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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821884/the-atopic-dermatitis-blood-signature-is-characterized-by-increases-in-inflammatory-and-cardiovascular-risk-proteins
#1
Patrick M Brunner, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas, Helen He, Kunal Malik, Huei-Chi Wen, Juana Gonzalez, Tom Chih-Chieh Chan, Yeriel Estrada, Xiuzhong Zheng, Saakshi Khattri, Nancy Dattola, James G Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky
Beyond classic "allergic"/atopic comorbidities, atopic dermatitis (AD) emerges as systemic disease with increased cardiovascular risk. To better define serum inflammatory and cardiovascular risk proteins, we used an OLINK high-throughput proteomic assay to analyze moderate-to-severe AD (n = 59) compared to psoriasis (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 18). Compared to controls, 10 proteins were increased in serum of both diseases, including Th1 (IFN-γ, CXCL9, TNF-β) and Th17 (CCL20) markers. 48 proteins each were uniquely upregulated in AD and psoriasis...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820870/controversies-in-the-identification-and-management-of-acute-pulmonary-hypertension-in-preterm-neonates
#2
REVIEW
Regan E Giesinger, Kiran More, Jodie Odame, Amish Jain, Robert P Jankov, Patrick J McNamara
It is increasingly recognized that the abnormal physiologic consequences of pulmonary hypertension (PH) may contribute to poor cardiopulmonary health in premature babies. Conflicting literature has led to clinical uncertainty, pathological misinterpretation and variability in treatment approaches among practitioners. There are several disorders with overlapping and interrelated presentations and other disorders with a similar clinical phenotype but diverse pathophysiological contributors. In this review, we provide a diagnostic approach for acute HRF in the preterm neonate, outline the pathophysiological conditions that may present as acute PH and discuss the implications of high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) on the cardiovascular system...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820547/incidence-and-clinical-impact-of-cerebral-lesions-after-the-mitraclip%C3%A3-%C3%A2-procedure
#3
Sebastian Barth, Karsten Hamm, Stefan Fodor, Wilko Reents, Sebastian Kerber, Philipp Halbfass, Martina B Hautmann, Bernhard Schieffer, Hassan Soda
BACKGROUND: Clinically silent brain injury detected with cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well known after various cardiovascular interventions. Thus far, only one study has examined the periprocedural risk of cerebral ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve reconstruction. The study aim was to examine the incidence and clinical impact of cerebral embolic events in patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve reconstruction using the MitraClip® system...
March 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820180/osteogenesis-imperfecta
#4
REVIEW
Joan C Marini, Antonella Forlino, Hans Peter Bächinger, Nick J Bishop, Peter H Byers, Anne De Paepe, Francois Fassier, Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Kenneth M Kozloff, Deborah Krakow, Kathleen Montpetit, Oliver Semler
Skeletal deformity and bone fragility are the hallmarks of the brittle bone dysplasia osteogenesis imperfecta. The diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta usually depends on family history and clinical presentation characterized by a fracture (or fractures) during the prenatal period, at birth or in early childhood; genetic tests can confirm diagnosis. Osteogenesis imperfecta is caused by dominant autosomal mutations in the type I collagen coding genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) in about 85% of individuals, affecting collagen quantity or structure...
August 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820074/exploring-the-cardio-metabolic-relevance-of-t-cadherin-a-pleiotropic-adiponectin-receptor
#5
Jaime Lynn Clark, Carla Gwen Taylor, Peter Zahradka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: T cadherin is a unique member of the cadherin family and is primarily expressed in the cardiovascular system. T cadherin has not been abundantly studied, but the studies conducted to date have explored the impact of this protein on health and the function of organs involved in metabolic regulation. METHODS: This article examines the recent knowledge of the ligand partners for T cadherin and the potential contribution(s) of T-cadherin to cardio-metabolic function...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819637/cigarette-smoking-and-its-hazards-in-kidney-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil, Jackson Tan, Said Khamis, Muhammad AshhadUllah Khalil, Rabeea Azmat, Arslan Rahat Ullah
Cigarette smoking affects many organs. It causes vasoconstriction through activation of sympathetic nervous system which leads to elevation of blood pressure and reduction in glomerular filtration rate and filtration pressure. It also causes thickening of renal arterioles. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of microalbuminuria and accelerates progression of microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria. Furthermore, it causes rapid loss of glomerular filtration rate in chronic kidney disease patients. After kidney donation, these factors may be injurious to the solitary kidney...
2017: Advances in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818484/the-physiology-of-submaximal-exercise-the-steady-state-concept
#7
REVIEW
Guido Ferretti, Nazzareno Fagoni, Anna Taboni, Paolo Bruseghini, Giovanni Vinetti
The steady state concept implies that the oxygen flow is invariant and equal at each level along the respiratory system. The same is the case with the carbon dioxide flow. This condition has several physiological consequences, which are analysed. First, we briefly discuss the mechanical efficiency of exercise and the energy cost of human locomotion, as well as the roles played by aerodynamic work and frictional work. Then we analyse the equations describing the oxygen flow in lungs and in blood, the effects of ventilation and of the ventilation - perfusion inequality, and the interaction between diffusion and perfusion in the lungs...
