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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149310/counting-indirect-crisis-related-deaths-in-the-context-of-a-low-resilience-health-system-the-case-of-maternal-and-neonatal-health-during-the-ebola-epidemic-in-sierra-leone
#1
Laura Sochas, Andrew Amos Channon, Sara Nam
Although the number of direct Ebola-related deaths from the 2013 to 2016 West African Ebola outbreak has been quantified, the number of indirect deaths, resulting from decreased utilization of routine health services, remains unknown. Such information is a key ingredient of health system resilience, essential for adequate allocation of resources to both 'crisis response activities' and 'core functions'. Taking stock of indirect deaths may also help the concept of health system resilience achieve political traction over the traditional approach of disease-specific surveillance...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148966/exploring-the-health-care-environment-and-associations-with-clinical-outcomes-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#2
Mary Hawk, Robert W S Coulter, James E Egan, Mackey Reuel Friedman, Steven Meanley, Stuart Fisk, Courtney Watson, Suzanne Kinsky
Despite three decades of dramatic treatment breakthroughs in antiretroviral regimens, clinical outcomes for people living with HIV vary greatly. The HIV treatment cascade models the stages of care that people living with HIV go through toward the goal of viral suppression and demonstrates that <30% of those living with HIV/AIDS in the United States have met this goal. Although some research has focused on the ways that patient characteristics and patient-provider relationships contribute to clinical adherence and treatment success, few studies to date have examined the ways that contextual factors of care and the healthcare environment contribute to patient outcomes...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148639/institutional-delivery-services-utilization-by-women-of-childbearing-age-in-south-west-showa-zone-oromia-region
#3
Assefa Seme, Abera Seifu
Introduction: Institutional delivery is very low in Ethiopia, particularly in Oromia where less than one-third of antenatal care attendees utilize the services. This study assessed the magnitude of institutional delivery and associated factors in South West Showa Zone of Oromia. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in 2010. A stratified cluster sampling technique used to select study districts, villages and households. Four hundred thirty childbearing women with at least one birth in the past 5 years preceding the survey were interviewed...
January 2017: Ethiopian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147980/a-long-term-comparative-assessment-of-human-health-risk-to-leachate-contaminated-groundwater-from-heavy-metal-with-different-liner-systems
#4
Harshit Mishra, Subhankar Karmakar, Rakesh Kumar, Praneeth Kadambala
The handling and management of municipal solid waste (MSW) are major challenges for solid waste management in developing countries. Open dumping is still the most common waste disposal method in India. However, landfilling also causes various environmental, social, and human health impacts. The generation of heavily polluted leachate is a major concern to public health. Engineered barrier systems (EBSs) are commonly used to restrict potentially harmful wastes by preventing the leachate percolation to groundwater and overflow to surface water bodies...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147091/evaluation-of-the-digestibility-of-korean-hanwoo-beef-cuts-using-the-in-vitro-physicochemical-upper-gastrointestinal-system
#5
Ji-Hye Jeon, Michelle Yoo, Tae-Hwan Jung, Woo-Min Jeon, Kyoung-Sik Han
The aim of this study was to investigate the digestibility of different Korean Hanwoo beef cuts using an in vitro digestion model, in vitro physicochemical upper gastrointestinal system (IPUGS). The four most commonly consumed cuts - tenderloin, sirloin, brisket and flank, and bottom round - were chosen for this study. Beef samples (75 g) were cooked and ingested into IPUGS, which was composed of mouth, esophagus, and stomach, thereby simulating the digestion conditions of humans. Digested samples were collected every 15 min for 4 h of simulation and their pH monitored...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146634/knowledge-attitudes-and-intention-regarding-mhealth-in-generation-y-evidence-from-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study-in-chakaria-bangladesh
#6
M Shafiqur Rahman, Syed Hanifi, Fatema Khatun, Mohammad Iqbal, Sabrina Rasheed, Tanvir Ahmed, Shahidul Hoque, Tamanna Sharmin, Nazib-Uz Zaman Khan, Shehrin Shaila Mahmood, Abbas Bhuiya
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: mHealth offers a new opportunity to ensure access to qualified healthcare providers. Therefore, to better understand its potential in Bangladesh, it is important to understand how young people use mobile phones for healthcare. Here we examine the knowledge, attitudes and intentions to use mHealth services among young population. DESIGN: Population based cross sectional household survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4909 respondents, aged 18 years and above, under the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area, were interviewed during the period November 2012 to April 2013...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146589/impact-of-increasing-tobacco-taxes-on-working-age-adults-short-term-health-gain-health-equity-and-cost-savings
#7
Christine L Cleghorn, Tony Blakely, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Frederieke S van der Deen, Nhung Nghiem, Linda J Cobiac, Nick Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The health gains and cost savings from tobacco tax increase peak many decades into the future. Policy-makers may take a shorter-term perspective and be particularly interested in the health of working-age adults (given their role in economic productivity). Therefore, we estimated the impact of tobacco taxes in this population within a 10-year horizon. METHODS: As per previous modelling work, we used a multistate life table model with 16 tobacco-related diseases in parallel, parameterised with rich national data by sex, age and ethnicity...
