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Equine Breeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740610/improved-de-novo-genomic-assembly-for-the-domestic-donkey
#1
Gabriel Renaud, Bent Petersen, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Mads Frost Bertelsen, Andrew Waller, Richard Newton, Romain Paillot, Neil Bryant, Mark Vaudin, Pablo Librado, Ludovic Orlando
Donkeys and horses share a common ancestor dating back to about 4 million years ago. Although a high-quality genome assembly at the chromosomal level is available for the horse, current assemblies available for the donkey are limited to moderately sized scaffolds. The absence of a better-quality assembly for the donkey has hampered studies involving the characterization of patterns of genetic variation at the genome-wide scale. These range from the application of genomic tools to selective breeding and conservation to the more fundamental characterization of the genomic loci underlying speciation and domestication...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717500/evaluation-of-a-pictorial-method-to-obtain-subject-specific-inertial-properties-in-equine-limb-segments
#2
Sandra Nauwelaerts, Hilary M Clayton
Data describing segmental masses and moments of inertia (MOI) of limb segments are required for inverse dynamic calculations. In horses, these values are usually calculated using regression equations that have been developed from a limited number of horses representing a small number of breeds. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of a scaling method and a pictorial method for estimating of the values of segmental masses, lengths, and MOI in the equine limb segments by comparing their output with the standard technique involving direct measurements...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704935/epidemiology-of-pituitary-pars-intermedia-dysfunction-a-systematic-literature-review-of-clinical-presentation-disease-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#3
REVIEW
J L Ireland, C M McGowan
Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is caused by an age-related degenerative disease of dopaminergic neurones. Despite its importance in equine practice, available information regarding its epidemiology is limited. This systematic review aimed to assess published literature to evaluate available evidence regarding the clinical presentation, prevalence and risk factors for PPID in horses and ponies. Electronic database searches were undertaken using a range of terms, and English language publications published prior to August 2016 were included...
May 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689619/canine-feline-and-equine-corneal-vascular-neoplasia-a-retrospective-study-2007-2015
#4
Alba Maria M Shank, Leandro B C Teixeria, Richard R Dubielzig
Corneal vascular neoplasms (hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma) are rare in all species. Reported cases are single case reports in a single species. Archived cases of corneal hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma from dogs, cats, and horses were obtained from the Comparative Ocular Pathology Lab of Wisconsin (COPLOW, Madison, WI), tabulated, and examined. This retrospective study describes the breeds, ages, tumor types, and characteristics of vascular neoplasms that appeared to be primarily corneal in location, in feline, canine, and equine patients, with gross and histologic images...
April 24, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678227/humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-to-influenza-vaccination-in-equine-metabolic-syndrome-ems-horses
#5
Sarah Elzinga, Stephanie Reedy, Virginia D Barker, Thomas M Chambers, Amanda A Adams
Obesity is an increasing problem in the equine population with recent reports indicating that the percentage of overweight horses may range anywhere from 20.6-51%. Obesity in horses has been linked to more serious health concerns such as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). EMS is a serious problem in the equine industry given its defining characteristics of insulin dysregualtion and obesity, as well as the involvement of laminitis. Little research however has been conducted to determine the effects of EMS on routine healthcare of these horses, in particular how they respond to vaccination...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667280/grass-greenness-flush-can-influence-breeding-phenology-and-fertility-in-equatorial-thoroughbred-mares-in-the-absence-of-photoperiod-variation
#6
Juan Carranza, Washington A Yoong, Belén Caño Vergara, Abel Briones, Concha Mateos
Reproductive phenology is an important trait subjected to natural selection. Current horses in America belong to the Palearctic original populations after being introduced by European colonizers. Photoperiod variation is the main environmental factor for the adjustment of reproductive timing in horses, but is absent in equatorial areas. Here we hypothesize that seasonality of green-grass availability may influence breeding phenology in equatorial regions. We used data of 929 services to mares from 2006 to 2011 in a thoroughbred equine exploitation in Ecuador that experienced strong grass seasonality...
April 17, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653388/synchronization-treatments-previous-to-natural-breeding-anticipate-and-improve-the-pregnancy-rate-of-postpartum-primiparous-beef-cows
#7
R M Ferreira, T L Conti, R L Gonçalves, L A Souto, J N S Sales, M F Sá Filho, F M Elliff, P S Baruselli
Timed AI has become a potential tool to bypass postpartum acyclicity, yet only a small percentage of the world bovine herd is inseminated. Most females are still subjected to bull mating; therefore, the frequent occurrence of postpartum anestrus may compromise their reproductive efficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an approach that allows the early conception of postpartum primiparous beef cows that are exposed to natural breeding (NB). For this purpose, 350 primiparous Nelore cows 35-65 d postpartum were allocated into three groups: Control (no hormonal treatment), TNB (hormonal protocol for timed-NB without equine chorionic gonadotropin; eCG) and TNB + eCG (hormonal protocol for TNB with eCG) groups...
