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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530526/warfarin-management-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-within-an-integrated-health-care-system
#1
JaeJin An, Fang Niu, Chengyi Zheng, Nazia Rashid, Robert A Mendes, Diana Dills, Lien Vo, Prianka Singh, Amanda Bruno, Daniel T Lang, Paul T Le, Kristin P Jazdzewski, Gustavus Aranda
BACKGROUND: Warfarin is a common treatment option to manage patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in clinical practice. Understanding current pharmacist-led anticoagulation clinic management patterns and associated outcomes is important for quality improvement; however, currently little evidence associating outcomes with management patterns exists. OBJECTIVES: To (a) describe warfarin management patterns and (b) evaluate associations between warfarin treatment and clinical outcomes for patients with NVAF in an integrated health care system...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530002/cohort-restriction-based-on-prior-enrollment-examining-potential-biases-in-estimating-cancer-and-mortality-risk
#2
Susan M Shortreed, Eric Johnson, Carolyn M Rutter, Aruna Kamineni, Karen J Wernli, Jessica Chubak
Electronic health records and administrative databases provide rich, longitudinal data for health-related research. These data cover large, diverse populations creating excellent research opportunities, but have limitations. In particular, information is available only for individuals who are enrolled in a particular health system; thus, studies often exclude individual's with short enrollment history. Such cohort restriction may cause selection bias in absolute risk estimates for the full enrollee population...
August 2016: Observational Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529492/depression-in-men-and-women-one-year-following-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-a-tbi-model-systems-study
#3
Sarah Lavoie, Samantha Sechrist, Nhung Quach, Reza Ehsanian, Thao Duong, Ian H Gotlib, Linda Isaac
In the general population, females experience depression at significantly higher rates than males. Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at substantially greater risk for depression compared to the overall population. Treatment of, and recovery from, TBI can be hindered by depression; comorbid TBI and depression can lead to adverse outcomes and negatively affect multiple aspects of individuals' lives. Gender differences in depression following TBI are not well understood, and relevant empirical findings have been mixed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528846/the-multi-level-impact-of-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-on-central-auditory-processing
#4
Eddie Wong, Bin Yang, Lida Du, Wai Hong Ho, Condon Lau, Ya Ke, Ying Shing Chan, Wing Ho Yung, Ed X Wu
During hypoxia, the tissues do not obtain adequate oxygen. Chronic hypoxia can lead to many health problems. A relatively common cause of chronic hypoxia is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder that affects 3 to 7% of the population. During sleep, the patient's breathing starts and stops. This can lead to hypertension, attention deficits, and hearing disorders. In this study, we apply an established chronic intermittent hypoxemia (CIH) model of sleep apnea to study its impact on auditory processing...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528588/anorectal-swabs-as-a-marker-of-male-to-male-sexual-exposure-in-sti-surveillance-systems
#5
F H Ampt, C El Hayek, P A Agius, A L Bowring, N Bartnik, C VAN Gemert, C K Fairley, E P F Chow, C S Bradshaw, N Stephens, M S C Lim, M E Hellard
Identification of priority populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) is important in surveillance systems to monitor trends of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We explored using routinely collected non-behavioural data as a means to establish MSM status in surveillance by assessing anorectal swab as a marker of male-to-male sexual exposure. We used chlamydia testing data from a sexual health clinic, 2007-2012. Men reporting any male sexual partner(s) in the previous 12 months were considered MSM...
May 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528557/-naming-and-framing-the-impact-of-labeling-on-health-state-values-for-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Colin Green, Elizabeth Goodwin, Annie Hawton
INTRODUCTION: Health state valuation is a key input in many economic evaluations that inform resource allocation across competing healthcare interventions. Empirical evidence has shown that, in preference elicitation surveys, respondents may value a health state differently if they are aware of the condition causing it ('labeling effects'). This study investigates the impact of including a multiple sclerosis (MS) label for valuation of MS health states. METHODS: Health state values for MS were elicited using two internet-based surveys in representative samples of the UK population ( n = 1702; n = 1788)...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526074/oral-health-behaviour-in-migrant-and-non-migrant-adults-in-germany-the-utilization-of-regular-dental-check-ups
#7
Fabian Erdsiek, Dorothee Waury, Patrick Brzoska
BACKGROUND: Migrants in many European countries including Germany tend to utilize preventive measures less frequently than the majority population. Little is known about the dental health of migrants as well as about their oral health behaviour, particularly in the adult population. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the uptake of annual dental check-ups in adult migrants and non-migrants in Germany. METHODS: We used data from the cross-sectional survey 'German Health Update 2010' conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 22,050)...
