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Atenolol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543947/%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-but-not-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-subtype-regulates-heart-rate-in-type-2-diabetes-rats-in-vivo
#1
Rosalind F Cook, Carol T Bussey, Kimberley M Mellor, Patricia A Cragg, Regis R Lamberts
BACKGROUND: β-Adrenoceptor blockers are widely used to reduce heart rate, the strongest predictor of mortality in cardiac patients, but are less effective in diabetic patients. This study aimed to determine the specific β1 - and β2 -adrenoceptor subtype contributions to chronotropic responses in type 2 diabetes in vivo, which are currently unknown. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic rats were implanted with radio-telemeters to measure arterial blood pressure and derive heart rate under conscious conditions...
May 22, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538203/uhplc-ms-ms-method-with-sample-dilution-to-test-therapeutic-adherence-through-quantification-of-ten-antihypertensive-drugs-in-urine-samples
#2
Amedeo De Nicolò, Valeria Avataneo, Franco Rabbia, Mauro Sciandra, Francesco Tosello, Jessica Cusato, Elisa Perlo, Paolo Mulatero, Franco Veglio, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
Nowadays, hypertension represents an important health problem, particularly in developed countries. In some cases the standard therapeutic approaches are not able to reestablish the normal blood pressure values: this condition is called "resistant hypertension". However, a fraction of cases of resistant hypertension are actually due to poor adherence to the prescribed therapy. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring could represent a direct and useful tool to correctly identify non-compliant patients. Nevertheless, high throughput methods for the simultaneous monitoring of a wide panel of drugs in the same analysis are lacking and, furthermore, there is not a generally acknowledged "standard" matrix for this test (plasma or urine)...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534649/a-meta-analytical-comparison-of-atenolol-with-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-on-arterial-stiffness-peripheral-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-hypertensive-patients
#3
Hong Xie, Gaoqing Luo, Yong Zheng, Feng Peng, Liangdi Xie
OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis of randomized parallel controlled trials was designed to compare the efficacy of atenolol with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in changing pulse wave velocity (PWV), peripheral blood pressure and heart rate (HR) among patients with essential hypertension. METHODS: This study was conducted according to the PRISMA guideline. Data collection was independently completed by two investigators. Statistical analyses were completed by Stata software (v12...
May 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531959/occurrence-and-removal-of-pharmaceuticals-hormones-personal-care-products-and-endocrine-disrupters-in-a-full-scale-water-reclamation-plant
#4
Ngoc Han Tran, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
This study provided the first comprehensive data on the occurrence and removal of twenty-five target emerging contaminants (ECs) in a full-scale water reclamation plant (WRP) in the Southeast Asian region. Nineteen out of the twenty-five ECs were ubiquitously detected in raw influent samples. Concentrations of the detected ECs in raw influent samples ranged substantially from 44.3 to 124,966ng/L, depending upon the compound and sampling date. The elimination of ECs in full-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems at a local WRP was evaluated and compared...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522761/ventricular-action-potential-adaptation-to-regular-exercise-role-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-and-katp-channel-function
#5
Xinrui Wang, Robert H Fitts
Regular exercise-training is known to affect the action potential duration (APD) and improve heart function, but the involvement by β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) subtypes and/or KATP channel is unknown. To address this, female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel running or control groups and after 6-8 weeks training anesthetized and myocytes isolated. Exercise-training significantly increased APD of apex and base myocytes at 1Hz, while decreasing the APD at 10Hz. Ca(2+) transient durations reflected the changes observed in APD, while Ca(2+) transient amplitudes were unaffected by wheel running...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520538/treatment-strategies-for-paradoxical-hypertension-following-surgical-correction-of-coarctation-of-the-aorta-in-children
#6
Peter P Roeleveld, Eline G Zwijsen
BACKGROUND: Paradoxical hypertension after repair of coarctation of the aorta is a well-known phenomenon. The pathogenesis involves the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (first phase) and renin-angiotensin system (second phase). Only a limited number of different treatment strategies have been published in the literature, without any comparative studies. METHODS: Our aim was to describe the current international practice variation surrounding pharmacological treatment currently being employed to treat paradoxical hypertension following the repair of coarctation of the aorta in children...
May 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473422/cardioversion-of-a-supraventricular-tachycardia-svt-in-a-7-year-old-using-a-postural-modification-of-the-valsalva-manoeuvre
#7
Edward John Morley-Smith, James Gagg, Andrew Appelboam
A boy aged 7 years presented with his parents to the emergency department (ED). He had a known diagnosis of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and was under the care of paediatricians. He had been suffering episodes of palpitations and chest pain for over a year and had been prescribed atenolol 25 mg ON, though the side effects meant he had not taken it for a month prior to presentation. He had 2 previous confirmed episodes of SVT, one that reverted with Valsalva manoeuvres, and the other with intravenous adenosine...
