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Pier Paolo Poli, Marco CicciÃ, Mario Beretta, Carlo Maiorana
The clinical condition involving dental implants, characterized by soft tissue inflammation, bleeding, suppuration and rapid bone loss is widely known as peri implantitis. The main objective in the treatment of peri-implantis is to arrest the progression of the disease and at the same time to keep the dental implant in the mouth solving the inflammations signs of bleeding and pain. The aim of this paper is to highlight the effectiveness of the use of titanium brush and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) to decontaminate the implant surface, in association with regenerative procedures by means of autologous bone and demineralized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) in the treatment of peri-implantitis defects...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Oral Implantology
M V Nair, G M Miskelly
Clandestine laboratories pose a serious health risk to first responders, investigators, decontamination companies, and the public who may be inadvertently exposed to methamphetamine and other chemicals used in its manufacture. Therefore there is an urgent need for reliable methods to detect and measure methamphetamine at such sites. The most common method for determining methamphetamine contamination at former clandestine laboratory sites is selected surface wipe sampling, followed by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 3, 2016: Forensic Science International
Maude St-Onge, Kurt Anseeuw, Frank Lee Cantrell, Ian C Gilchrist, Philippe Hantson, Benoit Bailey, Valéry Lavergne, Sophie Gosselin, William Kerns, Martin Laliberté, Eric J Lavonas, David N Juurlink, John Muscedere, Chen-Chang Yang, Tasnim Sinuff, Michael Rieder, Bruno Mégarbane
OBJECTIVE: To provide a management approach for adults with calcium channel blocker poisoning. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: Following the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II instrument, initial voting statements were constructed based on summaries outlining the evidence, risks, and benefits. DATA SYNTHESIS: We recommend 1) for asymptomatic patients, observation and consideration of decontamination following a potentially toxic calcium channel blocker ingestion (1D); 2) as first-line therapies (prioritized based on desired effect), IV calcium (1D), high-dose insulin therapy (1D-2D), and norepinephrine and/or epinephrine (1D)...
October 3, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Frank Schwarz, Andrea Schmucker, Jürgen Becker
In patients with peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, what is the efficacy of nonsurgical (i.e. referring to peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis) and surgical (i.e. referring to peri-implantitis) treatments with alternative or adjunctive measures on changing signs of inflammation compared with conventional nonsurgical (i.e. mechanical/ultrasonic debridement) and surgical (i.e. open flap debridement) treatments alone? After electronic database and hand search, a total of 40 publications (reporting on 32 studies) were finally considered for the qualitative and quantitative assessment...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Jonathan A Otter, Philip Burgess, Frances Davies, Siddharth Mookerjee, Julie Singleton, Mark Gilchrist, Darren Parsons, Eimear T Brannigan, Julie Robotham, Alison H Holmes
OBJECTIVE: To perform an economic evaluation on the cost associated with an outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHODS: We performed an observational economic evaluation of an outbreak of CPE (NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae) affecting 40 patients in a group of five hospitals across three sites in West London. Costs were split into actual expenditure (including anti-infective costs, enhanced CPE screening, contact precautions, temporary ward-based monitors of hand and environmental practice, and environmental decontamination), and 'opportunity cost' (staff time, bed closures, and elective surgical missed revenue)...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Sherrill J Smith, Sharon Farra, Deborah L Ulrich, Eric Hodgson, Stephanie Nicely, William Matcham
AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of virtual reality simulation (VRS) on learning outcomes and retention. BACKGROUND: Disaster preparation for health care professionals is seriously inadequate. VRS offers an opportunity to practice within a realistic and safe environment, but little is known about learning and retention using this pedagogy. METHOD: A quasiexperimental design was used to examine the use of VRS with baccalaureate nursing students in two different nursing programs in terms of the skill of decontamination...
July 2016: Nursing Education Perspectives
Jaroslav Semerád, Tomáš Cajthaml
This mini-review summarizes the current information that has been published on the various effects of nano-scale zerovalent iron (nZVI) on microbial biota, with an emphasis on reports that highlight the positive aspects of its application or its stimulatory effects on microbiota. By nature, nZVI is a highly reactive substance; thus, the possibility of nZVI being toxic is commonly suspected. Accordingly, the cytotoxicity of nZVI and the toxicity of nZVI-related products have been detected by laboratory tests and documented in the literature...
