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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922390/identifying-novel-transcription-factors-involved-in-the-inflammatory-response-by-using-binding-site-motif-scanning-in-genomic-regions-defined-by-histone-acetylation
#1
Peter S Askovich, Stephen A Ramsey, Alan H Diercks, Kathleen A Kennedy, Theo A Knijnenburg, Alan Aderem
The innate immune response to pathogenic challenge is a complex, multi-staged process involving thousands of genes. While numerous transcription factors that act as master regulators of this response have been identified, the temporal complexity of gene expression changes in response to pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor stimulation strongly suggest that additional layers of regulation remain to be uncovered. The evolved pathogen response program in mammalian innate immune cells is understood to reflect a compromise between the probability of clearing the infection and the extent of tissue damage and inflammatory sequelae it causes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918138/characterizing-effects-of-feed-restriction-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-administration-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-intestinal-morphology
#2
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M V Sanz Fernandez, M Abuajamieh, S Ganesan, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, W E Trout, A F Keating, L H Baumgard
Inadequate feed consumption reduces intestinal barrier function in both ruminants and monogastrics. Objectives were to characterize how progressive feed restriction (FR) affects inflammation, metabolism, and intestinal morphology, and to investigate if glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) administration influences the aforementioned responses. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (157 ± 9 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 [5 d of ad libitum (AL) feed intake] served as baseline for period 2 (5 d), during which cows received 1 of 6 treatments: (1) 100% of AL feed intake (AL100; n = 3), (2) 80% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (3) 60% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (4) 40% of AL feed intake (AL40; n = 5), (5) 40% of AL feed intake + GLP2 administration (AL40G; 75 µg/kg of BW s...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918137/reticulo-rumen-mass-epithelium-gene-expression-and-systemic-biomarkers-of-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-holstein-dairy-cows-fed-a-high-energy-diet
#3
J M Arroyo, A Hosseini, Z Zhou, A Alharthi, E Trevisi, J S Osorio, J J Loor
Feeding a higher-energy diet by increasing cereal grains at the expense of forage during the last 3 to 4 wk prepartum is a traditional approach to help the rumen "adapt" to the traditional diets fed at the onset of lactation. Increasing grain/concentrate in the diet changes ruminal fermentation and in sheep and goats elicits marked changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ruminal epithelium. Whether such changes at the epithelial and systemic levels occur in dairy cows when the dietary energy content increases at a fixed level of concentrate is unknown...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915566/synergistic-antibiotic-effect-of-looped-antimicrobial-peptide-clp-19-with-bactericidal-and-bacteriostatic-agents
#4
Di Li, Ya Yang, Zhiqiang Tian, Jun Lv, Fengjun Sun, Qian Wang, Yao Liu, Peiyuan Xia
The treatment of drug-resistant infections is complicated and the alarming rise in infectious diseases poses a unique challenge for development of effective therapeutic strategies. Antibiotic-induced liberation of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may have immediate adverse effects promoting septic shock in patients. In the present study, we first confirmed our previous finding that looped antimicrobial peptide CLP-19 exerts non-specific direct antibacterial activity with no toxic to mammalian cells and second revealed that CLP-19 has synergistic effect to enhance the antibacterial activities of other conventional bactericidal (ampicillin and ceftazidime) and bacteriostatic (erythromycin and levofloxacin) agents...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915390/navy-and-black-bean-supplementation-primes-the-colonic-mucosal-microenvironment-to-improve-gut-health
#5
Jennifer M Monk, Dion Lepp, Wenqing Wu, K Peter Pauls, Lindsay E Robinson, Krista A Power
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are enriched in non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that can modulate the colonic microenvironment (microbiota and host epithelial barrier) to improve gut health. In a comprehensive assessment of the impact of two commonly consumed bean varieties (differing in levels and types of phenolic compounds) within the colonic microenvironment, C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) flours or an isocaloric basal diet control (BD) for 3 weeks...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914596/obesity-and-periodontitis-an-experimental-study-to-evaluate-the-periodontal-and-systemic-effects-of-the-co-morbidity
#6
Leire Virto, Pilar Cano, Vanesa Jiménez-Ortega, Pilar Fernández-Mateos, Jerián González, Ana Isabel Esquifino, Mariano Sanz
BACKGROUND: Obesity and overweight have been associated with periodontitis. This study aims to evaluate the periodontal and systemic effects of this association in a validated experimental model. METHODS: 28 male Wistar rats were randomly divided in four groups: control group (Con) (fed with standard diet); high-fat diet group (HFD) (fed with a diet containing 35.2% fat); control group with induced periodontitis (Con-Perio) and HFD group with induced periodontitis (HFD-Perio)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912777/class-a-cpg-oligonucleotide-priming-rescues-mice-from-septic-shock-via-activation-of-platelet-activating-factor-acetylhydrolase
#7
Yoshinari Yamamoto, Ryu Sugimura, Takafumi Watanabe, Suguru Shigemori, Takuma Okajima, Shireen Nigar, Fu Namai, Takashi Sato, Tasuku Ogita, Takeshi Shimosato
Sepsis is a life-threatening, overwhelming immune response to infection with high morbidity and mortality. Inflammatory response and blood clotting are caused by sepsis, which induces serious organ damage and death from shock. As a mechanism of pathogenesis, platelet-activating factor (PAF) induces excessive inflammatory responses and blood clotting. In this study, we demonstrate that a Class A CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-A1585) strongly induced PAF acetylhydrolase, which generates lyso-PAF. CpG-A1585 rescued mice from acute lethal shock and decreased fibrin deposition, a hallmark of PAF-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910554/ocular-self-microemulsifying-drug-delivery-system-of-prednisolone-improves-therapeutic-effectiveness-in-the-treatment-of-experimental-uveitis
#8
Rahul Tiwari, Vibhuti Dubey, Karthikeyan Kesavan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) for ophthalmic delivery of Prednisolone (PDN) to treat uveitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed, and various SMEDDS were prepared using Linoleic acid as oil, Cremophore RH 40 as a surfactant, and propylene glycol as a co-surfactant. Physicochemical parameters (globule size, zeta potential, viscosity, and pH) and in vitro release of SMEDDS were studied...