May 19, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526027/description-of-inter-institutional-referrals-after-admission-for-labor-and-delivery-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study-in-rural-maharashtra-india
#8
Archana B Patel, Amber Abhijeet Prakash, Camille Raynes-Greenow, Yamini V Pusdekar, Patricia L Hibberd
BACKGROUND: In 2008, the Indian government introduced financial assistance to encourage health facility deliveries. Facility births have increased, but maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality have not decreased raising questions about the quality of care provided in facilities and access to a quality referral system. We evaluated the potential role of inter-institutional transfers of women admitted for labor and delivery on adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in an ongoing prospective, population-based Maternal and Newborn Health Registry in Central India...
May 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525996/cancer-risks-in-a-population-based-study-of-70-570-agricultural-workers-results-from-the-canadian-census-health-and-environment-cohort-canchec
#9
Linda Kachuri, M Anne Harris, Jill S MacLeod, Michael Tjepkema, Paul A Peters, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: Agricultural workers may be exposed to potential carcinogens including pesticides, sensitizing agents and solar radiation. Previous studies indicate increased risks of hematopoietic cancers and decreased risks at other sites, possibly due to differences in lifestyle or risk behaviours. We present findings from CanCHEC (Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort), the largest national population-based cohort of agricultural workers. METHODS: Statistics Canada created the cohort using deterministic and probabilistic linkage of the 1991 Canadian Long Form Census to National Cancer Registry records for 1992-2010...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521722/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-syphilis-infections-among-military-personnel-in-sierra-leone
#10
Djeneba Audrey Djibo, Foday Sahr, J Allen McCutchan, Sonia Jain, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Stephanie K Brodine, Richard A Shaffer
CONTEXT: HIV and syphilis infections are common in military personnel in sub-Saharan Africa, which impact combat preparedness and increase demands on the military health care system. The prevalence of HIV is estimated at 1.5% among the general population (15-49 years of age) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for these two common sexually transmitted infections in the Sierra Leone military personnel...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520909/large-scale-data-driven-integrative-framework-for-extracting-essential-targets-and-processes-from-disease-associated-gene-data-sets
#11
Gaston K Mazandu, Emile R Chimusa, Kayleigh Rutherford, Elsa-Gayle Zekeng, Zoe Z Gebremariam, Maryam Y Onifade, Nicola J Mulder
Populations worldwide currently face several public health challenges, including growing prevalence of infections and the emergence of new pathogenic organisms. The cost and risk associated with drug development make the development of new drugs for several diseases, especially orphan or rare diseases, unappealing to the pharmaceutical industry. Proof of drug safety and efficacy is required before market approval, and rigorous testing makes the drug development process slow, expensive and frequently result in failure...
May 18, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520659/predictors-of-satisfaction-with-life-in-veterans-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-va-tbi-model-systems-study
#12
Leah R Gause, Jacob A Finn, Greg J Lamberty, Xinyu Tang, Lillian Flores Stevens, Blessen C Eapen, Risa Nakase-Richardson
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of satisfaction with life in Veterans 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: The VA TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) project includes 5 Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans enrolled in the VA TBIMS study who completed the Satisfaction With Life Scale at year 1 follow-up. The sample is largely male (96%) and Caucasian (72%), with a median age of 27 years upon enrollment...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514961/how-many-people-will-need-palliative-care-in-2040-past-trends-future-projections-and-implications-for-services
#13
S N Etkind, A E Bone, B Gomes, N Lovell, C J Evans, I J Higginson, F E M Murtagh
BACKGROUND: Current estimates suggest that approximately 75% of people approaching the end-of-life may benefit from palliative care. The growing numbers of older people and increasing prevalence of chronic illness in many countries mean that more people may benefit from palliative care in the future, but this has not been quantified. The present study aims to estimate future population palliative care need in two high-income countries. METHODS: We used mortality statistics for England and Wales from 2006 to 2014...
