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Daisuke Chino, Tomoyo Sone, Kumi Yamazaki, Yuri Tsuruoka, Risa Yamagishi, Shunsuke Shiina, Keisuke Obara, Fumiko Yamaki, Koji Higai, Yoshio Tanaka
Object We aimed to identify the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) subtypes involved in isoprenaline-induced relaxation of guinea pig colonic longitudinal smooth muscle using pharmacological and biochemical approaches. Methods Longitudinal smooth muscle was prepared from the male guinea pig ascending colon and contracted with histamine prior to comparing the relaxant responses to three catecholamines (isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline). The inhibitory effects of subtype-selective β-AR antagonists on isoprenaline-induced relaxation were then investigated...
2018: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
Shunsuke Shiina, Ayaka Kanemura, Chihiro Suzuki, Fumiko Yamaki, Keisuke Obara, Daisuke Chino, Yoshio Tanaka
Object We identified the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) subtypes responsible for the relaxant responses to adrenaline (AD) and noradrenaline (NA) in the rat thoracic aorta and examined the role of cAMP which is involved in these relaxant responses. Methods The effects of β-AR antagonists or the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ 22,536 on AD- and NA-induced relaxant responses in phenylephrine-induced contraction and increases in cAMP levels were examined in isolated, endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta segments. Results AD-induced relaxation was completely suppressed by propranolol (10-7  M) or by ICI-118,551 (10-8  M) plus atenolol (10-6 M), and was also very strongly inhibited by ICI-118,551 (10-8  M) alone...
2018: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Sheila Adamu, Vida Obese, Jennifer Voeks, Raelle Tagge, Vipin Sethi, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: There is an unprecedented rise in the prevalence of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Secondary prevention guidelines recommend that antihypertensive, statin and antiplatelet therapy be initiated promptly after ischemic stroke and adhered to in a persistent fashion to achieve optimal vascular-risk reduction. However, these goals are seldom realized in routine clinical care settings in SSA due to logistical challenges. We seek to assess whether a polypill containing fixed doses of three antihypertensive agents, a statin and antiplatelet therapy taken once daily per os for 12 months among recent stroke survivors would result in carotid intimal thickness regression compared with usual care (UC)...
March 14, 2018: Trials
Thibaut Le Guet, Ilham Hsini, Jérôme Labanowski, Leslie Mondamert
Sorption of pharmaceuticals onto sediments is frequently related to organic matter content. Thus, the present work aimed to compare the effect of humic substances (HS) extracted from a river sediment versus Aldrich (HS) on the sorption of selected pharmaceuticals onto this river sediment. The results exhibited no "unique" effect of the presence of HS from the same origin. Thus, the sediment HS increased the sorption of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), diclofenac (DCF), and trimethoprim (TMP), but reduced the sorption of atenolol (ATN)...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yi Ji, Siyuan Chen, Qi Wang, Bo Xiang, Zhicheng Xu, Lin Zhong, Kaiying Yang, Guoyan Lu, Liqin Qiu
Currently, propranolol is the most preferred systemic therapy for problematic infantile hemangiomas (IHs). However, the side effects such as bronchial hyperreactivity may be intolerable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, risk factors and management of intolerable side effects (ISEs) during propranolol therapy. In total, 1260 children were studied. The incidence of ISEs was 2.1% (26 patients). Severe sleep disturbance was the most common reason for propranolol cessation, accounting for 65...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alvin Tieu, Thomas J Velenosi, Andrew S Kucey, Matthew A Weir, Bradley L Urquhart
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of data available to describe drug dialyzability. Of the available information, most was obtained before implementation of modern hemodialysis membranes. Our study characterized dialyzability of the most commonly prescribed β -blockers in patients undergoing high-flux hemodialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Patients on hemodialysis ( n =8) were recruited to an open label, pharmacokinetic, four-way crossover trial...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Morgayn I Read, Rebecca N Millen, Dominic M McCann, Joanne C Harrison, Douglas S Kerr, Ivan A Sammut
OBJECTIVE: Altered autonomic activity has been implicated in the development of cardiac dysfunction during seizures. This study investigates whether intervening in seizure progression with diazepam will reduce seizure-induced cardiomyopathy. Second, this study examines the hypothesis that combining atenolol with diazepam, as an intervention after seizure onset, will combat cardiac injury during status epilepticus. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalographic/electrocardiographic electrodes to allow simultaneous recordings during seizures induced by intrahippocampal (2 nmol, 1 μL) kainic acid (KA)...
