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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913794/tlr-ligands-but-not-modulators-of-histone-modifiers-can-induce-the-complex-immune-response-pattern-of-endotoxin-tolerance-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#1
Juliane Günther, Wolfram Petzl, Holm Zerbe, Hans-Joachim Schuberth, Hans-Martin Seyfert
Excessive stimulation of the TLR4 axis through LPS reduces the expression of some cytokine genes in immune cells, while stimulating the expression of immune defense genes during a subsequent bacterial infection. This endotoxin tolerance (ET) is mediated via epigenetic mechanisms. Priming the udder of cows with LPS was shown to induce ET in mammary epithelial cells (MEC), thereby protecting the udder against reinfection for some time. Seeking alternatives to LPS priming we tried to elicit ET by priming MEC with either lipopeptide (Pam2CSK4) via the TLR2/6 axis or inhibitors of histone-modifying enzymes...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913792/genetic-engineering-approach-to-develop-next-generation-reagents-for-endotoxin-quantification
#2
Hikaru Mizumura, Norihiko Ogura, Jun Aketagawa, Maki Aizawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata, Toshio Oda
The bacterial endotoxin test, which uses amebocyte lysate reagents of horseshoe crab origin, is a sensitive, reproducible and simple assay to measure endotoxin concentration. To develop sustainable raw materials for lysate reagents that do not require horseshoe crabs, three recombinant protease zymogens (factor C, derived from mammalian cells; factor B; and the proclotting enzyme derived from insect cells) were prepared using a genetic engineering technique. Recombinant cascade reagents (RCRs) were then prepared to reconstruct the reaction cascade in the amebocyte lysate reagent...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913143/innate-immune-stimulatory-activity-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-fimbriae-is-eliminated-by-phase-separation-using-triton-x-114
#3
Kohji Nozoe, Terukazu Sanui, Masaaki Takeshita, Takao Fukuda, Akira Haraguchi, Yoshitomi Aida, Fusanori Nishimura
Fimbriae are virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). In this study, the action of fimbriae on neutrophil respiratory burst and cytokine production by mononuclear cells (MNC) were investigated. Native or denatured form of purified P. gingivalis fimbriae contained endotoxin at an equivalence of 1-3μg lipopolysaccharides (LPS)/mg protein. The endotoxin could be reduced to the equivalent of 1ng-LPS/mg protein by phase separation using Triton X-114. Unfractionated fimbriae caused serum-dependent priming of neutrophils for enhanced respiratory burst, but both native and denatured forms of Triton X-114-fractionated fimbriae were not active at 100μg/mL...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913133/a-comparative-study-of-different-strategies-for-removal-of-endotoxins-from-bacteriophage-preparations
#4
Jonas D Van Belleghem, Maya Merabishvili, Bjorn Vergauwen, Rob Lavigne, Mario Vaneechoutte
Bacterial endotoxins have high immunogenicity. Phage biology studies as well as therapeutic phage applications necessitate highly purified phage particles. In this study, we compared combinations of seven different endotoxin removal strategies and validated their endotoxin removal efficacy for five different phages (i.e. four Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages and one Staphylococcus aureus phage). These purification strategies included Endotrap HD column purification and/or CsCl density centrifugation in combination with Endotrap purification, followed by organic solvent (1-octanol), detergent (Triton X-100), enzymatic inactivation of the endotoxin using alkaline phosphatase and CIM monolytic anion exchange chromatography...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908569/effectiveness-of-immunotherapy-in-children-depends-on-place-of-living-a-pilot-study
#5
M Pawlowski, J Jerzynska, D Podlecka, W Stelmach, P Majak, I Stelmach
BACKGROUND: It is considered that farm areas protect young patients from allergy and asthma due to high exposure to endotoxins. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment of allergy modifying the immune response with the potential to change the natural history of allergic diseases. It seems that studies evaluating the efficacy of immunotherapy in large cohorts of allergic patients living in farm areas are needed to understand the influence of environment on immune response during AIT...