May 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473357/atrioventricular-block-an-unusual-complication-of-graves-disease
#8
Akintayo Adesokan, Trisha Vigneswaran, Michal Ajzensztejn, Sujeev Mathur
We report the case of a 10-year-old girl treated with atenolol and carbimazole for tachycardia and hypertension associated with Graves' disease who developed symptomatic 2:1 heart block. 2:1 heart block resolved following cessation of atenolol, reduction in carbimazole dose and treatment of suspected tonsillitis. First-degree atrioventricular block persisted, but gradually normalised following improvement in thyroid status.
May 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472245/beta-blocker-subtype-and-risks-of-perioperative-adverse-events-following-non-cardiac-surgery-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#9
Mads E Jørgensen, Robert D Sanders, Lars Køber, Kala Mehta, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Mark A Hlatky, Jannik L Pallisgaard, Richard E Shaw, Gunnar H Gislason, Per F Jensen, Charlotte Andersson
Aims: Beta-blockers vary in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties. It is unknown whether specific types are associated with increased perioperative risks. We evaluated perioperative risks associated with beta-blocker subtypes, overall and in patient subgroups. Methods and results: We performed a Danish Nationwide cohort study, 2005-2011, of patients treated chronically with beta blocker (atenolol, bisoprolol, carvedilol, metoprolol, propranolol, or other) prior to non-cardiac surgery...
May 2, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469538/temperature-instability-in-an-infant-treated-with-propranolol-for-infantile-hemangioma
#10
Betsy Walters Burkey, Joshua A Jacobs, Hany Aziz
Infantile hemangiomas are prevalent in the first few months of life and can be associated with risks of scarring, blindness, ulcerations, and airway obstruction depending on the location of lesions. Options for therapy include surgery, laser therapy, or medications. Propranolol is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved medication option. Propranolol is a nonselective beta-blocker that crosses the blood-brain barrier because of its high lipophilicity, which increases the likelihood of central nervous system effects...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450238/osmolality-of-orally-administered-solutions-influences-luminal-water-volume-and-drug-absorption-in-intestine
#11
Kazuki Ichijo, Rika Oda, Marika Ishihara, Ren Okada, Yuri Moteki, Yuta Funai, Takuya Horiuchi, Hisanao Kishimoto, Yoshiyuki Shirasaka, Katsuhisa Inoue
Intestinal water absorption is reportedly influenced by luminal osmolality. In this work, we examined whether differences in the osmolality of the vehicle used for oral administration of drugs influence luminal water volume and drug absorption in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, by means of in situ rat intestinal closed loop studies using solutions of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000 (FD-4; a non-absorbable compound), atenolol (a low-permeability drug) and antipyrine (a high-permeability drug) in various solvents...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439969/factors-screening-to-statistical-experimental-design-of-racemic-atenolol-kinetic-resolution-via-transesterification-reaction-in-organic-solvent-using-free-pseudomonas-fluorescens-lipase
#12
Joni Agustian, Azlina Harun Kamaruddin, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
As the (R)-enantiomer of racemic atenolol has no β-blocking activity and no lack of side effects, switching from the racemate to the (S)-atenolol is more favorable. Transesterification of racemic atenolol using free enzymes investigated as a resource to resolve the racemate via this method is limited. Screenings of enzyme, medium, and acetyl donor were conducted first to give Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase, tetrahydrofuran, and vinyl acetate. A statistical design of the experiment was then developed using Central Composite Design on some operational factors, which resulted in the conversions of 11...
April 25, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436727/impact-of-switching-from-different-treatment-regimens-to-a-fixed-dose-combination-pill-polypill-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease-or-similarly-high-risk
#13
Melvin Lafeber, Wilko Spiering, Frank Lj Visseren, Diederick E Grobbee, Michiel L Bots, Alice Stanton, Anushka Patel, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Ruth Webster, Simon Thom, Anthony Rodgers
Aims Cardiovascular fixed-dose combination pills, or polypills, may help address the widespread lack of access and adherence to proven medicines. Initiation of polypill-based care typically entails switching from current separately taken medications. Given the heterogeneity in usual care, there is interest in the impact of polypill treatment across different patterns of prior medication regimen. Methods A total of 2004 participants with established cardiovascular disease or estimated 5-year cardiovascular risk of over 15% were randomised to polypill-based treatment (aspirin 75 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, lisinopril 10 mg and either atenolol 50 mg or hydrochlorothiazide 12...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434968/cardiac-contractility-correction-strategies-applied-to-telemetry-data-from-a-hesi-sponsored-consortium
#14
Emmanuel Boulay, Michael K Pugsley, Vincent Jacquemet, Alain Vinet, Michael V Accardi, Maxim Soloviev, Eric Troncy, Jennifer M Doyle, Jennifer Beck Pierson, Simon Authier
INTRODUCTION: QT has a long history of heart rate (HR) correction but limited investigations have been undertaken to assess the impact of cardiovascular parameters on left ventricular (LV) contractility in drug safety testing. Cardiac contractility is affected by preload (Cyon-Frank-Starling law), afterload (Anrep effect) and HR (Bowditch effect). We evaluated multi-parameter correction methods to help with dP/dtmax interpretation. METHODOLOGY: Modeling was undertaken using data from dogs in single or double 4×4 Latin square studies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434674/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-brain-of-the-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-after-exposure-to-human-pharmaceuticals-at-realistic-environmental-concentrations
#15
Miriam Hampel, Julian Blasco, Massimiliano Babbucci, Serena Ferraresso, Luca Bargelloni, Massimo Milan
Human pharmaceuticals such as Acetaminophen, Atenolol and Carbamazepine are pseudo persistent aquatic pollutants with yet unknown sub-lethal effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were exposed to Acetaminophen: 31.90 ± 11.07 μg L(-1); Atenolol: 0.95 ± 0.38 μg L(-1) and Carbamazepine: 6.95 ± 0.13 μg L(-1) in a 28 day flow through experiment to (1) determine whether exposure to low concentrations in the μg·L(-1) range of the pharmaceuticals alters the brain transcriptome and, (2) identify different expression profiles and treatment specific modes of action and pathways...