November 16, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145559/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-and-suspected-hearing-impairment-among-children-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Satomi Yoshida, Calistus Wilunda, Takeshi Kimura, Masato Takeuchi, Koji Kawakami
Aims: This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and hearing impairment among Japanese children using early childhood health check-up data. Methods: This retrospective cohort study used population-based health check-up data for children who were born between April 2000 and March 2013 in Hofu city, Japan. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and hearing impairment among children at the age of 36 months...
November 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145463/the-chicken-or-the-egg-exploring-bi-directional-associations-between-newcastle-disease-vaccination-and-village-chicken-flock-size-in-rural-tanzania
#9
Julia de Bruyn, Peter C Thomson, Brigitte Bagnol, Wende Maulaga, Elpidius Rukambile, Robyn G Alders
Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145053/elucidating-the-urban-levels-sources-and-health-risks-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-pakistan-implications-for-changing-energy-demand
#10
Naima Hamid, Jabir Hussain Syed, Muhammad Junaid, Adeel Mahmood, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Riffat Naseem Malik
Due to the severe fuel crisis in terms of natural gas, a paradigm shift in fuel combustion (diesel, gasoline, and biomass) may increase the atmospheric emissions and associated health risks in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to investigate the concentration of fugitive PAHs in the environment (outdoor and indoor settings), associated probabilistic health risk assessment in the exposed population, and possible linkage between fuel consumption patterns and PAHs emissions in twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144594/on-the-origin-of-obesity-identifying-the-biological-environmental-and-cultural-drivers-of-genetic-risk-among-human-populations
#11
REVIEW
A Qasim, M Turcotte, R J de Souza, M C Samaan, D Champredon, J Dushoff, J R Speakman, D Meyre
Genetic predisposition to obesity presents a paradox: how do genetic variants with a detrimental impact on human health persist through evolutionary time? Numerous hypotheses, such as the thrifty genotype hypothesis, attempt to explain this phenomenon yet fail to provide a justification for the modern obesity epidemic. In this critical review, we appraise existing theories explaining the evolutionary origins of obesity and explore novel biological and sociocultural agents of evolutionary change to help explain the modern-day distribution of obesity-predisposing variants...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143880/effects-of-heat-waves-on-daily-excess-mortality-in-14-korean-cities-during-the-past-20%C3%A2-years-1991-2010-an-application-of-the-spatial-synoptic-classification-approach
#12
Dae-Geun Lee, Kyu Rang Kim, Jiyoung Kim, Baek-Jo Kim, Chun-Ho Cho, Scott C Sheridan, Laurence S Kalkstein, Ho Kim, Seung-Muk Yi
The aims of this study are to explore the "offensive" summer weather types classified under the spatial synoptic classification (SSC) system and to evaluate their impacts on excess mortality in 14 Korean cities. All-cause deaths per day for the entire population were examined over the summer months (May-September) of 1991-2010. Daily deaths were standardized to account for long-term trends of subcycles (annual, seasonal, and weekly) at the mid-latitudes. In addition, a mortality prediction model was constructed through multiple stepwise regression to develop a heat-health warning system based on synoptic climatology...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141680/applying-a-community-based-participatory-research-approach-to-improve-access-to-healthcare-for-eritrean-asylum-seekers-in-israel-a-pilot-study
#13
Nora Gottlieb, Tomer Weinstein, Jonah Mink, Habtom M Ghebrezghiabher, Zebib Sultan, Rachel Reichlin
BACKGROUND: Israel hosts approximately 50,000 asylum seekers, most of them from Eritrea. Exclusive policies restrict their access to healthcare. In 2013, local activists partnered with Eritrean asylum seekers to assess health needs as well as willingness to pay for health insurance among the Eritrean communities. This initiative was meant as a step towards jointly advocating access to Israel's public healthcare system and towards strengthening collective efficacy among the asylum-seeking communities, as well as a first attempt to apply a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to migrant health research in Israel...