November 28, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906600/role-of-polysaccharide-and-lipid-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-prion-protein-conversion
#6
Carol L Ladner-Keay, Marcia LeVatte, David S Wishart
Conversion of native cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) from an α-helical structure to a toxic and infectious β-sheet structure (PrP(Sc)) is a critical step in the development of prion disease. There are some indications that the formation of PrP(Sc) is preceded by a β-sheet rich PrP (PrP(β)) form which is non-infectious, but is an intermediate in the formation of infectious PrP(Sc). Furthermore the presence of lipid cofactors is thought to be critical in the formation of both intermediate-PrP(β) and lethal, infectious PrP(Sc)...
December 1, 2016: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906031/contrasting-biological-potency-of-particulate-matter-collected-at-sites-impacted-by-distinct-industrial-sources
#7
Errol M Thomson, Dalibor Breznan, Subramanian Karthikeyan, Christine MacKinnon-Roy, Ngoc Q Vuong, Ewa Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Valbona Celo, Jean-Pierre Charland, Prem Kumarathasan, Jeffrey R Brook, Renaud Vincent
BACKGROUND: Industrial sources contribute a significant proportion of anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions, producing particles of varying composition that may differentially impact health. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient PM collected near industrial sites in relation to particle size and composition. METHODS: Size-fractionated particles (ultrafine, PM0.1-2.5, PM2.5-10, PM>10) were collected in the vicinity of steel, copper, aluminium, and petrochemical industrial sites...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894360/the-relationship-of-endotoxaemia-to-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-inflammatory-responses-in-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#8
Lorna Maclean, Eltayb A Aboubaker, Peter G E Kennedy, Jeremy M Sternberg
Endotoxaemia has been described in cases of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), but it is unclear if this phenomenon influences inflammatory pathology either in the periphery or central nervous system (CNS). We studied endotoxin concentrations in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients using the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte lysate assay. The relationship of endotoxin concentration to the presentation of gross signs of inflammation and the inflammatory/counter-inflammatory cytokine profile of the relevant compartments were analysed...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889801/production-and-purification-of-an-untagged-recombinant-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-pspa4pro-with-high-purity-and-low-endotoxin-content
#9
Douglas B Figueiredo, Eneas Carvalho, Mauricio P Santos, Stefanie Kraschowetz, Rafaela T Zanardo, Gilson Campani, Gabriel G Silva, Cíntia R Sargo, Antonio Carlos L Horta, Roberto de C Giordano, Eliane N Miyaji, Teresa C Zangirolami, Joaquin Cabrera-Crespo, Viviane Maimoni Gonçalves
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and other conditions that kill thousands of children every year worldwide. The replacement of pneumococcal serotypes among the vaccinated population has evidenced the need for new vaccines with broader coverage and driven the research for protein-based vaccines. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) protects S. pneumoniae from the bactericidal effect of human apolactoferrin and prevents complement deposition. Several studies indicate that PspA is a very promising target for novel vaccine formulations...
November 26, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888109/ephestia-kuehniella-tolerance-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1aa-is-associated-with-reduced-oligomer-formation
#10
Maissa Chakroun, Sameh Sellami, Juan Ferré, Slim Tounsi, Souad Rouis
The basis of the different susceptibility of Ephestia kuehniella to the Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac δ-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki BNS3 was studied. Both toxins bound specifically to the BBMV of E. kuehniella. The result of the ligand blot showed that Cry1Ac bound to three putative receptors of about 100, 65 and 80 kDa and Cry1Aa interacted only with a 100 kDa protein. Pronase digestion of the BBMV-bound toxins was used to analyze the toxin insertion. Both toxins inserted into the BBMV as monomers however, a 14 kDa peptide of α4-α5 which correspond to the oligomeric form of this peptide was detected in case of Cry1Ac only...
