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Systems cardiovascular

Melissa Maritz, Carla Mt Fourie, Johannes M VAN Rooyen, Aletta E Schutte
AIMS: Black populations from sub-Saharan Africa have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, which places significant strain on public health systems. Aortic stiffness is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. We reported earlier that excessive alcohol use predicts aortic stiffness. However, we require a better understanding of other biomarkers involved in stiffness development, beyond alcohol use. Therefore, we determined which biomarkers (metabolic, inflammatory, endothelial activation and oxidative stress) relate to aortic stiffness in young and older black South Africans, self-reporting no alcohol-use...
June 12, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Michalina Gramatyka, Agnieszka Skorupa, Maria Sokół
Several lines of evidence indicate that exposure of heart to ionizing radiation increases the risk of cardiotoxicity manifested by heart dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. It was initially believed that the heart is an organ relatively resistant to radiation. Currently, however, it is suspected that even low doses of radiation (< 2 Gy) may have a negative impact on the cardiovascular system. Cardiotoxicity of ionizing radiation is associated with metabolic changes observed in cardiac cells injured by radiation...
June 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Nethika Ruvini Ariyasinghe, Davi Marco Lyra-Leite, Megan L McCain
Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the myocardium. ECM remodeling is a complex, multi-factorial process that often contributes to declines in myocardial function and progression towards heart failure. However, the direct effects of the many forms of ECM remodeling on myocardial cell and tissue function remain elusive, in part because conventional model systems used to investigate these relationships lack robust experimental control over the ECM...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Raul Zamora-Ros, Valerie Cayssials, Ramón Cleries, María Luisa Redondo, Maria-Jose Sánchez, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Jose-Juan Sánchez-Cruz, Olatz Mokoroa, Leire Gil, Pilar Amiano, Carmen Navarro, María Dolores Chirlaque, José María Huerta, Aurelio Barricarte, Eva Ardanaz, Conchi Moreno-Iribas, Antonio Agudo
PURPOSE: Dietary guidelines for egg consumption for general population differ among public health agencies. Our aim was to investigate the association between egg intake and both all-cause and specific-cause of mortality in a Mediterranean population. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort included 40,621 men and women aged 29-69 years old in the nineties from 5 Spanish regions. After a mean of 18 years of follow-up, 3,561 deaths were recorded, of which 1,694 were from cancer, 761 from CVD, and 870 from other causes...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Dragana Dragoljevic, Michael J Kraakman, Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Devi Ngo, Waled Shihata, Helene L Kammoun, Alexandra Whillas, Man Kit Sam Lee, Annas Al-Sharea, Gerard Pernes, Michelle C Flynn, Graeme I Lancaster, Mark A Febbraio, Jaye Chin-Dusting, Beatriz Y Hanaoka, Ian P Wicks, Andrew J Murphy
Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an approximately two-fold elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV)-related mortality. Patients with RA present with systemic inflammation including raised circulating myeloid cells, but fail to display traditional CV risk-factors, particularly dyslipidaemia. We aimed to explore if increased circulating myeloid cells is associated with impaired atherosclerotic lesion regression or altered progression in RA. Methods and results: Using flow cytometry, we noted prominent monocytosis, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis in two mouse models of RA...
June 14, 2018: European Heart Journal
Giacomo Emmi, Maria Letizia Urban, Massimo Imazio, Marco Gattorno, Silvia Maestroni, Giuseppe Lopalco, Luca Cantarini, Domenico Prisco, Antonio Brucato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the role of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) blocking agents in cardiovascular diseases, briefly describing the pathogenetic rationale and the most relevant clinical studies. RECENT FINDINGS: IL-1 is a pivotal cytokine of the innate immune system. Anti-IL-1 agents are currently used for the treatment of several autoimmune and autoinflammatory conditions. Recently, the role of IL-1 has also emerged in cardiovascular diseases...
