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Diabetes systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232287/the-effects-of-known-cardioprotective-drugs-on-proinflammatory-cytokine-secretion-from-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#1
Michael J Haas, Marilu Jurado-Flores, Ramadan Hammoud, Victoria Feng, Krista Gonzales, Luisa Onstead-Haas, Arshag D Mooradian
BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell dysfunction in diabetes is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of premature atherosclerosis. High-dextrose has been shown to induce both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). STUDY QUESTION: To determine whether or not several classes of cardioprotective drugs inhibit proinflammatory cytokine expression by HCAEC. MEASURES AND OUTCOMES: To determine the effects of high dextrose on expression of proinflammatory cytokines by HCAEC, cells were treated with either 5...
November 27, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231984/evidence-for-increased-chylomicron-remnants-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Benjamin Burggraaf, Deborah F van Breukelen-van der Stoep, Jendé van Zeben, Noelle van der Meulen, Gert-Jan M van de Geijn, Anho Liem, Pedro Valdivielso, José Rioja Villodres, José Ramírez-Bollero, Ellen van der Zwan, Manuel Castro Cabezas
BACKGROUND: Levels of apolipoprotein (apo) B48 may be increased in conditions associated with systemic inflammation and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to evaluate apo B48 levels in patients with RA in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: Patients with RA (without CVD) and controls without RA but with high CVD risk (based on the presence of diabetes mellitus or a history of CVD) and healthy controls, were included in this cross-sectional study...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231837/the-primary-health-care-system-in-china
#3
REVIEW
Xi Li, Jiapeng Lu, Shuang Hu, K K Cheng, Jan De Maeseneer, Qingyue Meng, Elias Mossialos, Dong Roman Xu, Winnie Yip, Hongzhao Zhang, Harlan M Krumholz, Lixin Jiang, Shengshou Hu
China has made remarkable progress in strengthening its primary health-care system. Nevertheless, the system still faces challenges in structural characteristics, incentives and policies, and quality of care, all of which diminish its preparedness to care for a fifth of the world's population, which is ageing and which has a growing prevalence of chronic non-communicable disease. These challenges include inadequate education and qualifications of its workforce, ageing and turnover of village doctors, fragmented health information technology systems, a paucity of digital data on everyday clinical practice, financial subsidies and incentives that do not encourage cost savings and good performance, insurance policies that hamper the efficiency of care delivery, an insufficient quality measurement and improvement system, and poor performance in the control of risk factors (such as hypertension and diabetes)...
December 9, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231695/medicare-program-revisions-to-payment-policies-under-the-physician-fee-schedule-and-other-revisions-to-part-b-for-cy-2018-medicare-shared-savings-program-requirements-and-medicare-diabetes-prevention-program-final-rule
#4
(no author information available yet)
This major final rule addresses changes to the Medicare physician fee schedule (PFS) and other Medicare Part B payment policies such as changes to the Medicare Shared Savings Program, to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services, as well as changes in the statute. In addition, this final rule includes policies necessary to begin offering the expanded Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program model.
November 15, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231167/glucose-inhibits-cardiac-muscle-maturation-through-nucleotide-biosynthesis
#5
Haruko Nakano, Itsunari Minami, Daniel Braas, Herman Pappoe, Xiuju Wu, Addelynn Sagadevan, Laurent Vergnes, Kai Fu, Marco Morselli, Christopher Dunham, Xueqin Ding, Adam Z Stieg, James K Gimzewski, Matteo Pellegrini, Peter M Clark, Karen Reue, Aldons J Lusis, Bernard Ribalet, Siavash K Kurdistani, Heather Christofk, Norio Nakatsuji, Atsushi Nakano
The heart switches its energy substrate from glucose to fatty acids at birth, and maternal hyperglycemia is associated with congenital heart disease. However, little is known about how blood glucose impacts heart formation. Using a chemically defined human pluripotent stem-cell-derived cardiomyocyte differentiation system, we found that high glucose inhibits the maturation of cardiomyocytes at genetic, structural, metabolic, electrophysiological, and biomechanical levels by promoting nucleotide biosynthesis through the pentose phosphate pathway...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230714/obesity-phenotypes-depot-differences-in-adipose-tissue-and-their-clinical-implications
#6
REVIEW
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
Obesity, defined as excess fat mass, increases risks for multiple chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer. Beyond adiposity per se, the pattern of fat distribution, android or truncal as compared to gynoid or peripheral, has a profound influence on systemic metabolism and hence risk for obesity complications. Not only factors as genetics, environment, gender, and age account for the apparent compartmentalization of white adipose tissue (WAT) in the body...