November 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885712/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-lactulose-plus-albumin-versus-lactulose-alone-for-treatment-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#11
Barjesh Chander Sharma, Jatinderpal Singh, Siddharth Srivastava, Alok Sangam, Alok Kumar Mantri, Nirupma Trehanpati, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with poor prognosis and treatment of HE is primarily directed at the reduction of the blood ammonia levels. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of albumin plus lactulose versus lactulose alone for treatment of overt HE. METHODS: In prospective randomized controlled trial, 120 patients with overt HE were randomized in 2 groups; group A lactulose plus albumin (n = 60) and group B, lactulose alone (n = 60)...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884587/butyrate-pretreatment-attenuates-heart-depression-in-a-mice-model-of-endotoxin-induced-sepsis-via-anti-inflammation-and-anti-oxidation
#12
Fangyan Wang, Zengyou Jin, Kaiyi Shen, Tingting Weng, Zhisong Chen, Jiahui Feng, Zhengzheng Zhang, Jiaming Liu, Xiaolong Zhang, Maoping Chu
OBJECTIVES: The depressed heart function is the main complication to cause death of septic patients in clinic. It is urgent to find effective interventions for this intractable disease. In this study, we investigated whether butyrate could be protective for heart against sepsis and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into three groups. Model group challenged with LPS (30 mg/kg, i.p.) only. Butyrate group received butyrate (200 mg/kg·d) for 3days prior to LPS administration (30 mg/kg)...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881823/nanobodies-that-block-gating-of-the-p2x7-ion-channel-ameliorate-inflammation
#13
Welbeck Danquah, Catherine Meyer-Schwesinger, Björn Rissiek, Carolina Pinto, Arnau Serracant-Prat, Miriam Amadi, Domenica Iacenda, Jan-Hendrik Knop, Anna Hammel, Philine Bergmann, Nicole Schwarz, Joana Assunção, Wendy Rotthier, Friedrich Haag, Eva Tolosa, Peter Bannas, Eric Boué-Grabot, Tim Magnus, Toon Laeremans, Catelijne Stortelers, Friedrich Koch-Nolte
Ion channels are desirable therapeutic targets, yet ion channel-directed drugs with high selectivity and few side effects are still needed. Unlike small-molecule inhibitors, antibodies are highly selective for target antigens but mostly fail to antagonize ion channel functions. Nanobodies-small, single-domain antibody fragments-may overcome these problems. P2X7 is a ligand-gated ion channel that, upon sensing adenosine 5'-triphosphate released by damaged cells, initiates a proinflammatory signaling cascade, including release of cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β)...
November 23, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881733/lysosomal-trafficking-regulator-lyst-links-membrane-trafficking-to-toll-like-receptor-mediated-inflammatory-responses
#14
Andreas Westphal, Weijia Cheng, Jinbo Yu, Guntram Grassl, Martina Krautkrämer, Otto Holst, Niko Föger, Kyeong-Hee Lee
Subcellular compartmentalization of receptor signaling is an emerging principle in innate immunity. However, the functional integration of receptor signaling pathways into membrane trafficking routes and its physiological relevance for immune responses is still largely unclear. In this study, using Lyst-mutant beige mice, we show that lysosomal trafficking regulator Lyst links endolysosomal organization to the selective control of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- and TLR4-mediated proinflammatory responses. Consequently, Lyst-mutant mice showed increased susceptibility to bacterial infection and were largely resistant to endotoxin-induced septic shock...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881328/immunostimulatory-capacity-of-dental-casting-alloys-on-endotoxin-responsiveness
#15
Dessy Rachmawati, B Mary E von Blomberg, Cornelis J Kleverlaan, Rik J Scheper, Ingrid M W van Hoogstraten
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Oral metal exposure has been associated with systemic and local adverse reactions, probably due to elemental release from the alloys. Although supraphysiological concentrations of salts from dentally applied metals can activate innate cells through TLR4 (Ni, Co, Pd) and TLR3 (Au), whether direct exposure to solid alloys can also trigger innate immune reactivity is still unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether dental cast alloy specimens can activate innate cells and influence their responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880979/low-dose-lipopolysaccharide-causes-biliary-injury-by-blood-biliary-barrier-impairment-in-a-rat-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-model
#16
J Reiling, K R Bridle, M Gijbels, F G Schaap, L Jaskowski, N Santrampurwala, L J Britton, C M Campbell, S W M Olde Damink, D H G Crawford, C H C Dejong, J Fawcett
INTRODUCTION: This study explored whether bacterial endotoxins, in the form of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), could have an injurious effect on the biliary tract in conjunction with ischemia. METHOD: Sixty-four rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham operation (sham), 1mg/kg LPS i.p. (LPS), hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR), and IR combined with LPS (IR+LPS). Following 1 or 6 hours of reperfusion, serum liver tests, bile duct histology, immunofluorescence microscopy (zonula occludens-1), bile composition (bile salts, phospholipids, lactate dehydrogenase), hepatic gene expression (bile salt transporters and inflammatory mediators) as well as serum and biliary cytokine concentrations were quantified and compared between the study groups...