October 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ayumi Tsukamoto, Shunji Ishiwata, Asami Kajimoto, Ryusuke Murata, Rika Kitano, Tomomi Inoue, Takeshi Kotake
BACKGROUND: Exposure to anticancer drugs is hazardous and may lead to chromosomal abnormalities and spontaneous abortion in healthcare workers. Guidelines recommend surface decontamination and cleaning in order to minimize the occupational exposure to anticancer drugs, although no single process has been found to deactivate all currently available hazardous drugs. Ozone gas is oxidative and a decontaminant for bacteria; its characteristic as a gas has advantages in that it does not need to be wiped off or neutralized after use...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
Anna Jarosz, Sylweriusz Kosiński, Tomasz Darocha, Peter Paal, Robert Gałązkowski, Hubert Hymczak, Rafał Drwiła
OBJECTIVES: When establishing the Severe Hypothermia Treatment Centre, certain problems and pitfalls regarding the qualification for extracorporeal rewarming were encountered. The authors shared their experience and opened a discussion with other centers that deal with severe, accidental hypothermia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of medical records of all patients examined by the hypothermia coordinator. SETTING: Patients consulted and treated by the Severe Hypothermia Treatment Centre...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Manpreet Singh, Jagpinder Brar
Eggs are nutritious, yet they are a highly perishable commodity like other protein sources such as meat. Even though steps are taken all along the production process of shell eggs, from farm to table, the potential for contamination of the shells and egg contents poses a high risk to consumers. The main sources of contamination can be categorized as vertical transmission, in which the layers can be carriers of pathogens and can pass them on during egg formation, and horizontal transmission, in which environmental factors such as water, feed, layer houses, and personnel are the main source of contamination...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Pierre Le Pape, Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet, Marc Parmentier, Catherine Joulian, Cindy Gassaud, Lidia Fernandez-Rojo, Jean-Michel Guigner, Maya Ikogou, Lucie Stetten, Luca Olivi, Corinne Casiot, Guillaume Morin
Acid mine drainages (AMD) are major sources of pollution to the environment. Passive bio-remediation technologies involving sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are promising for treating arsenic contaminated waters. However, mechanisms of biogenic As-sulfide formation need to be better understood to decontaminate AMDs in acidic conditions. Here, we show that a high-As AMD effluent can be decontaminated by an indigenous SRB consortium. AMD water from the Carnoulès mine (Gard, France) was incubated with the consortium under anoxic conditions and As, Zn and Fe concentrations, pH and microbial activity were monitored during 94days...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Li Ni, Weichao Zheng, Qiang Zhang, Wei Cao, Baoming Li
The effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) in reducing Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurim, Staphylococcus aureus or bacterial mixtures on stainless steel surfaces was evaluated and compared its efficacy with composite phenol solution for reducing total aerobic bacteria in animal transport vehicles. Stainless steel surfaces were inoculated with these strains individually or in a mixture, and sprayed with SAEW, composite phenol, or alkaline electrolyzed water for 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2min...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Hae In Yong, Haelim Lee, Sanghoo Park, Jooyoung Park, Wonho Choe, Samooel Jung, Cheorun Jo
The aims of the present study were to examine the use of a flexible thin-layer plasma system in inactivating bacteria and mold on beef jerky in a commercial package and to evaluate the physicochemical changes of the jerky. After plasma treatment for 10min, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Aspergillus flavus populations on the beef jerky were reduced by approximately 2 to 3Log CFU/g. No significant changes in metmyoglobin content, shear force, and myofibrillar fragmentation index were found in the plasma-treated beef jerky...