June 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
John P Leach, James F Martin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current pharmacologic treatments for cardiovascular disease do not correct the underlying cellular defect, the loss of cardiomyocytes. With recent advancements in cardiac regenerative approaches, the induction of endogenous mature cardiomyocyte proliferation has emerged as a new possibility. Here, we review progress made toward the regeneration of cardiac tissue in the mammalian heart through the stimulation of mature cardiomyocyte renewal. RECENT FINDINGS: The targeting of several developmental and signaling pathways has been shown to stimulate cell cycle re-entry in mature cardiomyocytes...
June 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Aldo L Schenone, Venu Menon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is an in-depth review on the mechanism of action, clinical utility, and drug-drug interactions of colchicine in the management of pericardial disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence about therapeutic targets on pericarditis has demonstrated that NALP3 inflammasome blockade is the cornerstone in the clinical benefits of colchicine. Such benefits extend from acute and recurrent pericarditis to transient constriction and post-pericardiotomy syndrome...
June 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Prabhakar Lal Srivastava, Anurag Shukla, Raviraj M Kalunke
Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari), belongs to the family Asparagaceae and is known as a "curer of hundred diseases" since ancient time. This plant has been exploited as a food supplement to enhance immune system and regarded as a highly valued medicinal plant in Ayurvedic medicine system for the treatment of various ailments such as gastric ulcers, dyspepsia, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, as a galactogogue and against several other diseases. In depth metabolic fingerprinting of various parts of the plant led to the identification of 13 monoterpenoids exclusively present in roots...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elani Streja, Csaba Pal Kovesdy, Melissa Soohoo, Yoshitsugu Obi, Connie M Rhee, Christina Park, Joline L T Chen, Tracy Nakata, Danh V Nguyen, Alpesh N Amin, Steven J Jacobsen, John J Sim, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Veterans with ESKD initiate dialysis under the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), an integrated health system, or are outsourced to non-VHA providers. It is unknown whether outcomes differ according to their dialysis provider at initiation. We sought to evaluate the association between dialysis provider and mortality and hospitalization among United States veterans initiating dialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Among 68,727 United States veterans who initiated dialysis in 2007-2014, we examined the association of dialysis provider (VHA versus non-VHA) at initiation with mortality and hospitalization rates in the first 12 months post-initiation...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Sébastien Celle, Claire Boutet, Cédric Annweiler, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Frédéric Roche
The link between sleep apnoea and brain structure is unclear; although dysfunction of the hippocampus, middle temporal gyrus and brainstem/cerebellum have been observed previously. However, this link has been little explored in elderly subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the link between sleep apnoea and the brain in an elderly population.226 asymptomatic elderly subjects (age mean±sd 75.3±0.9 years, range 72.3-77.8 years) from the PROOF (Evaluation of Ageing, Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Cardiovascular Events) cohort study were explored using linear voxel-based or cortical thickness with apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI; mean±sd 15...
June 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Kelly Plueschke, Patricia McGettigan, Alexandra Pacurariu, Xavier Kurz, Alison Cave
INTRODUCTION: A review of European Union (EU)-funded initiatives linked to 'Real World Evidence' (RWE) was performed to determine whether their outputs could be used for the generation of real-world data able to support the European Medicines Agency (EMA)'s regulatory decision-making on medicines. METHOD: The initiatives were identified from publicly available websites. Their topics were categorised into five areas: 'Data source', 'Methodology', 'Governance model', 'Analytical model' and 'Infrastructure'...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Olga Bornachea, Angela Vea, Vicenta Llorente-Cortes
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in obese and diabetic patients. In these groups of patients, the alterations of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) contribute to both vascular and myocardial dysfunction. Therefore, it is of clinical interest to determine the mechanisms by which EAT influences cardiovascular disease. Two key factors contribute to the tight intercommunication among EAT, coronary arteries and myocardium. One is the close anatomical proximity between these tissues. The other is the capacity of EAT to secrete cytokines and other molecules with paracrine and vasocrine effects on the cardiovascular system...
