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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324868/lactic-acid-concentrations-that-reduce-microbial-load-yet-minimally-impact-colour-and-sensory-characteristics-of-beef
#1
Cristina Rodríguez-Melcón, Carlos Alonso-Calleja, Rosa Capita
Lactic acid (LA) has recently been approved in the EU as beef decontaminant. In order to identify the most appropriate concentration, beef samples were spray-treated with LA (2%, 3%, 4% or 5%) or left untreated (control). Microbial load (aerobic plate counts, psychrotrophs and Enterobacteriaceae), pH, instrumental colour and sensory properties were investigated at 0, 24, 72 and 120h of refrigerated storage. The reductions in bacteria after spraying ranged from 0.57 to 0.95 log units. A residual antimicrobial effect was observed so that at 120h LA reduced microbial load by up to 2 log units compared with the control samples...
January 17, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324837/status-of-pesticides-pollution-in-tanzania-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Raheli Elibariki, Mihayo Musabila Maguta
Various studies have been conducted in Tanzania to assess the magnitude of pesticides pollution associated with pesticides application, storage, disposal as well as knowledge of farmers on pesticides handling. The studies analysed samples from different matrices covering vegetation, biota, water, sediments and soil. The objective of this review was to summarise the results of pesticides residues reported in different components of the environment to give a clear picture of pesticides pollution status in the country for law enforcement as well as for taking precaution measures...
March 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319476/anesthesia-in-patients-with-infectious-disease-caused-by-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#3
Sharon Einav, Yonit Wiener-Well
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Up to 50% of specific bacterial strains in healthcare admission facilities are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Involvement of anesthesiologists in management of patients carrying/at risk of carrying MDROs may decrease transmission in the Operating Room (OR). RECENT FINDINGS: Anesthesiologists, their work area and tools have all been implicated in MDRO outbreaks. Causes include contamination of external ventilation circuits and noncontribution of filters to prevention, inappropriate decontamination procedures for nondisposable equipment (e...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318478/disaster-education-a-survey-study-to-analyze-disaster-medicine-training-in-emergency-medicine-residency-programs-in-the-united-states
#4
Ritu R Sarin, Srihari Cattamanchi, Abdulrahman Alqahtani, Majed Aljohani, Mark Keim, Gregory R Ciottone
BACKGROUND: The increase in natural and man-made disasters occurring worldwide places Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians at the forefront of responding to these crises. Despite the growing interest in Disaster Medicine, it is unclear if resident training has been able to include these educational goals. Hypothesis This study surveys EM residencies in the United States to assess the level of education in Disaster Medicine, to identify competencies least and most addressed, and to highlight effective educational models already in place...
March 20, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318300/bacteria-from-wheat-and-cucurbit-plant-roots-metabolize-pahs-and-aromatic-root-exudates-implications-for-rhizodegradation
#5
Cairn S Ely, Barth F Smets
The chemical interaction between plants and bacteria in the root zone can lead to soil decontamination. Bacteria which degrade PAHs have been isolated from the rhizospheres of plant species with varied biological traits, however, it is not known what phytochemicals promote contaminant degradation. One monocot and two dicotyledon plants were grown in PAH-contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. A phytotoxicity assay confirmed greater soil decontamination in rhizospheres when compared to bulk soil controls...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316900/influence-of-environmental-factors-on-biodegradation-of-quinalphos-by-bacillus-thuringiensis
#6
Venkata Subba Reddy Gangireddygari, Praveen Kumar Kalva, Khayalethu Ntushelo, Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Arnaud Djami Tchatchou, Rajasekhar Reddy Bontha
BACKGROUND: The extensive and intensive uses of organophosphorus insecticide-quinalphos in agriculture, pose a health hazard to animals, humans, and environment because of its persistence in the soil and crops. However, there is no much information available on the biodegradation of quinalphos by the soil micro-organisms, which play a significant role in detoxifying pesticides in the environment; so research is initiated in biodegradation of quinalphos. RESULTS: A soil bacterium strain, capable of utilizing quinalphos as its sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from soil via the enrichment method on minimal salts medium (MSM)...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315652/detection-and-elimination-of-corynebacterium-bovis-from-barrier-rooms-by-using-an-environmental-sampling-surveillance-program
#7
Christopher A Manuel, Umarani Pugazhenthi, Shannon P Spiegel, Jori K Leszczynski
Rodent health-monitoring programs based on sampling an IVC system's exhaust air dust (EAD) has enhanced and even replaced traditional sentinels for some rodent pathogens. EAD testing by qPCR assay is an optimal surveillance method for the rapid detection of Corynebacterium bovis-infected immunodeficient mice. Here we demonstrate that an active EAD surveillance program for C. bovis can be used to maintain nude mice C. bovis-free after the transition from historically enzootically infected colonies. During 3 events over 3 y, rapid detection of infection, elimination of infected mice, aggressive quarantine measures, and local decontamination prevented the spread of C...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314523/detection-of-anabolic-and-androgenic-steroids-and-or-their-esters-in-horse-hair-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#8
