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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329065/factors-associated-with-depression-among-homeless-mothers-results-of-the-enfams-survey
#1
M Roze, S Vandentorren, J Van-Der-Waerden, M Melchior
PURPOSE: Women are disproportionately likely to suffer from depression. This is especially true for those who experience socioeconomic hardship, such as homelessness. In France, among homeless mothers many are migrant. However, it is not clear whether risk factors associated with depression are specific for this group or the same as in the general population. Our objective was to describe socio-demographic, relational, living and housing conditions and health factors associated with depression among homeless mothers...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327801/tense-and-plural-formation-in-welsh-english-bilingual-children-with-and-without-language-impairment
#2
Vasiliki Chondrogianni, Nerys John
BACKGROUND: Grammatical morphology has been shown to be problematic for children with specific language impairment (SLI) or developmental language disorder (DLD). Most research on this topic comes from widely spoken languages, such as English. Despite Welsh being the most extensively spoken indigenous in the UK after English, and Wales being the only official bilingual country in the UK, our knowledge about the morphosyntactic areas of Welsh that may pose problems for Welsh-speaking children with SLI is limited...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327041/common-constraints-limit-korean-and-english-character-recognition-in-peripheral-vision
#3
Yingchen He, MiYoung Kwon, Gordon E Legge
The visual span refers to the number of adjacent characters that can be recognized in a single glance. It is viewed as a sensory bottleneck in reading for both normal and clinical populations. In peripheral vision, the visual span for English characters can be enlarged after training with a letter-recognition task. Here, we examined the transfer of training from Korean to English characters for a group of bilingual Korean native speakers. In the pre- and posttests, we measured visual spans for Korean characters and English letters...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318589/bilingualism-narrows-socioeconomic-disparities-in-executive-functions-and-self-regulatory-behaviors-during-early-childhood-evidence-from-the-early-childhood-longitudinal-study
#4
Andree Hartanto, Wei X Toh, Hwajin Yang
Socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism have been shown to influence executive functioning during early childhood. Less is known, however, about how the two factors interact within an individual. By analyzing a nationally representative sample of approximately 18,200 children who were tracked from ages 5 to 7 across four waves, both higher SES and bilingualism were found to account for greater performance on the inhibition and shifting aspects of executive functions (EF) and self-regulatory behaviors in classroom...
January 10, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317223/cluster-analysis-of-vulnerable-groups-in-acute-tbi-rehabilitation
#5
Erkut N Kucukboyaci, Coralynn Long, Michelle Smith, Joseph F Rath, Tamara Bushnik
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the complex relationship between various social indicators that contribute to socioeconomic status and healthcare barriers. DESIGN: Cluster analysis of historical patient data obtained from inpatient visits. SETTING: Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation unit in a large, urban university hospital PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients receiving acute inpatient care, predominantly for closed head injury. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We examined the membership of TBI patients in various "vulnerable group" (VG) clusters (e...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314421/cognate-effects-and-cognitive-control-in-patients-with-parallel-and-differential-bilingual-aphasia
#6
Lize Van der Linden, Nele Verreyt, Miet De Letter, Dimitri Hemelsoet, Peter Mariën, Patrick Santens, Michaël Stevens, Arnaud Szmalec, Wouter Duyck
BACKGROUND: Until today, there is no satisfying explanation for why one language may recover worse than another in differential bilingual aphasia. One potential explanation that has been largely unexplored is that differential aphasia is the consequence of a loss of language control rather than a loss of linguistic representations. Language control is part of a general control mechanism that also manages non-linguistic cognitive control. If this system is impaired, patients with differential aphasia could still show bilingual language activation, but they may be unable to manage activation in non-target languages, so that performance in another language is hindered...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313729/linguistic-factors-associated-with-phonemic-fluency-performance-in-a-sample-of-bilingual-hispanic-undergraduate-students
#7
Jennifer Bennett, Steven P Verney
Research has demonstrated that bilingualism impacts neuropsychological performance, but the findings on its effects on verbal fluency have been mixed. This study compared the verbal fluency performance of non-Hispanic White monolingual speakers with a Hispanic bilingual population. Ninety-nine Spanish-English bilingual Hispanic and thirty English-speaking monolingual non-Hispanic White undergraduates completed the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT). Students also completed a general cognitive and English reading measure...