May 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513818/the-risk-of-melanoma-associated-with-ambient-summer-ultraviolet-radiation
#14
Lauren Pinault, Tracey Bushnik, Vitali Fioletov, Cheryl E Peters, Will D King, Michael Tjepkema
BACKGROUND: Depletion of the ozone layer has meant that ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has increased in recent decades. At the same time, the incidence of skin cancers, including melanoma, has risen. The relatively few large-scale studies that linked ambient UVR to melanoma found a trend toward rising incidence closer to the equator, where UVR estimates are highest. Similar research has not been conducted in Canada, where ambient UVR is generally lower than in countries further south...
May 17, 2017: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511896/-changes-in-the-prevalence-of-statin-use-in-germany-findings-from-national-health-interview-and-examination-surveys-1997-1999-and-2008-2011
#15
Hildtraud C Knopf, Markus A Busch, Yong Du, Julia Truthmann, Anja Schienkiewitz, Christa Scheidt-Nave
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guideline recommendations on lipid lowering drug treatment, in particular statin treatment, play an essential role in the management of dyslipidemias and in the prevention of cardiovascular disease events. In Germany, statutory health insurance data provide information on time trends in the prescription of lipid lowering drugs. However, population-based data regarding changes in user prevalence according to socio-demographic and health-related characteristics are lacking...
May 13, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511646/emergence-of-microbial-diversity-due-to-cross-feeding-interactions-in-a-spatial-model-of-gut-microbial-metabolism
#16
Milan J A van Hoek, Roeland M H Merks
BACKGROUND: The human gut contains approximately 10(14) bacteria, belonging to hundreds of different species. Together, these microbial species form a complex food web that can break down nutrient sources that our own digestive enzymes cannot handle, including complex polysaccharides, producing short chain fatty acids and additional metabolites, e.g., vitamin K. Microbial diversity is important for colonic health: Changes in the composition of the microbiota have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, obesity and Crohn's disease, and make the microbiota more vulnerable to infestation by harmful species, e...
May 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511157/-conceptual-approaches-to-improve-the-system-of-preventive-medical-examinations-of-the-adult-population
#17
Олег Л Зюков, Володимир А Гандзюк, Наталія Ю Кондратюк
INTRODUCTION: Health indicators Ukraine's adult population over the last decade still too high for both countries of the European Community. Features direction of preventive health system of Ukraine, currently used extremely limited. Existing approaches to planning and carrying out preventive medical examinations in our country are outdated and are formal, so improving the existing system of preventive medical examinations of the adult population is necessary and timely. AIM: To prove scientifically conceptual approaches to improving the planning and implementation of preventive medical examinations of adults through functional and structural changes...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511034/school-collective-occupation-movements-and-substance-use-among-adolescents-a-school-level-panel-design
#18
Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Jay S Kaufman, Esteban Pizarro, José D Marín, Garen Wintemute, Magdalena Cerdá
BACKGROUND: Recently, social movements across the world have demanded reforms to education systems and other institutions. Although such movements have affected large numbers of people across multiple countries, we know little about the impacts they have had on population health. We focus on one example: the massive strikes and collective occupation of secondary schools across Chile, which occurred contemporaneously with a large increase in marijuana use among students in this age group...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510804/broadening-the-lens-of-system-based-practice-from-micro-to-macro-and-basic-to-complex-in-residency-training
#19
Michael Weinberg, Melissa R Arbuckle, Jules M Ranz
OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to develop a model for understanding the various dimensions of system-based practice (SBP) and determine the extent to which psychiatry residents perform behaviors along these dimensions. METHODS: Sixty-one supervisors from seven psychiatry programs rated resident performance of SBP behaviors using a 60-item instrument. Multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were conducted to determine how the instrument items related to one another and the larger concept of SBP...
May 16, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507549/human-lung-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Faezzah Baharom, Gregory Rankin, Anders Blomberg, Anna Smed-Sörensen
The lungs are vulnerable to attack by respiratory insults such as toxins, allergens, and pathogens, given their continuous exposure to the air we breathe. Our immune system has evolved to provide protection against an array of potential threats without causing collateral damage to the lung tissue. In order to swiftly detect invading pathogens, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs)-together termed mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs)-line the respiratory tract with the key task of surveying the lung microenvironment in order to discriminate between harmless and harmful antigens and initiate immune responses when necessary...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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