April 4, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627335/on-site-detection-of-equid-alphaherpesvirus-3-in-perineal-and-genital-swabs-of-mares-and-stallions
#8
M A Vissani, M S Tordoya, Y-L Tsai, P-Y A Lee, Y-H Shen, F-C Lee, H-T T Wang, V Parreño, M Barrandeguy
Equine coital exanthema (ECE) is an infectious, venereally transmitted muco-cutaneous disease affecting mares and stallions, caused by equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV3). Diagnostic tools for rapid identification of EHV3 are of primary importance to diminish the risk of EHV3 dissemination at the time of breeding. In the last years, it has been shown that the performance of the insulated-isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) is comparable to virus isolation, nested PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR) in detecting pathogens of various animal species...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622352/simultaneous-evaluation-of-superoxide-content-and-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-in-stallion-semen-samples-provides-additional-information-about-sperm-quality
#9
A Johannisson, M I Figueiredo, Z Al-Kass, J M Morrell
An improved fertility prediction for stallions is of importance for equine breeding. Here, we investigate the potential of a combined staining of stallion spermatozoa for superoxide and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) for this purpose. Semen samples were analysed immediately after arrival at the laboratory, as well as after 24 h. Superoxide was measured by MitoSOXRed, while MMP was measured with JC-1. Menadione was used to stimulate superoxide production. In addition, other parameters of sperm quality, namely motility, membrane integrity, chromatin integrity, sperm kinematics and Hoechst 33258 exclusion were measured and correlated to superoxide production and MMP...
March 29, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615113/intraocular-lens-power-calculation-for-the-equine-eye
#10
Ulrike Meister, Christiane Görig, Christopher J Murphy, Hubertus Haan, Bernhard Ohnesorge, Michael H Boevé
BACKGROUND: Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation during cataract surgery in horses occur with increasing frequency. To reduce the postoperative refractive error it is necessary to determine the proper IOL power. In the present study retinoscopy, keratometry and ultrasonographic biometry were performed on 98 healthy equine eyes from 49 horses. The refractive state, corneal curvature (keratometry) and the axial location of all optical interfaces (biometry) were measured...
April 3, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593445/effect-of-selection-for-eventing-on-the-mstn-gene-in-brazilian-sport-horses
#11
Felipe Gomes Ferreira Padilha, Kênia Balbi El-Jaick, Liane de Castro, Aline Dos Santos Moreira, Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
Polymorphisms in MSTN have previously been associated with equine performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify variants in MSTN intron 1 in 16 Brazilian Sport Horses selected for competition in eventing and their possible effects of selection on performance. Among the nine variants identified, eight had already been reported in previous studies or genomic databases, although they showed differences in frequencies when compared with other horse breeds. Moreover, a new mutation was identified in two horses, both in heterozygous form...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562654/using-the-five-domains-model-to-assess-the-adverse-impacts-of-husbandry-veterinary-and-equitation-interventions-on-horse-welfare
#12
Paul McGreevy, Jeannine Berger, Nic de Brauwere, Orla Doherty, Anna Harrison, Julie Fiedler, Claudia Jones, Sue McDonnell, Andrew McLean, Lindsay Nakonechny, Christine Nicol, Liane Preshaw, Peter Thomson, Vicky Tzioumis, John Webster, Sarah Wolfensohn, James Yeates, Bidda Jones
The aim of this study was to conduct a series of paper-based exercises in order to assess the negative (adverse) welfare impacts, if any, of common interventions on domestic horses across a broad range of different contexts of equine care and training. An international panel (with professional expertise in psychology, equitation science, veterinary science, education, welfare, equestrian coaching, advocacy, and community engagement; n = 16) met over a four-day period to define and assess these interventions, using an adaptation of the domain-based assessment model...
March 18, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550176/anatomic-analysis-of-the-equine-mental-foramen-and-rostral-mandibular-canal-using-computed-tomography
#13
Jennifer E Rawlinson, Luke Bass, Luis Campoy, Ashton Broman, Benjamin Prytherch
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the anatomy of the mental foramen and determine associations with age, weight, sex and breed. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. ANIMALS: Forty-one horses, 0.6-25.2 years and weighing 136-820 kg. METHODS: Computed tomography (CT) studies of equine heads performed over 5 years were evaluated in multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstruction. Measurements obtained were positioning of the foramen along the mandible, foramen height and width, foramen-canal angulation and rostral canal mineralization...