January 9, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313414/a-survey-of-phonological-mid-vowel-intuitions-in-central-catalan
#8
Margaret E L Renwick, Marianna Nadeu
Catalan, like other Romance languages, has two pairs of phonemic mid vowels (/be/ "well" vs. /bɛ/ "lamb"; /os/ "bear" vs. /ɔs/ "bone"). However, these contrasts do not function like others in the language: they are partially phonologically conditioned, and evidence shows that words may be pronounced with different mid vowels by speakers of the same variety or even by the same speaker. Spanish may influence this instability, as first-language Spanish Catalan-Spanish bilinguals struggle to perceive and produce the contrast...
January 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306573/challenges-in-integrating-component-level-technology-and-system-level-information-from-ayurveda-insights-from-nmr-phytometabolomics-and-anti-hiv-potential-of-select-ayurvedic-medicinal-plants
#9
Rama Jayasundar, Somenath Ghatak, Muzamil Ashraf Makhdoomi, Kalpana Luthra, Aruna Singh, Thirumurthy Velpandian
BACKGROUND: Information from Ayurveda meeting the analytical challenges of modern technology is an area of immense relevance. Apart from the cerebral task of bringing together two different viewpoints, the question at the pragmatic level remains 'who benefits whom'. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to highlight the challenges in integration of information (Ayurvedic) and technology using test examples of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomics and anti-HIV-1 potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305911/tms-uncovers-details-about-sub-regional-language-specific-processing-networks-in-early-bilinguals
#10
Sini Hämäläinen, Niko Mäkelä, Viljami Sairanen, Minna Lehtonen, Teija Kujala, Alina Leminen
Despite numerous functional neuroimaging and intraoperative electrical cortical mapping studies aimed at investigating the cortical organisation of native (L1) and second (L2) language processing, the neural underpinnings of bilingualism remain elusive. We investigated whether the neural network engaged in speech production over the bilateral posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is the same (i.e., shared) or different (i.e., language-specific) for the two languages of bilingual speakers. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over the left and right posterior inferior gyrus (pIFG), while early simultaneous bilinguals performed a picture naming task with their native languages...
January 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305746/verbal-and-nonverbal-anticipatory-mechanisms-in-bilinguals
#11
Lorenzo Desideri, Paola Bonifacci
Empirical evidence collected so far has revealed that the bilingual advantage cannot be reduced to a single component of the executive functioning, and point to the need to understand the effects of bilingual experience on cognition as influencing a wider family of mental processes, including, but not limited to, cognitive control. The present study aims to explore a relatively underinvestigated domain of bilingual cognitive processes, namely anticipation, through a series of different paradigms tapping proactive and reactive mechanisms at different levels of cognitive complexity and linguistic components...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298470/translation-and-linguistic-validation-of-the-korean-version-of-the-treatment-satisfaction-visual-analogue-scale-and-the-overactive-bladder-satisfaction-with-treatment-questionnaire
#12
Ha Na Lee, Ji Yun Chae, Hyo Serk Lee, Min Soo Choo, Min Gu Park, Seo Yeon Lee, Seung-June Oh, Sung Yong Cho
PURPOSE: This study reports the development of the Korean Version of the Treatment Satisfaction Visual Analogue Scale (TS-VAS) and the Overactive Bladder Satisfaction with Treatment Questionnaire (OAB-SAT-q) based on the original versions, with subsequent linguistic validation by Korean patients with overactive bladder receiving active treatment from a physician. METHODS: Translation and linguistic validation were performed in 2016. The validation process included permission for translation, forward translation, reconciliation, backward translation, cognitive debriefing, and proofreading...