December 11, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230295/modulating-protein-amyloid-aggregation-with-nanomaterials
#7
Bo Wang, Emily H Pilkington, Yunxiang Sun, Thomas P Davis, Pu Chun Ke, Feng Ding
Direct exposure or intake of nanopaticles (NPs) to the human body can invoke a series of biological responses, some of which are deleterious, and as such the role of NPs in vivo requires thorough examination. Over the past decade, it has been established that biomolecules such as proteins can bind NPs to form a 'corona', where the structures and dynamics of NP-associated proteins can assign new functionality, systemic distribution and toxicity. However, the behavior and fate of NPs in biological systems are still far from being fully understood...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230270/activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-by-advanced-glycation-end-products-promotes-pancreatic-islet-damage
#8
Xiang Kong, Ai-Ling Lu, Xin-Ming Yao, Qiang Hua, Xiao-Yong Li, Li Qin, Hong-Mei Zhang, Guang-Xun Meng, Qing Su
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contributes to ageing and age-related diseases, especially type 2 diabetes. The NLRP3 inflammasome, as a vital component of the innate immune system, is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in AGE-induced pancreatic islet damage remains largely unclear. Results showed that administration of AGEs (120 mg/kg for 6 weeks) in C57BL/6J mice induced an abnormal response to glucose (as measured by glucose tolerance and insulin release), pancreatic β-cell ultrastructural lesion, and cell death...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229897/integrative-analysis-to-identify-common-genetic-markers-of-metabolic-syndrome-dementia-and-diabetes
#9
Weihong Zhang, Linlin Xin, Ying Lu
BACKGROUND Emerging data have established links between systemic metabolic dysfunction, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS), with neurocognitive impairment, including dementia. The common gene signature and the associated signaling pathways of MetS, diabetes, and dementia have not been widely studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS We exploited the translational bioinformatics approach to choose the common gene signatures for both dementia and MetS. For this we employed "DisGeNET discovery platform". RESULTS Gene mining analysis revealed that a total of 173 genes (86 genes common to all three diseases) which comprised a proportion of 43% of the total genes associated with dementia...
December 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229829/psma-targeted-polyinosine-polycytosine-vector-induces-prostate-tumor-regression-and-invokes-an-antitumor-immune-response-in-mice
#10
Yael Langut, Alaa Talhami, Samarasimhareddy Mamidi, Alexei Shir, Maya Zigler, Salim Joubran, Anna Sagalov, Efrat Flashner-Abramson, Nufar Edinger, Shoshana Klein, Alexander Levitzki
There is an urgent need for an effective treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PC). Prostate tumors invariably overexpress prostate surface membrane antigen (PSMA). We designed a nonviral vector, PEI-PEG-DUPA (PPD), comprising polyethylenimine-polyethyleneglycol (PEI-PEG) tethered to the PSMA ligand, 2-[3-(1, 3-dicarboxy propyl)ureido] pentanedioic acid (DUPA), to treat PC. The purpose of PEI is to bind polyinosinic/polycytosinic acid (polyIC) and allow endosomal release, while DUPA targets PC cells. PolyIC activates multiple pathways that lead to tumor cell death and to the activation of bystander effects that harness the immune system against the tumor, attacking nontargeted neighboring tumor cells and reducing the probability of acquired resistance and disease recurrence...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#11
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229444/neural-control-of-choroidal-blood-flow
#12
REVIEW
Anton Reiner, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Chunyan Li
The choroid is richly innervated by parasympathetic, sympathetic and trigeminal sensory nerve fibers that regulate choroidal blood flow in birds and mammals, and presumably other vertebrate classes as well. The parasympathetic innervation has been shown to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow, the sympathetic input has been shown to vasoconstrict and decrease choroidal blood flow, and the sensory input has been shown to both convey pain and thermal information centrally and act locally to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow...
December 8, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229368/pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-self-micro-emulsifying-formulation-of-standardized-extract-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa-for-antidiabetic-activity
#13
Vipin Kumar Agarwal, Gupta Amresh, Phool Chandra
BACKGROUND: Lagerstroemia speciosa (SEL) leaves are a popular folk medicine for diabetes treatment due to presence of corosolic acid. It has low water solubility resulting poor absorption after oral administration. Self micro-emulsified drug delivery system is the way by which we can improve the oral absorption of drug. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop the self micro-emulsifying formulation of standardized extract of SEL leaves and evaluate its pharmacodynamic performance for antidiabetic activity...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229313/emerging-role-of-adipocytokines-in-type-2-diabetes-as-mediators-of-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-disease
#14
REVIEW
Ravindran Jaganathan, Rajeswari Ravindran, Sugapriya Dhanasekaran
Adipose tissue is an enormously active endocrine organ, secreting various hormones, such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin, together with classical cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). All these adipocytokines plays significant roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, reproduction, cardiovascular function and immunity. Adipocytokines are significantly regulated by nutritional status and can directly influence other organ systems, including brain, liver and skeletal muscle...