April 12, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431453/carboxymethyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-as-chiral-selector-in-capillary-electrophoresis-enantioseparation-of-16-basic-chiral-drugs-and-its-chiral-recognition-mechanism-associated-with-drugs-structural-features
#16
Linlin Fang, Yueying Du, Xiaoyu Hu, Linda Luo, Xin Guo, Xingjie Guo, Jia Yu
Herein we present the enantioseparation of 10 cardiovascular agents and 6 bronchiectasis drugs including propranolol, carteolol, metoprolol, atenolol, pindolol, esmolol, bisoprolol, bevantolol, arotinolol, sotalol, clenbuterol, procaterol, bambuterol, tranterol, salbutamol and terbutaline sulfate using carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) as chiral selector. To our knowledge, there is no literature about using CM-β-CD for separating carteolol, esmolol, bisoprolol, bevantolol, arotinolol, procaterol, bambuterol and tranterol...
April 21, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424658/%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-control-of-vascular-tension-and-catecholamine-release-in-female-normotensive-and-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#17
Torill Berg
As in humans, young, female, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have a lower blood pressure than male SHR. In male, normotensive rats (WKY), α2- and β1+2-adrenoceptors (AR) reciprocally controlled catecholamine release and vascular smooth muscle tension. This interaction was malfunctioning in male SHR. The present study analyzed if a favorable shift in the α2/β1+2AR interaction may represent an antihypertensive protection in females. Female SHR (early hypertension, 12-14 weeks) and age-matched WKY were infused with tyramine (15 min) to stimulate norepinephrine (NE) release through the reuptake transporter, consequently preventing reuptake...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414144/intestinal-drug-interactions-mediated-by-oatps-a-systematic-review-of-pre-clinical-and-clinical-findings
#18
REVIEW
Jingjing Yu, Zhu Zhou, Jessica Tay-Sontheimer, René H Levy, Isabelle Ragueneau-Majlessi
In recent years, an increasing number of clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs) have been attributed to inhibition of intestinal organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs); however, only a few of these DDI results were reflected in drug labels. This review aims to provide a thorough analysis of intestinal OATP-mediated pharmacokinetic-based DDIs, using both in vitro and clinical investigations, highlighting the main mechanistic findings and discussing their clinical relevance. On the basis of pharmacogenetic and clinical DDI results, a total of 12 drugs were identified as possible clinical substrates of OATP2B1 and/or OATP1A2...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410967/involvement-of-alpha-and-beta-adrenoceptors-in-the-automaticity-of-the-isolated-guinea-pig-pulmonary-vein-myocardium
#19
Masahiko Irie, Yayoi Tsuneoka, Mariko Shimobayashi, Nao Hasegawa, Yusuke Tanaka, Soh Mochizuki, Sho Ichige, Shogo Hamaguchi, Iyuki Namekata, Hikaru Tanaka
We examined the involvement of adrenoceptors in the automaticity of the pulmonary vein myocardium, which probably plays a crucial role in the generation of atrial fibrillation. The automatic activity of the myocardium in guinea pig pulmonary vein tissue preparations were monitored by contractile force or membrane potential measurement. In quiescent preparations, application of noradrenaline induced an automatic activity. The firing frequency was reduced by prazosin or atenolol. Methoxamine induced an automatic activity of low frequency, which was accelerated by further application of isoproterenol...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405886/pharmacokinetic-variability-of-drugs-used-for-prophylactic-treatment-of-migraine
#20
REVIEW
Peer Tfelt-Hansen, Frederik Nybye Ågesen, Agniezka Pavbro, Jacob Tfelt-Hansen
In this review, we evaluate the variability in the pharmacokinetics of 11 drugs with established prophylactic effects in migraine to facilitate 'personalized medicine' with these drugs. PubMed was searched for 'single-dose' and 'steady-state' pharmacokinetic studies of these 11 drugs. The maximum plasma concentration was reported in 248 single-dose and 115 steady-state pharmacokinetic studies, and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was reported in 299 single-dose studies and 112 steady-state pharmacokinetic studies...
May 2017: CNS Drugs
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