primary and secondary drowning prevention at a popular ocean beach in California. Preventative actions constituted the majority (232 065/423 071; 54...
October 10, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986061/adverse-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-atrial-fibrillation-validation-of-the-new-2mace-risk-score
#6
Marija Polovina, Dijana Đikić, Ana Vlajković, Matej Vilotijević, Ivan Milinković, Milika Ašanin, Miodrag Ostojić, Andrew J S Coats, Petar M Seferović
BACKGROUND: In addition to thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation (AF) may also predispose to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) attributable to coronary artery disease (CAD), including myocardial infarction (MI). The 2MACE score (2 points - Metabolic syndrome and Age≥75years, 1 point - MI/revascularization, Congestive heart failure/ejection-fraction <40%, and thrombo-Embolism) was recently proposed to help identify AF patients at risk of MACE. We assessed the predictive validity of the 2MACE score for MACE occurrence in AF patients free of CAD at baseline...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974431/adenovirotherapy-delivering-cytokine-and-checkpoint-inhibitor-augments-car-t-cells-against-metastatic-head-and-neck-cancer
#7
Amanda Rosewell Shaw, Caroline E Porter, Norihiro Watanabe, Kiyonori Tanoue, Andrew Sikora, Stephen Gottschalk, Malcolm K Brenner, Masataka Suzuki
In solid tumors, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells must overcome the challenges of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We hypothesized that pre-treating tumors with our binary oncolytic adenovirus (CAd), which produces local oncolysis and expresses immunostimulatory molecules, would enhance the antitumor activity of HER2-specific CAR T cells, which alone are insufficient to cure solid tumors. We tested multiple cytokines in conjunction with PD-L1-blocking antibody and found that Ad-derived IL-12p70 prevents the loss of HER2...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965093/quantifying-sociodemographic-and-income-disparities-in-medical-therapy-and-lifestyle-among-symptomatic-patients-with-suspected-coronary-artery-disease-a-cross-sectional-study-in-north-america
#8
Joseph A Ladapo, Adrian Coles, Rowena J Dolor, Daniel B Mark, Lawton Cooper, Kerry L Lee, Jonathan Goldberg, Michael D Shapiro, Udo Hoffmann, Pamela S Douglas
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate potential gaps in preventive medical therapy and healthy lifestyle practices among symptomatic patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) seeing primary care physicians and cardiologists and how gaps vary by sociodemographic characteristics and baseline cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study assessing potential preventive gaps. PARTICIPANTS: 10 003 symptomatic outpatients evaluated by primary care physicians, cardiologists or other specialists for suspected CAD...
September 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913755/management-and-clinical-outcome-of-stable-coronary-artery-disease-in-austria-results-from-5%C3%A2-years-of-the-clarify-registry
#9
Irene M Lang, Roza Badr-Eslam, Nicola Greenlaw, Robin Young, Philippe Gabriel Steg
BACKGROUND: The population of patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) is growing because of an improvement in outcomes and survival from acute disease episodes. Nevertheless, these patients remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. Thus, CAD management is important in prevention of disease progression. The objective of this analysis was to describe disease management and clinical outcome of Austrian outpatients with stable CAD over 5 years by using data from the international CLARIFY registry...
September 14, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856140/new-insights-about-the-putative-role-of-myokines-in-the-context-of-cardiac-rehabilitation-and-secondary-cardiovascular-prevention
#10
REVIEW
Domenico Di Raimondo, Giuseppe Miceli, Gaia Musiari, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Pinto
Exercise training prevents the onset and the development of many chronic diseases, acting as an effective tool both for primary and for secondary prevention. Various mechanisms that may be the effectors of these beneficial effects have been proposed during the past decades: some of these are well recognized, others less. Muscular myokines, released during and after muscular contraction, have been proposed as key mediators of the systemic effects of the exercise. Nevertheless the availability of an impressive amount of evidence regarding the systemic effects of muscle-derived factors, few studies have examined key issues: (I) if skeletal muscle cells themselves are the main source of cytokine during exercise; (II) if the release of myokines into the systemic circulation reach an adequate concentration to provide significant effects in tissues far from skeletal muscle; (III) what may be the role carried out by muscular cytokine regarding the well-known benefits induced by regular exercise, first of all the anti-inflammatory effect of exercise...
August 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816537/evaluating-the-prescription-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-or-receptor-blockers-in-patients-with-diabetes-in-jordan
#11
Fadia Mayyas, Wa'ed Bataineh, Anan Jarab
OBJECTIVE: The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are guideline-recommended agents to prevent development and progression of nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases in diabetic Mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prescription of ACEIs/ARBs in DM patients with guideline indications. METHOD: electronic data files for diabetes patients were retrospectively reviewed at a primary care setting northern Jordan...
August 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807393/treatment-trends-effectiveness-and-safety-of-statins-on-lipid-goal-attainment-in-chinese-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-patients-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Yundai Chen, Dandan Li, Jing Jing, Hongbing Yan, Jinghua Liu, Zhujun Shen, Stefan James, Christoph Varenhorst
PURPOSE: Limited data exist on the use of statins in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We therefore conducted this study to observe the usage trend and the effectiveness of statins on LDL-C goal attainment and other lipid parameters among PCI-treated patients. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study was conducted in PCI-treated patients with CAD between July 1, 2011, and February 28, 2015...
