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Equine Breeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154176/seasonal-changes-in-the-sperm-fatty-acid-composition-of-shetland-pony-stallions
#1
Christine Aurich, Cristina Ortega Ferrusola, Fernando Juan Peña Vega, Nadine Schrammel, David Morcuende, Jörg Aurich
Spermatozoa contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Cryopreservation damages sperm membranes and they become less functional after thawing. We analysed the lipid composition of spermatozoa from Shetland stallions (n = 15) collected monthly from January to June and hypothesized that sperm lipid patterns change with season. In addition, one ejaculate per month was submitted to cryopreservation. Content of saturated palmytic and stearic acid decreased from January to March (p < 0.001) while content of the PUFA docosapentaenoic (p < 0...
November 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153167/a-100-year-review-reproductive-technologies-in-dairy-science
#2
S G Moore, J F Hasler
Reproductive technology revolutionized dairy production during the past century. Artificial insemination was first successfully applied to cattle in the early 1900s. The next major developments involved semen extenders, invention of the electroejaculator, progeny testing, addition of antibiotics to semen during the 1930s and 1940s, and the major discovery of sperm cryopreservation with glycerol in 1949. The 1950s and 1960s were particularly productive with the development of protocols for the superovulation of cattle with both pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin/equine chorionic gonadotrophin and FSH, the first successful bovine embryo transfer, the discovery of sperm capacitation, the birth of rabbits after in vitro fertilization, and the development of insulated liquid nitrogen tanks...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146097/descriptive-study-of-current-therapeutic-practices-clinical-reproductive-findings-and-incidence-of-pregnancy-loss-in-intensively-managed-thoroughbred-mares
#3
B V Rose, M Firth, B Morris, J M Roach, D C Wathes, K L P Verheyen, A M de Mestre
Therapeutic practices in equine reproductive medicine have dramatically evolved over the last 20 years but current usage is not described. The aims of this study were to provide a description of medication use and clinical findings of reproductive examinations alongside measures of reproductive efficiency in thoroughbreds. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons. Mare and stallion details, information on veterinary interventions and findings of reproductive ultrasound scans were collected using questionnaires and entered into a custom-designed Microsoft Access database...
November 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134689/effectiveness-of-controlled-internal-drug-release-device-treatment-to-alleviate-reproductive-seasonality-in-anestrus-lactating-or-dry-barki-and-rahmani-ewes-during-non-breeding-season
#4
M Y El-Mokadem, Anm Nour El-Din, T A Ramadan, A M Rashad, T A Taha, M A Samak, M H Salem
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of hormonal treatments on ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Barki and Rahmani ewes during non-breeding season. Forty-eight multiparous ewes, 24 Barki and 24 Rahmani ewes were divided into two groups, 12 lactating and 12 dry ewes for each breed. Controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted in all ewes for 14 days in conjunction with intramuscular 500 IU equine chronic gonadotrophin (eCG) at day of CIDR removal. Data were analysed using PROC MIXED of SAS for repeated measures...
November 14, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115996/serological-evidence-of-equine-arteritis-virus-infection-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-viral-isolates-in-semen-of-stallions-from-serbia
#5
Sava Lazić, Diana Lupulović, Delphine Gaudaire, Tamas Petrovic, Gospava Lazić, Aymeric Hans
BACKGROUND: Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is responsible for infections in equids. It can spread easily within the horse population and has a major impact on the horse breeding industry. No EAV outbreak has ever been reported in Serbia. To determine whether EAV is nonetheless circulating there, especially in the Vojvodina region, 340 horse serum samples were subjected to serology testing to detect EAV antibodies. In parallel, semen samples from three seropositive stallions were collected to evaluate their EAV status, using RT-qPCR and virus isolation on cell culture...
November 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115950/the-prevalence-of-ocular-diseases-in-polish-arabian-horses
#6
Katarzyna Paschalis-Trela, Anna Cywińska, Jan Trela, Michał Czopowicz, Jerzy Kita, Lucjan Witkowski
BACKGROUND: Equine ocular diseases pose a medical challenge due to long-lasting and cost-consuming therapies as well as economic issues associated with potential decrease in value of affected horses. The scale of the problem is significant but difficult to precisely define because epidemiological data is limited and lacks consistency in presentation. To date, no retrospective studies specifically investigating Arabian horses have been published. RESULTS: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of ocular lesions and define the ocular diseases present in Arabian horses from breeding farms in Poland...