September 14, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910312/i%C3%AE%C2%BAk-16-decreases-mirna-155-expression-and-attenuates-the-human-monocyte-inflammatory-response
#9
Norman James Galbraith, James Burton, Mathew Brady Ekman, Joseph Kenney, Samuel Patterson Walker, Stephen Manek, Campbell Bishop, Jane Victoria Carter, Sarah Appel Gardner, Hiram C Polk
Excessive inflammatory responses in the surgical patient may result in cellular hypo-responsiveness, which is associated with an increased risk of secondary infection and death. microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-155, are powerful regulators of inflammatory signalling pathways including nuclear factor κB (NFκB). Our objective was to determine the effect of IκK-16, a selective blocker of inhibitor of kappa-B kinase (IκK), on miRNA expression and the monocyte inflammatory response. In a model of endotoxin tolerance using primary human monocytes, impaired monocytes had decreased p65 expression with suppressed TNF-α and IL-10 production (P < 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906444/short-term-intake-of-a-fructose-fat-and-cholesterol-rich-diet-causes-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-effect-of-antibiotic-treatment
#10
Annette Brandt, Cheng Jun Jin, Katja Nolte, Cathrin Sellmann, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Bergheim
Intestinal microbiota and barrier functions seem to play an important role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, whether these changes are an early event in the development of NAFLD or are primarily associated with later stages of the disease, has not yet been clarified. Using a pair-feeding model, we determined the effects of a short-term intake of a fat-, fructose- and cholesterol-rich diet (FFC) on the development of early hepatic steatosis and markers of intestinal barrier function in mice treated with and without non-resorbable antibiotics (AB)...
September 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900533/seabuckthorn-paste-protects-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-through-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress
#11
Leilei Du, Xiaoxin Hu, Chu Chen, Tingting Kuang, Hengfu Yin, Li Wan
Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Seabuckthorn paste (SP), a traditional Tibetan medicine with high content of polyphenols and remarkable antioxidant activity, is commonly used in treating pulmonary diseases. In the present study, the protective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of SP on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury in mice were investigated. It was found that body weight loss, lung tissue microstructure lesions, transvascular leakage increase, malondialdehyde augmentation, and the reduction of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels caused by LPS challenge were all consistently relieved by SP treatment in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894574/decreased-activity-of-plasma-adamts13-are-related-to-enhanced-cytokinemia-and-endotoxemia-in-patients-with-acute-liver-failure
#12
Hiroaki Takaya, Hitoshi Yoshiji, Hideto Kawaratani, Kazuya Sakai, Masanori Matsumoto, Yoshihiro Fujimura, Hiroshi Fukui
Deficient ADAM metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type-1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) activity (ADAMTS13:AC) results in the accumulation of unusually large von Willebrand factor multimers (UL-VWFM) and causes microcirculatory disturbances and multiple organ failure, while endotoxins trigger the activation of a coagulation cascade. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ADAMTS13 in endotoxemia in patients with acute liver failure (ALF). Plasma concentrations of endotoxin and cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, and activity of the plasma ADAMTS13 inhibitor were determined, along with ADAMTS13:AC, the VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and UL-VWFM, in 27 patients with acute hepatitis (AH), 11 patients with ALF, and 10 healthy controls...
September 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887814/construction-and-application-of-an-electrochemical-biosensor-based-on-an-endotoxin-aptamer
#13
GuoQing Ying, MinJun Wang, Yu Yi, JianShu Chen, JianFeng Mei, YanLu Zhang, ShuQing Chen
An electrochemical biosensor that used aptamer as a biological element was constructed to detect endotoxin. Biolayer interferometry was used to obtain the affinity constant of an aptamer for Lipopolysaccharide, which had a equilibrium dissociation constant of 22.9 nM. The amine-terminated aptamer was then assembled on a gold electrode surface using 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a intermediate linker. The modification of the gold electrode was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...
