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Systems model population health

Michael J Widener, Leia M Minaker, Jessica L Reid, Zachary Patterson, Tara Kamal Ahmadi, David Hammond
OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential links between activity spaces, the food retail environment and food shopping behaviours for the population of young, urban adults. DESIGN: Participants took part in the Canada Food Study, which collected information on demographics, food behaviour, diet and health, as well as an additional smartphone study that included a seven-day period of logging GPS (global positioning system) location and food purchases. Using a time-weighted, continuous representation of participant activity spaces generated from GPS trajectory data, the locations of food purchases and a geocoded food retail data set, negative binomial regression models were used to explore what types of food retailers participants were exposed to and where food purchases were made...
March 16, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
A Sicras-Mainar, S Traseira-Lugilde, T Fernández-Sánchez, R Navarro-Artieda
OBJECTIVE: To determine the persistence, exacerbations, and use of resources in patients who use inhaler treatment with fluticasone propionate/formoterol (PF/Form) in relation with other combinations of inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-adrenergic (ICS/LABA) at fixed doses, for the treatment of asthma in real-life practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational study conducted by reviewing medical records. The study included subjects ≥18 years of age who started treatment with ICS/LABA and who met certain inclusion/exclusion criteria...
March 12, 2018: Semergen
Donald M Hilty, Terry Rabinowitz, Robert M McCarron, David J Katzelnick, Trina Chang, Amy M Bauer, John Fortney
INTRODUCTION: In this era of patient-centered care, telepsychiatry (TP; video or synchronous) provides quality care with outcomes as good as in-person care, facilitates access to care, and leverages a wide range of treatments at a distance. METHOD: This conceptual review article explores TP as applied to newer models of care (e.g., collaborative, stepped, and integrated care). RESULTS: The field of psychosomatic medicine (PSM) has developed clinical care models, educates interdisciplinary team members, and provides leadership to clinical teams...
December 26, 2017: Psychosomatics
Katie N Dainty, M Bianca Seaton, Ian R Drennan, Laurie J Morrison
OBJECTIVE: Community paramedicine (CP) is a model of community-based health care being used around the world. Our objective was to study the patient perspective and valuation of this type of program to understand its potential value for primary care innovation in the future. STUDY SETTING: The EPIC community paramedicine program is a partnership between primary care physicians and specially trained community paramedics, designed to provide in-home support for complex chronic disease patients in Ontario, Canada...
March 15, 2018: Health Services Research
Folakemi T Odedina, R R Reams, E Kaninjing, J Nguyen, B Mochona, D E Lyon, N Askins, L S Behar-Horenstein
With the growing burden of cancer in minority populations and limited progress in eliminating cancer disparities, it has become important to develop a diverse oncology workforce in basic, clinical, and behavioral research who will address cancer disparities and increase the participation of minority populations in clinical trials. To address the lack of well-trained underrepresented minority cancer scientists in Florida, the University of Florida collaborated with Florida A&M University in 2012 to establish the Florida Prostate Cancer Research Training Opportunities for Outstanding Leaders (ReTOOL) Program...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
(no author information available yet)
Background: Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. People with type 1 diabetes must manage their blood glucose levels by monitoring the amount of glucose in their blood and administering appropriate amounts of insulin via injection or an insulin pump. Continuous glucose monitoring may be beneficial compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose using a blood glucose meter. It provides insight into a person's blood glucose levels on a continuous basis, and can identify whether blood glucose levels are trending up or down...
2018: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
Sudhakar Agnihothram, Vineet D Menachery, Boyd L Yount, Lisa C Lindesmith, Trevor Scobey, Alan Whitmore, Alexandra Schäfer, Mark T Heise, Ralph S Baric
Zoonotic viruses circulate as swarms in animal reservoirs and can emerge into human populations causing epidemics that adversely affect public health. Portable, safe, and effective vaccine platforms are needed in the context of these outbreak and emergence situations. In this manuscript, we report the generation and characterization of an alphavirus replicon vaccine platform based on a non-select agent, attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus vaccine strain 3526 (VRP 3526). Using both noroviruses and coronaviruses as model systems, we demonstrate utility of the VRP 3526 platform in generation of recombinant proteins, production of virus like particles, and in vivo efficacy as a vaccine against emergent viruses...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Aimilia Exarchakou, Bernard Rachet, Aurélien Belot, Camille Maringe, Michel P Coleman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: England. POPULATION: More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Stephanie M Topp, Chanda Mwamba, Anjali Sharma, Njekwa Mukamba, Laura K Beres, Elvin Geng, Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe
BACKGROUND: Failure to keep people living with HIV engaged in life-long care and treatment has serious implications for individual and population-level health. Nested within a four-province study of HIV care and treatment outcomes, we explored the dynamic role of social and service-related factors influencing retention in HIV care in Zambia. METHODS: From a stratified random sample of 31 facilities, eight clinics were selected, one urban and one rural from each province...