December 2017: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296476/optical-mapping-of-brain-activation-during-the-english-to-chinese-and-chinese-to-english-sight-translation
#13
Yan He, Meng-Yun Wang, Defeng Li, Zhen Yuan
Translating from Chinese into another language or vice versa is becoming a widespread phenomenon. However, current neuroimaging studies are insufficient to reveal the neural mechanism underlying translation asymmetry during Chinese/English sight translation. In this study, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to extract the brain activation patterns associated with Chinese/English sight translation. Eleven unbalanced Chinese (L1)/English (L2) bilinguals participated in this study based on an intra-group experimental design, in which two translation and two reading aloud tasks were administered: forward translation (from L1 to L2), backward translation (from L2 to L1), L1 reading, and L2 reading...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291529/anatomical-and-functional-changes-in-the-brain-after-simultaneous-interpreting-training-a-longitudinal-study
#14
Eowyn Van de Putte, Wouter De Baene, Lorna García-Pentón, Evy Woumans, Aster Dijkgraaf, Wouter Duyck
In the recent literature on bilingualism, a lively debate has arisen about the long-term effects of bilingualism on cognition and the brain. These studies yield inconsistent results, in part because they rely on comparisons between bilingual and monolingual control groups that may also differ on other variables. In the present neuroimaging study, we adopted a longitudinal design, assessing the long-term anatomical and cognitive effects of an extreme form of bilingualism, namely simultaneous interpreting. We compared a group of students starting interpreting training with a closely matched group of translators, before and after nine months of training...
December 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286493/twenty-five-years-of-the-national-academy-of-medical-sciences-of-ukraine-progress-and-priorities-for-future-of-radiation-medicine-and-biology
#15
D Bazyka
After the creation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine in 1993 the Research Center for Radiation Medicine was among the first institutions to join the Academy (fig. 1). Estab lishing the Academy was among the first steps of the independent Ukrainian government and aimed to provide a high level health care for population. It was extremely needed for the minimization of Chornobyl medical consequences. This choice was related to a growing recognition of the scientific research in fulfilling the Сenter's mission - study of the effects of low dose radiation on human body and radiation protection of the exposed population...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285592/on-modality-effects-in-bilingual-emotional-language-processing-evidence-from-galvanic-skin-response
#16
Katarzyna Jankowiak, Paweł Korpal
Though previous research has shown a decreased sensitivity to emotionally-laden linguistic stimuli presented in the non-native (L2) compared to the native language (L1), studies conducted thus far have not examined how different modalities influence bilingual emotional language processing. The present experiment was therefore aimed at investigating how late proficient Polish (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals process emotionally-laden narratives presented in L1 and L2, in the visual and auditory modality. To this aim, we employed the galvanic skin response (GSR) method and a self-report measure (Polish adaptation of the PANAS questionnaire)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283605/cognates-facilitate-switches-and-then-confusion-contrasting-effects-of-cascade-versus-feedback-on-language-selection
#17
Chuchu Li, Tamar H Gollan
The current study investigated the hypothesis that cognates (i.e., translation equivalents that overlap in form, e.g., lemon is limón in Spanish) facilitate language switches. Spanish-English bilinguals were cued to switch languages while repeatedly naming pictures with cognate versus noncognate names in separate (Experiment 1) or mixed (Experiments 2 and 3) blocks. In all 3 experiments, on the first presentation of each picture, cognates elicited significantly smaller switch costs and were produced faster than noncognates only on switch trials...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283604/orthographic-effects-in-second-language-spoken-word-recognition
#18
Qingqing Qu, Zhanling Cui, Markus F Damian
Evidence from both alphabetic and nonalphabetic languages has suggested the role of orthography in the processing of spoken words in individuals' native language (L1). Less evidence has existed for such effects in nonnative (L2) spoken-word processing. Whereas in L1 orthographic representations are learned only after phonological representations have long been established, in L2 the sound and spelling of words are often learned in conjunction; this might predict stronger orthographic effects in L2 than in L1 spoken processing...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283595/language-specificity-in-the-relation-of-maternal-education-to-bilingual-children-s-vocabulary-growth
#19
Erika Hoff, Andrea Burridge, Krystal M Ribot, David Giguere
The robust relation between maternal education and child language that is observed in monolingual populations has not been reliably replicated among bilingual children from immigrant families in the United States. We hypothesized that a variable that operates in immigrant populations-the language in which mothers achieved their highest level of education, is relevant to the benefits of maternal education to children's language growth. The participants were 92 U.S.-born bilingually developing children (47 boys, 45 girls) with native Spanish-speaking immigrant mothers...
December 28, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281654/longitudinal-effects-of-bilingualism-on-dual-tasking
#20
Daniel Eriksson Sörman, Maria Josefsson, John E Marsh, Patrik Hansson, Jessica K Ljungberg
An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40-65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list...
2017: PloS One
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