March 7, 2018: Epilepsia
Bruce Petrie, Shawn Rood, Benjamin D Smith, Kathryn Proctor, Jane Youdan, Ruth Barden, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
The distribution of micropollutants in biotic phases of horizontal sub-surface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands was investigated. 88 diverse micropollutants (personal care products, pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs) were monitored for in full-scale HSSF steel slag and gravel beds to assess their fate and behaviour during tertiary wastewater treatment. Of the studied micropollutants 54 were found in receiving and treated wastewaters. Treatment reduced concentrations of several micropollutants by >50% (removal range -112% to 98%) and resulted in changes to the stereo-isomeric composition of chiral species...
February 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fangyun Tian, Tiecheng Liu, Gang Xu, Duan Li, Talha Ghazi, Trevor Shick, Azeem Sajjad, Michael M Wang, Peter Farrehi, Jimo Borjigin
Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States. The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sudden death is not well understood. Previously we have shown that the brain is highly stimulated in dying animals and that asphyxia-induced death could be delayed by blocking the intact brain-heart neuronal connection. These studies suggest that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in mediating sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of phentolamine and atenolol, individually or combined, in prolonging functionality of the vital organs in CO2 -mediated asphyxic cardiac arrest model...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Candace M Reno, Allie Skinner, Justin Bayles, Y Stefanie Chen, Dorit Daphna-Iken, Simon J Fisher
We previously demonstrated that insulin induced severe hypoglycemia associated sudden death is largely mediated by fatal cardiac arrhythmias. In the current study, a pharmacological approach was taken to explore the potential contribution of hypoglycemic seizures and the sympathoadrenergic system in mediating severe hypoglycemia associated sudden death. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into one of four treatment groups: 1) saline (SAL), 2) anti-arrhythmic (β1 blocker atenolol), 3) anti-seizure (Levetiracetam), and 4) combination anti-arrhythmic+anti-seizure (β1 blocker+Levetiracetam)...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Victor L Fox
Vascular anomalies are a morphologically and biologically diverse group of vascular channel abnormalities that are often congenital but may evolve or change over time in the developing child. Classification is based on a combination of physical and biological properties and clinical behavior that differentiate primarily between tumors and malformations and includes a few provisionally unclassified lesions. Anomalies of the GI tract may present clinically with GI bleeding, abdominal pain, high-output cardiac failure, and malabsorption...
February 23, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Mohamed H Shahin, Daniela J Conrado, Daniel Gonzalez, Yan Gong, Maximilian T Lobmeyer, Amber L Beitelshees, Eric Boerwinkle, John G Gums, Arlene Chapman, Stephen T Turner, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Julie A Johnson
BACKGROUND: For many indications, the negative chronotropic effect of β-blockers is important to their efficacy, yet the heart rate (HR) response to β-blockers varies. Herein, we sought to use a genome-wide association approach to identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with HR response to β-blockers. METHODS AND RESULTS: We first performed 4 genome-wide association analyses for HR response to atenolol (a β1-adrenergic receptor blocker) as: (1) monotherapy or (2) add-on therapy, in 426 whites and 273 blacks separately from the PEAR (Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses) study...