2018: PloS One
Matthew Quaife, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Robyn Eakle, Maria A Cabrera Escobar, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Mercy Mvundura, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Peter Vickerman
INTRODUCTION: A number of antiretroviral HIV prevention products are efficacious in preventing HIV infection. However, the sexual and reproductive health needs of many women extend beyond HIV prevention, and research is ongoing to develop multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that offer dual HIV and pregnancy protection. We do not yet know if these products will be an efficient use of constrained health resources. In this paper, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of combinations of candidate multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs), in South Africa among general population women and female sex workers (FSWs)...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Keumseok Koh, Rebecca Reno, Ayaz Hyder
Recent advances in computing resources have increased interest in systems modeling and population health. While group model building (GMB) has been effectively applied in developing system dynamics models (SD), few studies have used GMB for developing an agent-based model (ABM). This article explores the use of a GMB approach to develop an ABM focused on food insecurity. In our GMB workshops, we modified a set of the standard GMB scripts to develop and validate an ABM in collaboration with local experts and stakeholders...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Eva Nüsken, Jörg Dötsch, Lutz T Weber, Kai-Dietrich Nüsken
Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors in early life and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long-lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Marlysa B Sullivan, Matt Erb, Laura Schmalzl, Steffany Moonaz, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Stephen W Porges
Yoga therapy is a newly emerging, self-regulating complementary and integrative healthcare (CIH) practice. It is growing in its professionalization, recognition and utilization with a demonstrated commitment to setting practice standards, educational and accreditation standards, and promoting research to support its efficacy for various populations and conditions. However, heterogeneity of practice, poor reporting standards, and lack of a broadly accepted understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in yoga therapy limits the structuring of testable hypotheses and clinical applications...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Hakushi Kim, Chie Inomoto, Takato Uchida, Hiroyuki Furuya, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Hiroshi Kajiwara, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Naoya Nakamura, Akira Miyajima
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of potential prognostic parameters of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) recommended by the 2012 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference in the Japanese population. We reviewed 406 Japanese patients with localized or locally advanced ccRCC who underwent curative surgery during 2004-2014 at Tokai University Hospital (Isehara, Japan) and were followed up for >2 years after surgery. A single pathologist reviewed all the histological slides...
April 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Sonia Altizer, Daniel J Becker, Jonathan H Epstein, Kristian M Forbes, Thomas R Gillespie, Richard J Hall, Dana M Hawley, Sonia M Hernandez, Lynn B Martin, Raina K Plowright, Dara A Satterfield, Daniel G Streicker
Human-provided resource subsidies for wildlife are diverse, common and have profound consequences for wildlife-pathogen interactions, as demonstrated by papers in this themed issue spanning empirical, theoretical and management perspectives from a range of study systems. Contributions cut across scales of organization, from the within-host dynamics of immune function, to population-level impacts on parasite transmission, to landscape- and regional-scale patterns of infection. In this concluding paper, we identify common threads and key findings from author contributions, including the consequences of resource subsidies for (i) host immunity; (ii) animal aggregation and contact rates; (iii) host movement and landscape-level infection patterns; and (iv) interspecific contacts and cross-species transmission...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Samantha Sabo, Catalina Denman Champion, Melanie L Bell, Elsa Cornejo Vucovich, Maia Ingram, Celina Valenica, Maria Del Carmen Castro Vasquez, Eduardo Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Jill Geurnsey de Zapien, Cecilia B Rosales
INTRODUCTION: Northern Mexico has among the highest rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in the world. This research addresses core gaps in implementation science to develop, test and scale-up CVD risk-reduction interventions in diabetics through a national primary care health system. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Meta Salud Diabetes (MSD) research project is a parallel two-arm cluster-randomised clinical behavioural trial based in 22 (n=22) health centres in Sonora, Mexico...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Amaryllis Mavragani, Alexia Sampri, Karla Sypsa, Konstantinos P Tsagarakis
BACKGROUND: With the internet's penetration and use constantly expanding, this vast amount of information can be employed in order to better assess issues in the US health care system. Google Trends, a popular tool in big data analytics, has been widely used in the past to examine interest in various medical and health-related topics and has shown great potential in forecastings, predictions, and nowcastings. As empirical relationships between online queries and human behavior have been shown to exist, a new opportunity to explore the behavior toward asthma-a common respiratory disease-is present...
March 12, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Xianghong Zhang, Sanyi Tang, Qiyong Liu, Robert A Cheke, Huaiping Zhu
The introduction of endosymbiont Wolbachia into laboratory-reared mosquito populations, which are then released to mix with natural populations to prevent the mosquito vectors from reproducing and thus break the transmission cycle of dengue disease, is an innovative new technology. Field trials of Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes have now been implemented in many countries where there have been the outbreaks of dengue disease. A mathematical model is proposed to investigate the effects of non-identical sex ratio releases of Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes on the control of dengue transmission...
March 9, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Marta O Soares, Simon Walker, Stephen J Palmer, Mark J Sculpher
In recent years, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) processes specific to diagnostics and prognostic tests have been created in response to the increased pressure on health systems to decide not only which tests should be used in practice but also the best way to proceed, clinically, from the information they provide. These technologies differ in the way value is accrued to the population of users, depending critically on the value of downstream health care choices. This paper defines an analytical framework for establishing the value of diagnostic and prognostic tests for HTA in a way that is consistent with methods used for the evaluation of other health care technologies...
March 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Christopher T Rentsch, Chodziwadziwa Whiteson Kabudula, Jason Catlett, David Beckles, Richard Machemba, Baltazar Mtenga, Nkosinathi Masilela, Denna Michael, Redempta Natalis, Mark Urassa, Jim Todd, Basia Zaba, Georges Reniers
Linking a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) to data from a health facility that serves the HDSS population generates a research infrastructure for directly observed data on access to and utilization of health facility services. Many HDSS sites, however, are in areas that lack unique national identifiers or suffer from data quality issues, such as incomplete records, spelling errors, and name and residence changes, all of which complicate record linkage approaches when applied retrospectively...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
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