Karen Y Kwok, Timmy L S Choi, Wai Him Kwok, Jenny K Y Wong, Terence S M Wan
Anabolic and androgenic steroids (AASs) are a class of prohibited substances banned in horseracing at all times. The common approach for controlling the misuse of AASs in equine sports is by detecting the presence of AASs and/or their metabolites in urine and blood samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This approach, however, often falls short as the duration of effect for many AASs are longer than their detection time in both urine and blood...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314204/stability-speciation-and-spectral-properties-of-npo2-complexes-with-pyridine-monocarboxylates-in-aqueous-solution
#9
Rama Mohana Rao Dumpala, Neetika Rawat, B S Tomar
Neptunyl ion as NpO2(+) is the least reacting and most mobile radioactive species among all the actinides. The picolinic acid used for decontamination is co-disposed along with the radioactive waste. Thus, in long term storage of HLW, there is high possibility of interaction of actinides and long lived fission products with the picolinate and can cause migration. The complexation of NpO2(+) with the three structural isomers of pyridine monocarboxylates provides an insight to explore the role of hetero atom (nitrogen) with respect to key binding moiety (carboxylate)...
March 6, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306518/biochemical-testing-in-a-laboratory-tent-and-semi-intensive-care-of-ebola-patients-on-site-in-a-remote-part-of-guinea-a-paradigm-shift-based-on-a-bleach-sensitive-point-of-care-device
#10
Leonid M Irenge, Jean-Michel Dindart, Jean-Luc Gala
BACKGROUND: During the West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, a Belgian laboratory was deployed for supporting the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) of N'Zerekore, Guinea. Besides diagnosis of EVD and malaria, biochemical parameters were tested and used to guide supportive treatment of EVD. METHODS: To preserve analytes stability, lithium-heparin blood samples were analyzed using the i-STAT® point-of-care testing (POCT) handheld device without the viral inactivation step...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304107/the-percutaneous-toxicokinetics-of-sulphur-mustard-in-a-damaged-skin-porcine-model-and-the-evaluation-of-woundstat%C3%A2-as-a-topical-decontaminant
#11
Charlotte A Hall, Helen L Lydon, Christopher H Dalton, J Kevin Chipman, John S Graham, Robert P Chilcott
This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for decontamination of superficial (non-haemorrhaging), sulphur mustard-contaminated wounds. The dorsal skin of 12 female pigs was subjected to controlled physical damage and exposed to 10 μL (14) C-radiolabelled sulphur mustard ((14) C-SM). Animals were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group. In the latter, WoundStat™ was applied 30 s post exposure and left in situ for 1 h. Skin lesion progression and decontaminant efficacy were quantified over 6 h using a range of biophysical measurements...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296567/flexible-parametrization-of-variance-functions-for-quantal-response-data-derived-from-counts
#12
Yuhui Chen, Timothy Hanson
Although the Poisson model has been widely used to fit count data, a well-known drawback is that the Poisson mean equals its variance. Many alternative models for counts that are overdispersed relative to Poisson have been developed to solve this issue, including the negative binomial model. In this article, the negative binomial model with a four-parameter logistic mean is proposed to handle these types of counts, with variance that flexibly depends on the mean. Various parameterizations for the variance are considered, including extra-Poisson variability modeled as an exponentiated B-spline...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292878/pneumonia-treatment-by-photodynamic-therapy-with-extracorporeal-illumination-an-experimental-model
#13
Mariana C Geralde, Ilaiáli S Leite, Natalia M Inada, Ana Carolina G Salina, Alexandra I Medeiros, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Cristina Kurachi, Vanderlei S Bagnato
Infectious pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity/mortality, mainly because of the increasing rate of microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is emerging as a promising approach, as effects are based on oxidative stress, preventing microorganism resistance. In two previous studies, the in vitro inactivation of Streptococcus pneumoniae using indocyanine green (ICG) and infrared light source was a success killing 5 log10 colony-forming units (CFU/mL) with only 10 μmol/L ICG. In this work, a proof-of-principle protocol was designed to treat lung infections by PDT using extracorporeal illumination with a 780 nm laser device and also ICG as photosensitizer...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291394/cycad-palm-toxicosis-in-14-dogs-from-texas
#14
Carolyn Clarke, Derek Burney
The goal of this study is to report clinical information, diagnostic findings, and treatment modalities; assess variables that may help distinguish survivors from nonsurvivors; and review the outcome of cycad palm toxicosis in dogs. Fourteen client-owned dogs with confirmed cycad palm ingestion were identified by reviewing the medical record database at Gulf Coast Veterinary Specialists. Information on signalment, time of ingestion to presentation, clinical signs, physical examination findings, initial and peak/nadir laboratory abnormalities, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, treatment modalities, liver histopathology, and clinical outcome was retrieved...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287436/plasma-based-degradation-of-mycotoxins-produced-by-fusarium-aspergillus-and-alternaria-species
#15
Lars Ten Bosch, Katharina Pfohl, Georg Avramidis, Stephan Wieneke, Wolfgang Viöl, Petr Karlovsky
The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation...