September 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705312/community-based-lifestyle-intervention-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-the-response-2-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Madelon Minneboo, Sangeeta Lachman, Marjolein Snaterse, Harald T Jørstad, Gerben Ter Riet, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Wilma J M Scholte Op Reimer, Ron J G Peters
BACKGROUND: Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), improvement of lifestyle-related risk factors (LRFs) reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, modification of LRFs is highly challenging. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the impact of combining community-based lifestyle programs with regular hospital-based secondary prevention. METHODS: The authors performed a randomized controlled trial of nurse-coordinated referral of patients and their partners to 3 widely available community-based lifestyle programs, in 15 hospitals in the Netherlands...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692742/vitamin-k-antagonists-with-or-without-long-term-antiplatelet-therapy-in-outpatients-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease-and-atrial-fibrillation-association-with-ischemic-and-bleeding-events
#14
Gilles Lemesle, Gregory Ducrocq, Yedid Elbez, Eric Van Belle, Shinya Goto, Christopher P Cannon, Christophe Bauters, Deepak L Bhatt, Philippe Gabriel Steg
BACKGROUND: It remains uncertain whether patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) requiring long-term oral anticoagulation (OAC) and with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) should receive antiplatelet therapy (APT) in addition to OAC. HYPOTHESIS: APT in addition to OAC would be more effective than OAC alone in preventing ischaemic events in such patients. METHODS: In the international REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry including 68 236 outpatients with or at risk for atherothrombosis, we identified 2347 patients with stable CAD and AF receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKA)...
July 10, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545400/the-role-of-a-behavioural-medicine-intervention-in-physiotherapy-for-the-effects-of-rehabilitation-outcomes-in-exercise-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-ecra-the-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Sabina Borg, Birgitta Öberg, Lennart Nilsson, Anne Söderlund, Maria Bäck
BACKGROUND: To help patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) benefit from the positive health effects attained by exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR), adherence to these programmes according to international guidelines is important. Strategies to increase adherence to exercise-based CR are mainly an unexplored area. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a behavioural medicine intervention in physiotherapy, containing goal-setting, self-monitoring and feedback, with the aim of improving rehabilitation outcomes for exercise-based CR, compared with usual care...
May 25, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532406/the-addition-of-vildagliptin-to-metformin-prevents-the-elevation-of-interleukin-1%C3%A3-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-coronary-artery-disease-a-prospective-randomized-open-label-study
#16
Arwa Younis, Dana Eskenazi, Ronen Goldkorn, Jonathan Leor, Nili Naftali-Shani, Enrique Z Fisman, Alexander Tenenbaum, Ilan Goldenberg, Robert Klempfner
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes present with an accelerated atherosclerotic process. Animal evidence indicates that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins) have anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects, yet clinical data are scarcely available. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized, open-label study was performed in 60 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes, who participated in a cardiac rehabilitation program...
May 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487302/prophylactic-use-of-eculizumab-during-surgery-in-chronic-cold-agglutinin-disease
#17
Eirik Tjønnfjord, Øystein A Vengen, Sigbjørn Berentsen, Geir Erland Tjønnfjord
Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is an autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in which a specific bone marrow lymphoproliferative disorder causes production of cold agglutinins (CA). Binding of CA to erythrocyte surface antigens results in a predominantly extravascular haemolysis that is entirely complement dependent. Because of complement activation, exacerbations are common during febrile infections, trauma or major surgery. Involvement of the terminal complement pathway with C5-mediated intravascular haemolysis is probably not prominent in stable disease but is supposed to be of importance in exacerbations following acute phase reaction...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462120/high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-hdl-c-in-cardiovascular-disease-effect-of-exercise-training
#18
REVIEW
Nayoung Ahn, Kijin Kim
Decreases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), whereas increased HDL-C levels are related to a decreased risk of CAD and myocardial infarction. Although HDL prevents the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein under normal conditions, it triggers a structural change, inhibiting antiarteriosclerotic and anti-inflammatory functions, under pathological conditions such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and diabetes. HDL can transform into various structures based on the quantitative reduction and deformation of apolipoprotein A1 and is the primary cause of increased levels of dysfunctional HDL, which can lead to an increased risk of CAD...
September 2016: Integrative Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435446/cardiovascular-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Marcello Casaccia Bertoluci, Viviane Zorzanelli Rocha
Although patients with diabetes have 2 to 4 times increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than individuals without diabetes, recent studies indicate that a significant part of patients are in a lower cardiovascular risk category. Men younger than 35 years, women younger than 45 years, patients with diabetes duration of less than 10 years without other risk factors have a much lower risk than patients who have traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and subclinical or established coronary artery disease (CAD)...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430669/low-previous-cardiovascular-risk-of-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#20
Gustavo Rodrigues, Pedro de Araújo Gonçalves, Francisco Moscoso Costa, Rui Campante Teles, Dores Hélder, Luís Mariano, João Brito, Henrique Mesquita Gabriel, Manuel Almeida, Miguel Mendes
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction is frequently the initial form of presentation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Systemic Coronary Risk Estimation (SCORE) risk tables are used in primary prevention and provide an estimate of cardiovascular (CV) risk through known risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the SCORE, calculated using data previous to the event, to estimate CV risk of a population of patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as the first manifestation of CAD...
August 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
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