August 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818306/time-harmonic-ultrasound-elastography-of-the-descending-abdominal-aorta-initial-results
#8
Lars-Arne Schaafs, Heiko Tzschätzsch, Markus van der Giet, Alexander Reshetnik, Ingo G Steffen, Bernd Hamm, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack, Thomas Elgeti
Stiffening of central large vessels is considered a key pathophysiologic factor within the cardiovascular system. Current diagnostic parameters such as pulse wave velocity (PWV) indirectly measure aortic stiffness, a hallmark of coronary diseases. The aim of the present study was to perform elastography of the proximal abdominal aorta based on externally induced time-harmonic shear waves. Experiments were performed in 30 healthy volunteers (25 young, 5 old, >50 y) and 5 patients with longstanding hypertension (PWV >10 m/s)...
August 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817983/the-use-of-soft-robotics-in-cardiovascular-therapy
#9
Isaac Wamala, Ellen T Roche, Frank A Pigula
Robots have been employed in cardiovascular therapy as surgical tools and for automation of hospital systems. Soft robots are a new kind of robot made of soft deformable materials. They are uniquely suited for biomedical applications because they are inherently less likely to injure body tissues and more likely to adapt to biological environments. Awareness of the soft robotic systems under development will help promote clinician involvement in their successful translation for therapeutic use. Areas Covered: The soft robotic systems, across the size scale from nano to macro, that have shown the most promise for clinical application in cardiovascular therapy because they represent the most mature technology and also they offer solutions where a clear therapeutic need still exists...
August 18, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817963/lipoproteins-and-cardiovascular-redox-signaling-role-in-atherosclerosis-and-coronary-disease
#10
Arash Haghikia, Ulf Landmesser
SIGNIFICANCE: Lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL), play a causal role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary disease. Recent Advances: Lipoproteins, e.g. LDL, can stimulate vascular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that have been identified as important signaling molecules in the cardiovascular systems, and are involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension and atherosclerosis. CRITICAL ISSUES: Modified lipoproteins have emerged as important regulators of redox signaling, such as oxidized or carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL or cLDL) or modified high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), that contain oxidized lipids, an altered potein cargo and associated small molecules, such as symmetric dimethylarginine (HDLSDMA)...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817706/hiv-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-and-measures-of-endothelial-function-inflammation-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress
#11
Andrew Dysangco, Ziyue Liu, James H Stein, Michael P Dubé, Samir K Gupta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Impaired endothelial function is an early risk factor for CVD in the general population. It is presumed that HIV infection is associated with impaired endothelial function, but results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the relationships between HIV infection, virologic suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART), in vivo measures of conduit artery and microvascular endothelial function, and circulating biomarkers of pathways associated with CVD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817612/expression-and-functional-implications-of-the-renal-apelinergic-system-in-rodents
#12
Anne-Marie O'Carroll, Sabrine Salih, Philip R Griffiths, Aarifah Bijabhai, Mark A Knepper, Stephen J Lolait
Apelin binds to the G protein-coupled apelin receptor (APJ; gene name aplnr) to modulate diverse physiological systems including cardiovascular function, and hydromineral and metabolic balance. Recently a second endogenous ligand for APJ, named apela, has been discovered. We confirm that apela activates signal transduction pathways (ERK activation) in cells expressing the cloned rat APJ. Previous studies suggest that exogenous apela is diuretic, attributable wholly or in part to an action on renal APJ. Thus far the cellular distribution of apela in the kidney has not been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816933/breast-cancer-endometrial-cancer-and-cardiovascular-events-in-participants-who-used-vaginal-estrogen-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-observational-study
#13
Carolyn J Crandall, Kathleen M Hovey, Christopher A Andrews, Rowan T Chlebowski, Marcia L Stefanick, Dorothy S Lane, Jan Shifren, Chu Chen, Andrew M Kaunitz, Jane A Cauley, JoAnn E Manson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between use of vaginal estrogen and risk of a global index event (GIE), defined as time to first occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD), invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, hip fracture, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, or death from any cause. METHODS: For this prospective observational cohort study, we used data from participants of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, who were recruited at 40 US clinical centers, aged 50 to 79 years at baseline and did not use systemic estrogen therapy during follow-up (n = 45,663, median follow-up 7...