May 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547732/macroscopic-characteristics-of-the-umbilical-cord-in-standardbred-thoroughbred-and-warmblood-horses
#14
Jole Mariella, Eleonora Iacono, Aliai Lanci, Barbara Merlo, Caterina Palermo, Lee Morris, Carolina Castagnetti
The umbilical cord (UC), the connection between mother and fetus via the umbilical vessels, carries nutrients and oxygenated blood to the fetus through the umbilical vein and removes deoxygenated blood and waste products via the umbilical arteries. It is designed to protect blood flow to the fetus during pregnancy. In equine medicine, only a few studies have described the UC, and most of these involved Thoroughbreds. The present study describes and compares the macroscopic features of the equine umbilical cord in three different breeds and in relation to the foal's gender...
June 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536469/-causes-of-abortion-in-horses-overview-of-the-literature-and-own-evaluations
#15
Ramona Weber, Rainer Hospes, Axel Wehrend
The aim of this study was to summarize the current status of the possible causes, clinical symptoms and pathogenesis of abortion in the mare and to evaluate the frequency of varying causes of abortion in German thoroughbred breeding. An analysis of the literature using electronic libraries, journals and textbooks was performed. In addition, the results of examinations of 123 abortions of thoroughbred breeding in central Germany were evaluated. In the literature, bacterial infections are the most frequently described cause of abortion...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534810/advances-in-diagnostics-and-treatments-in-horses-and-foals-with-gastric-and-duodenal-ulcers
#16
REVIEW
Pilar Camacho-Luna, Benjamin Buchanan, Frank M Andrews
Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) primarily describes ulceration in the terminal esophagus, nonglandular squamous mucosa, glandular mucosa of the stomach, and proximal duodenum. EGUS is common in all breeds and ages of horses and foals. This article focuses on the current terminology for EGUS, etiologies and pathogenesis for lesions in the nonglandular and glandular stomach, diagnosis, and a comprehensive approach to the treatment and prevention of EGUS in adult horses and foals.
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534788/implication-of-transcriptome-profiling-of-spermatozoa-for-stallion-fertility
#17
Yara Suliman, Frank Becker, Klaus Wimmers
Poor fertility of breeding stallions is a recognised problem in the equine industry. The aim of the present study was to detect molecular pathways using two groups of stallions that differed in pregnancy rates as well as in the proportion of normal and motile spermatozoa. RNA was isolated from spermatozoa of each stallion and microarray data were analysed to obtain a list of genes for which transcript abundance differed between the groups (P ≤0.05, fold change ≥1.2). In all, there were 437 differentially expressed (DE) genes between the two groups (P ≤ 0...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510741/a-missense-mutation-in-myh1-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-immune-mediated-myositis-in-quarter-horses
#18
Carrie J Finno, Giuliana Gianino, Sudeep Perumbakkam, Zoë J Williams, Matthew H Bordbari, Keri L Gardner, Erin Burns, Sichong Peng, Sian A Durward-Akhurst, Stephanie J Valberg
BACKGROUND: The cause of immune-mediated myositis (IMM), characterized by recurrent, rapid-onset muscle atrophy in Quarter Horses (QH), is unknown. The histopathologic hallmark of IMM is lymphocytic infiltration of myofibers. The purpose of this study was to identify putative functional variants associated with equine IMM. METHODS: A genome-wide association (GWA) study was performed on 36 IMM QHs and 54 breed matched unaffected QHs from the same environment using the Equine SNP50 and SNP70 genotyping arrays...
March 6, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502360/glucagon-like-peptide-2-a-potential-role-in-equine-insulin-dysregulation
#19
M A de Laat, D M Fitzgerald, M N Sillence, R J Spence
BACKGROUND: Equine insulin dysregulation (ID) is a common and poorly understood disorder that increases the risk of laminitis. Recent data show that the condition may be associated with alteration of the enteroinsular axis and enhanced glucose bioavailability. Upregulation of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), an intestinotrophic peptide, leads to enhanced nutrient uptake and metabolic dysfunction in other species. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to 1) determine whether GLP-2 is differentially expressed in insulin-dysregulated ponies, compared with healthy ponies, and 2) confirm intestinal expression of the GLP-2 receptor in horses (eGLP-2R)...
March 4, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498750/genetic-risk-factors-for-osteochondrosis-in-various-horse-breeds
#20
REVIEW
F Naccache, J Metzger, O Distl
Osteochondrosis (OC) is an injury to cartilage canals with a following necrosis in the growth cartilage, from there it can develop to osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD). Due to its high impact in the equine industry, new insights into predisposing factors and potential high-risk genetic variants are warranted. This article reviews advancements in quantitative and molecular genetics in refining estimation of genetic parameters and identifying predisposing genetic loci. Heritabilities were highest for hock OC with estimates at 0...
March 2, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
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