December 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229153/prophylactic-retention-suture-for-surgical-site-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Eisaku Ito, Masashi Yoshida, Norihiko Suzuki, Tomonori Imakita, Nobuhiro Tsutsui, Hironori Ohdaira, Masaki Kitajima, Yutaka Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of gastrointestinal surgery. Because retention suture is known to prevent abdominal wound dehiscence, it is only considered indicated in high-risk patients. At present, there are no clear indications for retention suture. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of prophylactic retention suture and to determine what situations indicate prophylactic retention suture against SSI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2014 and January 2016, 135 patients who underwent midline laparotomy in our hospital were analyzed...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229111/toxicity-risk-from-glucocorticoids-in-sarcoidosis-patients
#16
Nauman A Khan, Christopher V Donatelli, Adriano R Tonelli, Jonathan Wiesen, Manuel L Ribeiro Neto, Debasis Sahoo, Daniel A Culver
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids (GC) are considered first-line therapy for treating sarcoidosis, but there are few data about the adverse consequences of GC. Although there are several steroid-sparing medications available for treatment, a large proportion of patients are treated with prolonged courses of GC. The toxicities of GC in sarcoidosis populations have not been carefully evaluated. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all newly diagnosed sarcoidosis patients who had the entirety of their medical care in a single health system...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229085/prevalence-of-comorbidities-in-copd-patients-by-disease-severity-in-a-german-population
#17
Timm Greulich, Benjamin J D Weist, Andreas Rembert Koczulla, Sabina Janciauskiene, Andreas Klemmer, Wolfram Lux, Peter Alter, Claus F Vogelmeier
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly associated with multiple comorbidities. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with COPD and to relate their prevalence to the severity of the disease by using a large German health care database. Based on the retrospective analysis of a two-year (2013-2014) database from the German Statutory Health Insurance system, we obtained a representative sample of 4,075,493 german insurants. This sample included 146,141 patients with COPD (age: ≥35 years)...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229075/does-periodontal-inflammation-affect-glycosylated-haemoglobin-level-in-otherwise-systemically-healthy-individuals-a-hospital-based-study
#18
Rosamma Joseph Vadakkekuttical, Priyanka Chand Kaushik, Jerry Mammen, Joseraj Manaloor George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Microbial biofilm and host susceptibility play an important role in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. Periodontitis is considered the sixth complication of diabetes mellitus and a bidirectional relationship exists between diabetes and periodontitis. This cross-sectional observational study was undertaken to evaluate the glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level in chronic periodontitis. METHODS: The study involved 100 subjects...
December 2017: Singapore Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228820/associations-between-depressive-symptomatology-and-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-aids
#19
Sarah Tymchuk, Daniela Gomez, Noshin Koenig, M John Gill, Esther Fujiwara, Christopher Power
OBJECTIVE: Mood disorders and neurocognitive impairments are debilitating conditions among patients with HIV/AIDS. How these comorbidities interact and their relationships to systemic factors remain uncertain. Herein, we investigated factors contributing to depressive symptomatology (DS) in a prospective cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS in active care that included neuropsychological assessment. METHODS: Among patients with HIV/AIDS receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and ongoing clinical assessments including measures of sleep, health-related quality of life (HQoL), neuropsychological testing, and mood evaluation (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9]) were performed...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228553/activation-of-nrf2-mediated-anti-oxidant-genes-by-antrodin-c-prevents-hyperglycemia-induced-senescence-and-apoptosis-in-human-endothelial-cells
#20
Kumar K J Senthil, Vani M Gokila, Sheng-Yang Wang
In the present study, we investigated the effects of antrodin C (ADC), a maleimide derivative isolated from mycelia of Antrodia cinnamomea, on high glucose (HG, 30 mM)-accelerated endothelial dysfunction in vitro. HG-induced cytotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was significantly ameliorated by ADC. In addition, treatment with ADC significantly prevented HG-induced senescence, growth arrest at the G1-S transition phase and apoptosis in HUVECs. Moreover, the increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) under HG condition was significantly ameliorated by ADC...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
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