November 15, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138901/-which-factors-are-associated-with-the-use-of-potentially-inadequate-medications-pim-in-the-elderly-results-from-the-german-health-interview-and-examination-survey-degs1
#14
Heinz G Endres, Petra Kaufmann-Kolle, Hildtraud Knopf, Petra A Thürmann
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrate a relationship between the prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) for patients 65 years or older and an increased risk for adverse events, in particular hospitalisations. The RKI conducted DEGS1-Survey ("German health interview and examination survey for adults") provides a representative sample of the target population to identify determinants for PIM use. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of older persons in Germany, who currently use PIM, and if there are subpopulations among older persons with a particularly high PIM use...
November 14, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137672/the-primary-health-care-in-the-emirate-of-abu-dhabi-are-they-aligned-with-the-chronic-care-model-elements
#15
Marília Silva Paulo, Tom Loney, Luís Velez Lapão
BACKGROUND: Abu Dhabi is the capital of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the largest of the seven emirates in terms of land mass and population. Abu Dhabi emirate has three different geographical regions: the Central Capital District, the Eastern Region, and the Western Region. The health system has been regulated by the Health Authority - Abu Dhabi (HAAD), and has been provided by the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company (SEHA), since 2007. The UAE has a high population-burden of morbidity and mortality related to chronic diseases...
November 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137666/utilization-of-the-behavior-change-wheel-framework-to-develop-a-model-to-improve-cardiometabolic-screening-for-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#16
Christina Mangurian, Grace C Niu, Dean Schillinger, John W Newcomer, James Dilley, Margaret A Handley
BACKGROUND: Individuals with severe mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) die 10-25 years earlier than the general population, primarily from premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Contributing factors are complex, but include systemic-related factors of poorly integrated primary care and mental health services. Although evidence-based models exist for integrating mental health care into primary care settings, the evidence base for integrating medical care into specialty mental health settings is limited...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133607/cardiovascular-outcomes-and-risks-after-initiation-of-a-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-results-from-the-easel-population-based-cohort-study
#17
Jacob A Udell, Zhong Yuan, Toni Rush, Nicholas M Sicignano, Michael Galitz, Norman Rosenthal
Background : Clinical trials have shown cardiovascular benefits and potential risks from sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i). Trials may have limited ability to address individual endpoints or safety concerns. Methods : We performed a population-based cohort study among type 2 diabetes patients with established cardiovascular disease newly initiated on antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs) within the US Department of Defense Military Health System between 4/1/2013 and 12/31/2016. Incidence rates, hazard ratios (HRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for time to first composite endpoint of all-cause mortality (ACM) and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) event, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; defined as ACM, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke), and individual endpoints were evaluated using conditional Cox models comparing new SGLT2i users with other AHAs...
November 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133498/the-foundations-framework-for-developing-and-reporting-new-models-of-care-for-multimorbidity
#18
Jonathan Stokes, Mei-See Man, Bruce Guthrie, Stewart W Mercer, Chris Salisbury, Peter Bower
PURPOSE: Multimorbidity challenges health systems globally. New models of care are urgently needed to better manage patients with multimorbidity; however, there is no agreed framework for designing and reporting models of care for multimorbidity and their evaluation. METHODS: Based on findings from a literature search to identify models of care for multimorbidity, we developed a framework to describe these models. We illustrate the application of the framework by identifying the focus and gaps in current models of care, and by describing the evolution of models over time...
November 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129348/performance-of-the-tinnitus-functional-index-as-a-diagnostic-instrument-in-a-uk-clinical-population
#19
Kathryn Fackrell, Deborah A Hall, Johanna G Barry, Derek J Hoare
OBJECTIVES: The Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) has been optimised as a diagnostic tool for quantifying the functional impact of tinnitus in US veteran and civilian groups. However, the TFI has not been fully evaluated for use in other English-speaking clinical populations despite its increasingly popular uptake. Here, a prospective multi-site longitudinal validation study was conducted to evaluate psychometric properties relevant to the UK clinical population. Guided by quality criteria for the measurement properties of health-related questionnaires, we specifically evaluated three diagnostic properties relating to the degree to which the TFI (i) covers the eight dimensions proposed to be important for diagnosis, (ii) reliably distinguishes individual differences in severity of tinnitus, and (iii) reliably measures the functional impact of tinnitus...
November 9, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128200/exploring-sociodemographic-and-economic-factors-that-promote-adverse-drug-reactions-reporting-by-patients
#20
Pedro Inácio, João José Gomes, Marja Airaksinen, Afonso Cavaco
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are recognized as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and an important cost factor to health systems. Patient reporting of ADRs has emerged as an important topic in recent years but reporting rates are still low in many countries. OBJECTIVE: To explore different countries' sociodemographic and economic features as explanatory factors for population ADRs reporting, including the propensity of patients' reporting to pharmacovigilance authorities...
November 8, 2017: Health Policy
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