November 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111285/reference-values-of-two-dimensional-and-m-mode-echocardiographic-measurements-as-a-function-of-body-size-in-various-equine-breeds-and-in-ponies
#7
A Al-Haidar, N Moula, A Leroux, F Farnir, S Deleuze, C Sandersen, H Amory
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to establish echocardiographic reference values for the equine species using allometric regression equations based on body weight (BW) and thoracic circumference (TC). ANIMALS: A total of 239 horses or ponies were studied, including 65 warmbloods, 33 Standardbreds, 41 Thoroughbreds, 32 Arabian horses, 28 draft horses, and 40 ponies aged from 1 day to 30 years, weighing from 18 to 890 kg, with no evidence of cardiac disease...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103698/development-of-a-multilocus-sequence-typing-scheme-for-rhodococcus-equi
#8
Fabien Duquesne, Emilie Houssin, Corinne Sévin, Lucille Duytschaever, Jackie Tapprest, David Fretin, Laurent Hébert, Claire Laugier, Sandrine Petry
Rhodococcus equi causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in animals and humans, with endemic situations and significant young foal mortality in stud farms worldwide. Despite its economic impact in the horse-breeding industry, the broad geographic and host distribution, global diversity and population structure of R. equi remain poorly characterised. In this context, we developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme using 89 clinical and environmental R. equi of various origins and eight Rhodococcus sp...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103563/genetic-testing-as-a-tool-to-identify-horses-with-or-at-risk-for-ocular-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Rebecca R Bellone
Advances in equine genetics and genomics resources have enabled the understanding of some inherited ocular disorders and ocular manifestations. These ocular disorders include congenital stationary night blindness, equine recurrent uveitis, multiple congenital ocular anomalies, and squamous cell carcinoma. Genetic testing can identify horses with or at risk for disease and thus can assist in clinical management. In addition, genetic testing can identify horses that are carriers and thus can inform breeding decisions...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094427/dermoscopic-analysis-of-the-skin-of-healthy-warmblood-horses-a-descriptive-study-of-34-cases-in-italy
#10
Sara Legnani, Eric Zini, Paola Roccabianca, Beatrice Funiciello, Giordana Zanna
BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a diagnostic tool that has been introduced into small animal dermatology for the evaluation of hair and the skin surface. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the use of this technique on horses and the dermoscopic appearance of equine hair and skin have yet to be reported. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of dermoscopy, and to describe hair and skin surface features of healthy warmblood horses. ANIMALS: Thirty four client-owned, healthy adult horses...
November 1, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042013/inhibition-of-microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-mpges-1-selectively-suppresses-pge2-in-an-in-vitro-equine-inflammation-model
#11
Emily M Martin, Samuel L Jones
Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production effectively limits inflammation in horses, however nonspecific prostaglandin blockade via cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition elicits deleterious gastrointestinal side effects in equine patients. Thus, more selective PGE2 targeting therapeutics are needed to treat inflammatory disease in horses. One potential target is microsomal prostaglandin E-synthase-1 (mPGES-1), which is the terminal enzyme downstream of COX-2 in the inducible PGE2 synthesis cascade. This enzyme has yet to be studied in equine leukocytes, which play a pivotal role in equine inflammatory disease...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034248/misoprostol-inhibits-equine-neutrophil-adhesion-migration-and-respiratory-burst-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-inflammation
#12
Emily Medlin Martin, Rebecca Louise Till, Mary Katherine Sheats, Samuel L Jones
In many equine inflammatory disease states, neutrophil activities, such as adhesion, migration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production become dysregulated. Dysregulated neutrophil activation causes tissue damage in horses with asthma, colitis, laminitis, and gastric glandular disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not adequately inhibit neutrophil inflammatory functions and can lead to dangerous adverse effects. Therefore, novel therapies that target mechanisms of neutrophil-mediated tissue damage are needed...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023800/to-pace-or-not-to-pace-a-pilot-study-of-four-and-five-gaited-icelandic-horses-homozygous-for-the-dmrt3-gait-keeper-mutation
#13
K Jäderkvist Fegraeus, I Hirschberg, T Árnason, L Andersson, B D Velie, L S Andersson, G Lindgren
The Icelandic horse is a breed known mainly for its ability to perform the ambling four-beat gait 'tölt' and the lateral two-beat gait pace. The natural ability of the breed to perform these alternative gaits is highly desired by breeders. Therefore, the discovery that a nonsense mutation (C>A) in the DMRT3 gene was the main genetic factor for horses' ability to perform gaits in addition to walk, trot and canter was of great interest. Although several studies have demonstrated that homozygosity for the DMRT3 mutation is important for the ability to pace, only about 70% of the homozygous mutant (AA) Icelandic horses are reported to pace...
October 11, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984040/equine-chlamydiosis-an-emerging-infectious-disease-requiring-a-one-health-surveillance-approach
#14
K A Taylor, D Durrheim, J Heller, B O'Rourke, K Hope, T Merritt, P Freeman, C Chicken, J Carrick, J Branley, P Massey
Psittacosis is a rare but potentially fatal zoonosis caused by Chlamydia psittaci, an organism that is typically associated with bird contact. However C. psittaci is capable of infecting other non-avian hosts, such as horses, sheep, cattle and goats. Stud staff and veterinarians have significant exposure to parturient animals and reproductive materials in their routine work. To investigate the zoonotic potential associated with the emergence of C. psittaci as an abortifacient agent in horses, we established a programme of joint human and animal surveillance in a sentinel horse-breeding region in Australia...