February 24, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Catherine D E Wilder, Nikoleta Pavlaki, Tutku Dursun, Paul Gyimah, Ellice Caldwell-Dunn, Antonella Ranieri, Hannah R Lewis, Michael J Curtis
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Antiarrhythmic β-blockers are used in patients at risk of myocardial ischaemia, but the survival benefit and mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesised that β-blockers do not prevent ventricular fibrillation (VF), but instead inhibit the ability of catecholamines to facilitate ischaemia-induced VF, limiting the scope of their usefulness. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: ECGs were analysed from ischaemic Langendorff-perfused rat hearts perfused with adrenoceptor antagonists and/or exogenous catecholamines (313 nM noradrenaline+75 nM adrenaline; CATs) in a blinded and randomised study...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Yifeng Xu, Xueming Chen, Zhiguo Yuan, Bing-Jie Ni
Pharmaceutical removal could be significantly enhanced through cometabolism during nitrification processes. So far pharmaceutical biotransformation models have not considered the formation of transformation products associated with the metabolic type of microorganisms. Here we reported a comprehensive model to describe and evaluate the biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and the formation of their biotransformation products by enriched nitrifying cultures. The biotransformation of parent compounds was linked to the microbial processes via cometabolism induced by ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) growth, metabolism by AOB, cometabolism by heterotrophs (HET) growth and metabolism by HET in the model framework...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Zhonghua Huang, Mengkun Li, Na Li, Xinyuan Tang, Zhiyu Ouyang
Membrane technology is now being widely used in the field of water treatment for its unique advantages. Layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique is a convenient and versatile method of modified nanofiltration (NF) membranes fabrication, which can be used to control the thickness and the surface properties of membranes by chemical deposition of polyelectrolytes. Herein, a new kind of composite NF membrane with enhanced antibacterial properties was successfully fabricated through LbL self-assembly method, having polyether sulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membrane as support layer, N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl] chloride chitosan (HTCC) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as active layer, and epichlorohydrin (ECH) as crosslinking reagent...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ansha Subramanian, Mangaiarkkarasi Adhimoolam, Suresh Kannan
Aim: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are one of the major but preventable cause of adverse drug reaction. Study of prevalence and prediction of DDIs will make the physician easier to provide better patient care and mitigate patient's harm. Hence, the study was planned to evaluate the potential DDIs among medication prescribed to hypertensive patients in our hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted among the hypertensive patients in medicine (outpatient/inpatient) department over the period of three months in a tertiary care hospital...
January 2018: Perspectives in Clinical Research
Megerle L Scherholz, James Forder, Ioannis P Androulakis
Parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are becoming an important consideration for regulatory submissions, requiring further evaluation to establish the need for global sensitivity analysis. To demonstrate the benefits of an extensive analysis, global sensitivity was implemented for the GastroPlus™ model, a well-known commercially available platform, using four example drugs: acetaminophen, risperidone, atenolol, and furosemide. The capabilities of GastroPlus were expanded by developing an integrated framework to automate the GastroPlus graphical user interface with AutoIt and for execution of the sensitivity analysis in MATLAB®...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Mun Hee Choi, Jin Soo Lee, Sung Eun Lee, Seong-Joon Lee, Dukyong Yoon, Rae Woong Park, Ji Man Hong
Central and cerebral haemodynamic parameters can vary under similar brachial blood pressure (BP). We aimed to investigate the effects of antihypertensive agents on central and cerebral haemodynamic parameters in hypertensive patients with ischaemic stroke. The Fimasartan, Atenolol, and Valsartan On haemodynamic paRameters (FAVOR) study was conducted in a prospective, double-blinded manner. One hundred five patients were randomly administered atenolol, valsartan, or fimasartan during 12 weeks. We measured brachial, central, cerebral haemodynamic parameters and plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels at baseline and after 12-week...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Junwon Park, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
We investigated the effects of the addition of two coagulants-polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and chitosan-into the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process on membrane fouling and the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Their addition at optimized dosages improved the permeability of the membrane by reducing the concentration of soluble microbial products in mixed liquor, the content of inorganic elements, and irreversible fouling of the membrane surface. During long-term operation, the addition of PACl increased removal efficiencies of tetracycline, mefenamic acid, atenolol, furosemide, ketoprofen, and diclofenac by 17-23%...
January 17, 2018: Chemosphere
André L Teixeira, Mauricio Daher, Mayara Souza, Plinio Santos Ramos, James P Fisher, Lauro C Vianna
Isolated muscle metaboreflex activation with post-handgrip exercise ischemia (PEI) increases sympathetic nerve activity and partially maintains the exercise-induced increase in blood pressure, but a smaller heart rate (HR) response occurs. The cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, mechanically sensitive receptors that respond to changes in central blood volume and pressure, are strongly associated with changes in body position and upon activation elicit reflex sympathoinhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postural changes modulate the sympathetically-mediated cardiac response to PEI in humans...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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