November 23, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880838/detection-of-endotoxin-contamination-of-graphene-based-materials-using-the-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-test-and-guidelines-for-endotoxin-free-graphene-oxide-production
#17
Sourav P Mukherjee, Neus Lozano, Melanie Kucki, Antonio E Del Rio-Castillo, Leon Newman, Ester Vázquez, Kostas Kostarelos, Peter Wick, Bengt Fadeel
Nanomaterials may be contaminated with bacterial endotoxin during production and handling, which may confound toxicological testing of these materials, not least when assessing for immunotoxicity. In the present study, we evaluated the conventional Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay for endotoxin detection in graphene based material (GBM) samples, including graphene oxide (GO) and few-layered graphene (FLG). Our results showed that some GO samples interfered with various formats of the LAL assay. To overcome this problem, we developed a TNF-α expression test (TET) using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages incubated in the presence or absence of the endotoxin inhibitor, polymyxin B sulfate, and found that this assay, performed with non-cytotoxic doses of the GBM samples, enabled unequivocal detection of endotoxin with a sensitivity that is comparable to the LAL assay...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879415/the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-captopril-rescues-mice-from-endotoxin-induced-lethal-hepatitis
#18
Pu Ge, Rong Jiang, Xin Yao, Jing Li, Jie Dai, Li Zhang, Bin Ye
The renin-angiotensin system is classically regarded as a crucial regulator of circulatory homeostasis, but recent studies also revealed its pro-inflammatory roles. The beneficial effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) in severe inflammatory injury in the lung and heart have been previously reported, but its potential effects on lethal hepatitis were unknown. In this study, a mouse model with LPS/d-galactosamine (GalN)-induced fulminant hepatitis were used to test the protective potential of captopril, a representative ACEI...
November 22, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878114/efficacy-of-biofilm-removal-from-hemodialysis-piping
#19
Yutaka Isakozawa, Heihachi Migita, Shingo Takesawa
BACKGROUND: Central dialysate fluid delivery systems (CDDS) are used by dialysis centers in Japan, and although these systems are effective at delivering dialysate, they have a complex piping network with numerous sites where contamination can develop. In Japan, cleaning disinfectants have been clinically evaluated based on endotoxin levels and bacterial counts, but there have been no published studies evaluating the biofilm removal efficacy of these agents at the electron microscope level...
September 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877172/regulated-inflammation-and-lipid-metabolism-in-colon-mrna-expressions-of-obese-germfree-mice-responding-to-enterobacter-cloacae-b29-combined-with-the-high-fat-diet
#20
Huiying Yan, Na Fei, Guojun Wu, Chenhong Zhang, Liping Zhao, Menghui Zhang
Increased evidences have demonstrated that gut microbiota targeted diet intervention can alleviate obesity and related metabolic disorders. The underlying mechanism of interactions among diet, microbiota, and host still remains unclear. Enterobacter cloacae B29, an endotoxin-producing strain dominated in the gut of a morbidly obese volunteer (weight 174.8 kg, BMI 58.8 kg m(-2)) was isolated and transplanted to germfree mice (inoculated 10(10) cells of B29 per day for 1 week). Using deep mRNA sequencing technology, we compared different gene expression profiles in the colon samples of the germfree mice treated with/without B29 and/or high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and identified 279 differential expressed genes in total, including up-regulated genes Apoa4 (fold change, 2...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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