September 30, 2016: Meat Science
Ida Pam Ombura, Noel Onyango, Susan Odera, Florence Mutua, Joshua Nyagol
BACKGROUND: Although prevention and control of spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains is a global challenge, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of DR-TB in patients diagnosed with TB in referral hospitals in Kenya. The present study assessed patients' characteristics and prevalence of drug resistant TB in sputa smear positive TB patients presenting to Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Drug resistance was evaluated in 258 randomly selected sputa smear TB positive cases between the periods of November 2011 to February 2012 at the CPGH-Mombasa...
2016: PloS One
Zhipan Wen, Yalei Zhang, Sheng Guo, Rong Chen
Iron manganese bimetal oxides (IMBO) nanospheres were synthesized via a facile and environmentally friendly template-free approach. The obtained IMBO with large surface area and abundant surface functional groups exhibited excellent performance for heavy metals removal from aqueous solution, with the maximum adsorption capacities of As(V) and Cr(VI) were 132.77mg/g and 105.96mg/g, respectively. The adsorption mechanism study confirmed that except for electrostatic attraction, both surface hydroxyl group (OH(-)) and carbonate group (CO3(2-)) simultaneously played a key role in the ion-exchange process with As(V) and Cr(VI) species, which finally formed inner-sphere surface complexes on the interface of IMBO...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Daseul Park, Hafiz Muhammad Shahbaz, Sun-Hyoung Kim, Mijin Lee, Wooseong Lee, Jong-Won Oh, Dong-Un Lee, Jiyong Park
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Fresh blueberries are among high risk foods associated with norovirus related outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to assess intervention strategies to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. The disinfection efficiency of decontamination methods is difficult to evaluate for fruits and vegetables due to an inconsistent degree of contamination and irregular surface characteristics. The inactivation efficiency and mechanism of murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1, a surrogate for HuNoV) was studied on an experimentally prepared solidified agar matrix (SAM) to simulate blueberries using different wavelengths (A, B, C) of UV light both with and without TiO2 photocatalysis (TP)...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Mohamed AbdelRahman AbdelFatah
BACKGROUND: There is no settled standard of care or even a consensus between neurosurgeons on the replacement of bone fragments in compound depressed skull fractures (CDSF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study retrospectively reviewed the patients with nonmissile CDSF who were admitted to our university hospitals from January 2010 to January 2015. Patients who were managed nonoperatively, polytrauma, comatose patients, and CDSF over the air sinuses were excluded from this study...
October 4, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Ben Buse, Stuart Kearns, Charles Clapham, Donovan Hawley
A prototype Peltier thermoelectric cooling unit has been constructed to cool a cold finger on an electron microprobe. The Peltier unit was tested at 15 and 96 W, achieving cold finger temperatures of -10 and -27°C, respectively. The Peltier unit did not adversely affect the analytical stability of the instrument. Heat conduction between the Peltier unit mounted outside the vacuum and the cold finger was found to be very efficient. Under Peltier cooling, the vacuum improvement associated with water vapor deposition was not achieved; this has the advantage of avoiding severe degradation of the vacuum observed when warming up a cold finger from liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures...
October 5, 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Hyunsook Jung, Dongha Kah, Kyoung Chan Lim, Jin Young Lee
After application of sulfur mustard to the soil surface, its possible fate via evaporation, degradation following absorption, and vapor emission after decontamination was studied. We used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorber, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) for systematic analysis. When a drop of neat HD was deposited on the soil surface, it evaporated slowly while being absorbed immediately into the matrix. The initial evaporation or drying rates of the HD drop were found to be power-dependent on temperature and initial drop volume...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Carla Pereira, Catarina Moreirinha, Luís Teles, Rui J M Rocha, Ricardo Calado, Jesús L Romalde, Maria L Nunes, Adelaide Almeida
The present study investigated the potential application of the bacteriophage (or phage) phT4A, ECA2 and the phage cocktail phT4A/ECA2 to decrease the concentration of Escherichia coli during the depuration of natural and artificially contaminated cockles. Depuration in static seawater at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 with single phage suspensions of phT4A and ECA2 was the best condition, as it decreased by ∼2.0 log CFU/g the concentration of E. coli in artificially contaminated cockles after a 4 h of treatment...
February 2017: Food Microbiology
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