August 14, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816654/instantaneous-transfer-entropy-for-the-study-of-cardiovascular-and-cardio-respiratory-nonstationary-dynamics
#14
Gaetano Valenza, Luca Faes, Luca Citi, Michele Orini, Riccardo Barbieri
Measures of Transfer Entropy (TE) quantify the direction and strength of coupling between two complex systems. Standard approaches assume stationarity of the observations, and therefore are unable to track time-varying changes in nonlinear information transfer with high temporal resolution. In this study, we aim to define and validate novel instantaneous measures of transfer entropy to provide an im- proved assessment of complex non-stationary cardio-respiratory interactions.
August 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816548/dietary-supplementation-with-virgin-coconut-oil-improves-lipid-profile-and-hepatic-antioxidant-status-and-has-potential-benefits-on-cardiovascular-risk-indices-in-normal-rats
#15
Ademola C Famurewa, Chima A Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Sophia C Nwali, Ngozi N Agbo, Joy N Obi, Goodness C Ezechukwu
Research findings that suggest beneficial health effects of dietary supplementation with virgin coconut oil (VCO) are limited in the published literature. This study investigated the in vivo effects of a 5-week VCO-supplemented diet on lipid profile, hepatic antioxidant status, hepatorenal function, and cardiovascular risk indices in normal rats. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 treatment groups (10% and 15% VCO-supplemented diets) for 5 weeks. Serum and homogenate samples were used to analyze lipid profile, hepatorenal function markers, hepatic activities of antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde level...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815826/an-interview-based-study-of-non-attendance-at-screening-for-cardiovascular-diseases-and-diabetes-in-older-women-non-attendees-perspectives
#16
Marie Dahl, Jes Lindholt, Rikke Søgaard, Lars Frost, Lene Søndergaard Andersen, Vibeke Lorentzen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study explored non-attendees' perspectives on a screening program for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among women aged 60-77 years. BACKGROUND: Non-attendance in screening is a common concern and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Whether non-attendees need targeted information to participate in screening is unknown. Thus, it is important to explore the reasons for non-attendance, particularly as non-attendees' perspectives have not been fully explored...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815459/a-roadmap-for-reducing-cardiac-device-infections-a-review-of-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-actionable-risk-factors-to-guide-the-development-of-an-infection-prevention-program-for-the-electrophysiology-laboratory
#17
REVIEW
Westyn Branch-Elliman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are highly morbid, common, and costly, and rates are increasing (Sohail et al. Arch Intern Med 171(20):1821-8 2011; Voigt et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 48(3):590-1 2006). Factors that contribute to the development of CIED infections include patient factors (comorbid conditions, self-care, microbiome), procedural details (repeat procedure, contamination during procedure, appropriate pre-procedural prep, and antimicrobial use), environmental and organizational factors (patient safety culture, facility barriers, such as lack of space to store essential supplies, quality of environmental cleaning), and microbial factors (type of organism, virulence of organism)...
August 16, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814977/worse-inflammatory-profile-in-omnivores-than-in-vegetarians-associates-with-the-gut-microbiota-composition
#18
Ana Carolina Franco-de-Moraes, Bianca de Almeida-Pititto, Gabriel da Rocha Fernandes, Everton Padilha Gomes, Alexandre da Costa Pereira, Sandra Roberta G Ferreira
AIMS: To describe the abundance of major phyla and some genera in the gut microbiota of individuals according to dietary habits and examine their associations with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profile. METHODS: A total of 268 non-diabetic individuals were stratified into groups of dietary types (strict vegetarians, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and omnivores). The taxonomic composition and phylogenetic structure of the microbiota were obtained through the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814785/comparison-between-spectral-analysis-and-symbolic-dynamics-for-heart-rate-variability-analysis-in-the-rat
#19
Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva, Victor Rezende Geraldini, Bianca Potratz de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Aguiar Silva, Alberto Porta, Rubens Fazan
Spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) has been widely used to assess the autonomic cardiovascular control. A nonlinear approach, known as symbolic analysis, has been reported to be very useful to assess the autonomic control of cardiovascular system in humans, but very few studies reported on the differences between these two approaches on experimental models. Two distinct approaches were used to elicit autonomic changes in conscious Wistar rats: (1) pharmacological blockade of cardiac autonomic receptors with atenolol (ATE, N = 9) or methylatropine (ATR, N = 9) and (2) mild changes in arterial pressure (AP) induced by phenylephrine (PHE, N = 9) or sodium nitroprusside (NPS, N = 9)...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814614/role-of-inactivity-in-chronic-diseases-evolutionary-insight-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Frank W Booth, Christian K Roberts, John P Thyfault, Gregory N Ruegsegger, Ryan G Toedebusch
This review proposes that physical inactivity could be considered a behavior selected by evolution for resting, and also selected to be reinforcing in life-threatening situations in which exercise would be dangerous. Underlying the notion are human twin studies and animal selective breeding studies, both of which provide indirect evidence for the existence of genes for physical inactivity. Approximately 86% of the 325 million in the United States (U.S.) population achieve less than the U.S. Government and World Health Organization guidelines for daily physical activity for health...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
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