March 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284251/bottom-up-or-top-down-unit-cost-estimation-of-tuberculosis-diagnostic-tests-in-india
#16
S Rupert, A Vassall, N Raizada, S D Khaparde, C Boehme, V S Salhotra, K S Sachdeva, S A Nair, A H Van't Hoog
SETTING: Of 18 sites that participated in an implementation study of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay in India, we selected five microscopy centres and two reference laboratories. OBJECTIVE: To obtain unit costs of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) and drug-resistant TB. DESIGN: Laboratories were purposely selected to capture regional variations and different laboratory types. Both bottom-up and the top-down methods were used to estimate unit costs...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283813/effects-of-photodynamic-laser-and-violet-blue-led-irradiation-on-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-and-escherichia-coli-lipopolysaccharide-attached-to-moderately-rough-titanium-surface-in-vitro-study
#17
Marco Giannelli, Giulia Landini, Fabrizio Materassi, Flaminia Chellini, Alberto Antonelli, Alessia Tani, Daniele Nosi, Sandra Zecchi-Orlandini, Gian Maria Rossolini, Daniele Bani
Effective decontamination of biofilm and bacterial toxins from the surface of dental implants is a yet unresolved issue. This study investigates the in vitro efficacy of photodynamic treatment (PDT) with methylene blue (MB) photoactivated with λ 635 nm diode laser and of λ 405 nm violet-blue LED phototreatment for the reduction of bacterial biofilm and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) adherent to titanium surface mimicking the bone-implant interface. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm grown on titanium discs with a moderately rough surface was subjected to either PDT (0...
March 10, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278767/development-of-practical-decontamination-process-for-the-removal-of-uranium-from-gravel
#18
Ilgook Kim, Gye-Nam Kim, Seung-Soo Kim, Jong-Won Choi
In this study, a practical decontamination process was developed to remove uranium from gravel using a soil washing method. The effects of critical parameters including particle size, H2SO4 concentration, temperature, and reaction time on uranium removal were evaluated. The optimal condition for two-stage washing of gravel was found to be particle size of 1-2 mm, 1.0 M H2SO4, temperature of 60°C, and reaction time of 3 h, which satisfied the required uranium concentration for self-disposal. Furthermore, most of the extracted uranium was removed from the waste solution by precipitation, implying that the treated solution can be reused as washing solution...
March 3, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278065/ultraviolet-uv-reflective-paint-with-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-uvgi-improves-decontamination-of-nosocomial-bacteria-on-hospital-room-surfaces
#19
Katelyn C Jelden, Shawn G Gibbs, Philip W Smith, Angela L Hewlett, Peter C Iwen, Kendra K Schmid, John J Lowe
An ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) generator (the TORCH™, ClorDiSys Solutions, Inc.) was used to compare the disinfection of surface coupons (plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, and chrome-plated light switch cover) in a hospital room with walls coated with ultraviolet (UV)-reflective paint (Lumacept) or standard paint. Each surface coupon was inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), placed at 6 different sites within a hospital room coated with UV-reflective paint or standard paint, and treated by 10 minute UVC exposure (UVC dose of 0-688 mJ/cm(2) between sites with standard paint and 0-553 mJ/cm(2) with UV-reflective paint) in 8 total trials...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278063/assessment-of-personal-airborne-exposures-and-surface-contamination-from-x-ray-vaporization-of-beryllium-targets-at-the-national-ignition-facility
#20
Samuel Y Paik, Patrick M Epperson, Kenneth M Kasper
This study presents air and surface sampling data collected over the first two years since beryllium was introduced as a target material at the National Ignition Facility. Over this time, 101 experiments with beryllium-containing targets were executed. The data provides an assessment of current conditions in the facility and a baseline for future impacts as new, reduced regulatory limits for beryllium are being proposed by both the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Department of Energy. This study also investigates how beryllium deposits onto exposed surfaces as a result of x-ray vaporization and the effectiveness of simple decontamination measures in reducing the amount of removable beryllium from a surface...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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