June 11, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
Edgar Francisco Carrizales-Sepúlveda, Alejandro Ordaz-Farías, Raymundo Vera-Pineda, Ramiro Flores-Ramírez
Periodontal and cardiovascular disease are both major health issues. Poor oral health has long been associated with the development of systemic diseases, with the typical example being the risk of endocarditis posterior to dental procedures. Through the years, the association of periodontal disease with other non-infectious systemic diseases has been brought to attention. One of the most interesting associations is the one that exists with the development of cardiovascular disease. Many studies, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses, suggest an important association between periodontal disease and ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and peripheral artery disease...
June 2, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Dominic O'Connor, Louise Brennan, Brian Caulfield
Exercise participation and activity levels are low in many older adults, and when paired with the multi-systemic effects of ageing, such as sarcopenia and decreased cardiovascular function, can result in a loss of functional independence. Voluntary exercise may not always be feasible for these individuals, highlighting a need for alternative therapies. There is a growing body of literature that recognises the positive effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle strength, muscle mass and cardiorespiratory function in older adults...
July 2018: Maturitas
Andreas Triantafyllidis, Dimitris Filos, Roselien Buys, Jomme Claes, Véronique Cornelissen, Evangelia Kouidi, Anargyros Chatzitofis, Dimitris Zarpalas, Petros Daras, Deirdre Walsh, Catherine Woods, Kieran Moran, Nicos Maglaveras, Ioanna Chouvarda
BACKGROUND: Exercise-based rehabilitation plays a key role in improving the health and quality of life of patients with Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Home-based computer-assisted rehabilitation programs have the potential to facilitate and support physical activity interventions and improve health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We present the development and evaluation of a computerized Decision Support System (DSS) for unsupervised exercise rehabilitation at home, aiming to show the feasibility and potential of such systems toward maximizing the benefits of rehabilitation programs...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Alberto Del Monte, Ana B Arroyo, María J Andrés-Manzano, Nuria García-Barberá, María S Caleprico, Vicente Vicente, Vanessa Roldán, Rocío González-Conejero, Constantino Martínez, Vicente Andrés
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis involves activation of the IRAK1/TRAF6/NF-κB inflammatory cascade, which is negatively regulated by miR146a. Previous studies showed that the TT genotype of rs2431697, located near the miR-146a gene, drives lower miR-146a transcription and predicts adverse cardiovascular events in anticoagulated atrial fibrillation patients. Moreover, systemic miR-146a administration protects mice from atherosclerosis. Here we evaluated the ability of miR-146a expression in the hematopoietic component to regulate atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice (Ldlr-/-)...
2018: PloS One
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Di Liu, Wangbin Ning, Xiaoxia Zuo
Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder. Cardiovascular involvement is rare but may present with various manifestations, resulting in high mortality. In this article, we report a young male who had chest pain accompanied by systemic involvement, and was diagnosed of Behçet's disease with serious pulmonary artery and coronary thrombosis by systemic check-up. Finally, the patient was successfully treated with a combination of prednisone and immunosuppressive agents instead of surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of concurrent coronary thrombosis and pulmonary artery thrombosis in Behçet's disease patients...
March 2018: Archives of rheumatology
P J Devereaux, Emmanuelle Duceppe, Gordon Guyatt, Vikas Tandon, Reitze Rodseth, Bruce M Biccard, Denis Xavier, Wojciech Szczeklik, Christian S Meyhoff, Jessica Vincent, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Sadeesh K Srinathan, Jason Erb, Patrick Magloire, John Neary, Mangala Rao, Prashant V Rahate, Navneet K Chaudhry, Bongani Mayosi, Miriam de Nadal, Pilar Paniagua Iglesias, Otavio Berwanger, Juan Carlos Villar, Fernando Botto, John W Eikelboom, Daniel I Sessler, Clive Kearon, Shirley Pettit, Mukul Sharma, Stuart J Connolly, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Purnima Rao-Melacini, Andreas Hoeft, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events and deaths, which anticoagulation therapy could prevent. Dabigatran prevents perioperative venous thromboembolism, but whether this drug can prevent a broader range of vascular complications in patients with MINS is unknown. The MANAGE trial assessed the potential of dabigatran to prevent major vascular complications among such patients. METHODS: In this international, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited patients from 84 hospitals in 19 countries...
June 9, 2018: Lancet
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