October 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973766/ewes-carrying-the-booroola-and-vacaria-prolificacy-alleles-respond-differently-to-ovulation-induction-with-equine-chorionic-gonadotrophin
#15
J C F Moraes, C J H Souza
The magnitude of ovulation rate (OR) after hormonal induction in sheep should be considered when prolific genotypes are used. We investigated for the first time the effect of the Vacaria allele and its combined effect with the Booroola prolificacy mutation on OR after hormonal treatment during breeding and anoestrous season. A hundred forty-nine Ile de France crossbred ewes, raised in natural pastures in South Brazil, were used to evaluate the OR after treatment with progestagen (MAP) followed or not by equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) treatment (MAP + eCG)...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971522/half-a-century-of-equine-reproduction-research-and-application-a-veterinary-tour-de-force
#16
REVIEW
Twink W R Allen, S Wilsher
Over the past 50 years, pregnancy rates in Thoroughbred mares have risen from 70 to >90% and foaling rates from 55 to >80%. Some of the significant pharmacological treatments and diagnostic methods which have driven this marked improvement in breeding efficiency are reviewed. They include the application of artificial lighting to hasten the onset of ovulatory oestrous cyclicity in early Spring, rapid steroid hormone assays to aid in determining the stage and normality of the mare's cycle, prostaglandin analogues, synthetic progestagens and Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) analogues to better control and manipulate her cycle to good effect, transrectal ultrasound scanning to monitor follicle growth, endometrial architecture and ovulation and to allow accurate, early pregnancy diagnosis thereby enabling successful ablation of one of twin conceptuses...
October 3, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969775/factors-affecting-prevalence-and-abundance-of-a-perfoliata-infections-in-horses-from-south-eastern-poland
#17
Krzysztof Tomczuk, Maciej Grzybek, Klaudiusz Szczepaniak, Maria Studzińska, Marta Demkowska-Kutrzepa, Monika Roczeń-Karczmarz, Zahrai Abdulhammza Abbass, Krzysztof Kostro, Andrzej Junkuszew
Equine Anoplocephalosis constitute a significant problem in horses worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyse intrinsic (host age and sex) and extrinsic (management type, pasture type and moisture) factors that influence the prevalence and FEC of A. perfoliata infections. Faecal samples were collected from 994 horses managed in studs or individually between 2012 and 2014. The Sedimentation-flotation method was applied for coproscopic analysis, and faecal egg counts were calculated. The overall prevalence was 25...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929977/exposure-to-follicular-fluid-during-oocyte-maturation-and-oviductal-fluid-during-post-maturation-does-not-improve-in-vitro-embryo-production-in-the-horse
#18
Cécile Douet, Olivia Parodi, Nicola Antonio Martino, Giovanni Michele Lacalandra, Michele Nicassio, Fabrice Reigner, Stefan Deleuze, Maria Elena Dell'Aquila, Ghylène Goudet
Most wild equids and many domestic horse breeds are at risk of extinction, so there is an urgent need for genome resource banking. Embryos cryopreservation allows the preservation of genetics from male and female and is the fastest method to restore a breed. In the equine, embryo production in vitro would allow the production of several embryos per cycle. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is used to generate horse embryos, but it requires expensive equipment and expertise in micromanipulation, and blastocyst development rates remain low...
September 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921680/measurement-of-urinary-concentrations-of-the-mycotoxins-zearalenone-and-sterigmatocystin-as-biomarkers-of-exposure-in%C3%A2-mares
#19
M Takagi, S Uno, E Kokushi, F Sato, Mmp Wijayagunawardane, J Fink-Gremmels
Mycotoxins may affect animal health, including reproduction. Little is known about the clinical relevance of exposure of horses to contaminated feed. This study aimed at (i) monitoring the levels of the mycotoxins zearalenone (ZEN), with its metabolites α- and β-zearalenol (α- and β-ZOL), and sterigmatocystin (STC) in urine samples from thoroughbred mares in Japan and (ii) relating these findings to the potential effects on reproductive efficacy of breeding mares. Sixty-three urine samples of breeding mares from 59 breeding farms were used...
September 18, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920796/successful-laparoscopic-oviductal-artificial-insemination-in-the-clouded-leopard-neofelis-nebulosa-in-thailand
#20
Wanlaya Tipkantha, Paweena Thuwanut, Umaporn Maikeaw, Ampika Thongphakdee, Saifon Yapila, Sumate Kamolnorranath, Boripat Siriaroonrat, Pierre Comizzoli, Kaywalee Chatdarong
Captive breeding of clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) is challenging because of mating incompatibility, high incidence of teratospermia in males, and inconsistent ovulation patterns in females. Assisted reproductive techniques, therefore, are necessary to overcome these issues and maintain the genetic diversity in the captive population. The objective was to use laparoscopic oviductal artificial insemination (AI) to breed genetically valuable females (n = 4; aged 4.5-5 yr) that were unsuccessfully paired...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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