September 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887543/the-oxidative-state-of-cysteine-thiol-144-regulates-the-sirt6-glucose-homeostat
#14
David Long, Hanzhi Wu, Allen W Tsang, Leslie B Poole, Barbara K Yoza, Xianfeng Wang, Vidula Vachharajani, Cristina M Furdui, Charles E McCall
Control of glucose homeostasis plays a critical role in health and lifespan and its dysregulation contributes to inflammation, cancer and aging. NAD + dependent Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a glucose homeostasis regulator in animals and humans and its regulation at the molecular level is unknown. Here, we report that a cysteine thiol redox sensor contributes to the role of SIRT6 in controlling glucose homeostasis. Sulfenylation of SIRT6 occurs in THP1 cells and primary human promonocytes during inflammation and in splenocytes from mice with sepsis...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886731/effects-of-bacitracin-methylene-disalicylate-and-diet-change-on-gastrointestinal-integrity-and-endotoxin-permeability-in-the-duodenum-of-broiler-chicken
#15
Dawn A Koltes, Howard D Lester, Maurice Frost, Douglas Aldridge, Karen D Christensen, Colin G Scanes
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) and feed changes on gastrointestinal integrity, endotoxin permeability, and morphometric parameters in the duodenum of broilers. RESULTS: Birds were raised on a starter diet without growth promoting antibiotics for 31 days then switched to a grower diet. Four of the pens including 50 g/ton of BMD while 4 pens remained antibiotic free. Eight birds per treatment were sampled prior to the feed change and at 3 and 7 days following the feed change...
September 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885685/gut-microbiota-derived-endotoxin-enhanced-the-incidence-of-cardia-bifida-during-cardiogenesis
#16
Jing Zhang, Guang Wang, Jia Liu, Lin-Rui Gao, Meng Liu, Chao-Jie Wang, Manli Chuai, Yongping Bao, Ge Li, Rui-Man Li, Yu Zhang, Xuesong Yang
Background Cytotoxicity and inflammation-associated toxic responses could be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vitro and in vivo respectively. However, the mechanism involved in LPS-induced cardiac malformation in prenatal fetus is still unknown. Methods and results In this study, we demonstrated that LPS was induced in gut microbiota imbalance mice, and next, LPS exposure during gastrulation in the chick embryo increased the incidence of cardia bifida. Gene transfection and tissue transplantation trajectory indicated that LPS exposure restricted the cell migration of cardiac progenitors to primary heart field in gastrula chick embryos...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884511/effects-of-ph-conductivity-host-cell-protein-and-dna-size-distribution-on-dna-clearance-in-anion-exchange-chromatography-media
#17
Melani C Stone, Jon Borman, Gisela Ferreira, P David Robbins
Flowthrough anion exchange chromatography is commonly used as a polishing step in downstream processing of monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutic proteins to remove process-related impurities and contaminants such as host cell DNA, host cell proteins, endotoxin, and viruses. DNA with a wide range of molecular weight distributions derived from Chinese Hamster Ovary cells was used to advance the understanding of DNA binding behavior in selected anion exchange media using the resin (Toyopearl SuperQ-650M) and membranes (Mustang® Q and Sartobind(®) Q) through DNA spiking studies...
September 7, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883632/extraction-separation-and-characterization-of-endotoxins-in-water-samples-using-solid-phase-extraction-and-capillary-electrophoresis-laser-induced-fluorescence
#18
Fun Man Fung, Min Su, Hua-Tao Feng, Sam Fong Yau Li
This study focuses on one of the key environmental threats, endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). A capillary electrophoresis method in combination with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was developed for the analysis of endotoxins from 16 different bacterial strains. LPSs were derivatized with the amino-reactive fluorescent dye, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), separated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) under the optimized conditions with the use of 50 mM sodium tetraborate buffer (pH 9...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881142/thermal-and-cytokine-responses-to-endotoxin-challenge-during-early-life
#19
Fiona Brigid McDonald, Ahmad M Khawaja, Ahmad Ali Imran, Margot E Ellis, Kumaran Chandrasekharan, Shabih U Hasan
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the leading cause of infant mortality beyond the neonatal period. An increase in body temperature as a result of high environmental temperature, over-wrapping of infants and/or infection are associated with SIDS. Endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and heat stress may perturb cardiorespiratory function and thermoregulation. Although LPS-mediated body temperature and cytokine responses are well-documented in older animals, the capacity of LPS to induce fever and cytokine response in young rats remains unclear...
September 7, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880885/markers-of-intestinal-permeability-are-already-altered-in-early-stages-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-studies-in-children
#20
Anika Nier, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Barbara Maier, Ina Bergheim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have shown that patients with manifest non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), e.g. steatosis grade 3 or steatohepatitis with or without beginning fibrosis frequently show altered fecal microbiota composition and elevated bacterial endotoxin levels. However, if these alterations are signs of a progressing disease or are already found in initial disease stages has not yet been clarified. METHODS: Twenty children with simple steatosis (grade 1) diagnosed by ultrasound and 29 normal weight healthy control children (age <10 years) were included in the study (mean age 7...
2017: PloS One
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