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Equine Breeding

Alicja Pacholewska, Núria Mach, Xavier Mata, Anne Vaiman, Laurent Schibler, Eric Barrey, Vincent Gerber
BACKGROUND: MiRNAs regulate multiple genes at the post-transcriptional level and therefore play an important role in many biological processes. It has been suggested that miRNA exported outside the cells contribute to inter-cellular communication. Consequently, circulating miRNAs are of particular interest and are promising biomarkers for many diseases. The number of miRNAs annotated in the horse genome is much lower compared to model organisms like human and mouse. We therefore aimed to identify novel equine miRNAs for tissue types and breed in serum...
October 26, 2016: BMC Genomics
Sanna Lindåse, Katarina Nostell, Johan Bröjer
BACKGROUND: An oral sugar test (OST) using Karo(®) Light Corn Syrup has been developed in the USA as a field test for the assessment of insulin dysregulation in horses but the syrup is not available in Scandinavian grocery stores. The aim of the study was to compare the results of a modified OST between horses with equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) and healthy horses using a Scandinavian commercially available glucose syrup (Dansukker glykossirap). In addition, the effect of breed and the repeatability of the test were evaluated...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
C E Fedorka, K E Scoggin, E L Squires, B A Ball, M H T Troedsson
The seminal plasma protein, cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3), has been correlated with increased fertility and first-cycle conception rates, and has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and phagocytosis of spermatozoa during the inflammatory response to breeding in the horse. Previous research demonstrated that equine CRISP-3 is located in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. However, this was done with nonquantitative laboratory techniques...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Hideo Tajima, Madoka Yoshizawa, Shinichi Sasaki, Fujio Yamamoto, Etsuo Narushima, Toshihiko Tsutsui, Takashi Funahashi, Satoshi Kusuda, Osamu Doi, Yuriko Tateyama, Masanori Kobayashi, Tatsuya Hori, Eiichi Kawakami
Equine and human chorionic gonadotropins were administered to two female Amur leopard cats to induce estrus and ovulation during non-breeding season. Fresh semen collected from male cats was surgically inseminated into the uterine horn of the females. In one animal, two fetal sacs without heartbeats were observed on abdominal ultrasonography 31 days after insemination, which indicated that embryo death had occurred. In the other animal, fetal heartbeats were detected in two fetal sacs 29 days after insemination, which confirmed as pregnancy...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Sue M McDonnell
Despite the suboptimal aspects of domestic breeding conditions compared with the natural conditions under which their reproductive behavior evolved, most domestic stallions can adapt to management and breeding programs. Most respond adequately or quickly learn to safely abide the restraint and direction of a human handler, and can adapt to changes in methods of breeding for semen collection. If not, the problems can range from inadequate or variable sexual interest and response to overenthusiastic or aggressive response beyond the ability of the handlers to safely direct and control...
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Miguel Angel Ayala-Valdovinos, Clemente Lemus-Flores, Jorge Galindo-García, Jacinto Bañuelos-Pineda, Javier Germán Rodríguez-Carpena, David Sánchez-Chiprés, Theodor Duifhuis-Rivera
Theileria equi infection prevalence was calculated from 1000 blood samples obtained from apparently healthy horses in western Mexico. Samples were sent to the Animal Biotechnology Laboratory of the University of Guadalajara (Mexico) for T. equi diagnosis. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was used as a diagnostic method to detect pathogen DNA. Using primers for the merozoite antigen-1 (EMA-1) gene, 19.70±2.47% of the horses (95% CI, 17.23-22.17%) tested positive for T. equi. There was no significant association between gender and T...
September 23, 2016: Parasitology International
Jakub Cieslak, Lukasz Wodas, Alicja Borowska, Jan Sadoch, Piotr Pawlak, Kamila Puppel, Beata Kuczynska, Mariusz Mackowski
BACKGROUND: Equine milk is considered to be an interesting product for human nutrition, mainly owing to its low allergenicity and significant amounts of bioactive proteins, including lysozyme (LYZ) and lactoferrin (LTF). The present study assessed the effect of genetic factors on LYZ and LTF concentration variability in mare's milk. RESULTS: Significant effects of horse breed and lactation stage on milk LYZ and LTF contents were observed. The highest level of LTF and the lowest concentration of LYZ were recorded for the Polish Warmblood Horse breed...
September 9, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
M Solé, M Valera, M D Gómez, J Sölkner, A Molina, G Mészáros
BACKGROUND: Longevity/durability is a relevant trait in racehorses. Genetic analysis and knowledge of factors that influence number of harness race starts would be advantageous for both horse welfare and the equine industry. OBJECTIVES: To perform a genetic analysis on harness racing using number of races as a measure of longevity/durability and to identify factors associated with career length in Spanish Trotter Horses (STH). STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study...
August 27, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
B Padalino, S L Raidal, E Hall, P Knight, P Celi, L Jeffcott, G Muscatello
BACKGROUND: Transportation can affect equine health and is a potential source of economic loss to the industry. OBJECTIVES: To identify journey (duration, vehicle, commercial or noncommercial) and horse (sex, age, breed, use, amateur or professional status) characteristics associated with the development of transport-related health problems in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey. METHODS: An online survey was conducted targeting amateur and professional participants in the Australian equine industry; eligible respondents were required to organise horse movements at least monthly...
August 26, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Feilan Chen, Jie Gao, Denghu Wu, Lei Xu, Wenli Han, Denghua Zhang, Xiaoyun Bi, Mingzhong He, Yongquan Pan
Previous studies have shown that selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with nutritional myopathy, known as white muscle disease (WMD), in horses. However, correlations between Se deficiency and clinical findings, such as hematologic biochemical values and pathological features, have not been evaluated in captive plains zebras. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the clinical and pathologic features that may be caused by a Se deficiency in the captive plains zebra. Clinical findings, feed analyses, hematologic biochemical analyses, response to treatment, and pathologic examination were assessed in six affected plains zebras...
August 23, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
J P Amat, T Vergne, J Tapprest, B Ferry, A Hans, P Hendrikx, B Dufour, A Leblond
Equine viral arteritis (EVA) may have serious economic impact on the equine industry. For this reason, it is monitored in many countries, especially in breeding stock, to avoid its spread during breeding activities. In France, surveillance is mainly based on serological tests, since mares are not vaccinated, but difficulties in interpreting certain series of results may impair the estimation of the number of outbreaks. In this study, we propose specific rules for identifying seroconversion in order to estimate the number of outbreaks that were detected by the breeding stock surveillance component (BSSC) in France between 2006 and 2013...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Todd L Marlo, Elizabeth A Giuliano, Ajay Sharma, Rajiv R Mohan
OBJECTIVE: To develop an ex vivo equine corneal organ culture model. Specifically, to assess the equine cornea's extracellular matrix and cellularity after 7 days using two different culture techniques: either (i) immersion system or (ii) air/liquid interface system, to determine the best ex vivo equine corneal model. ANIMALS STUDIED: Fourteen healthy equine corneas of various breeds. PROCEDURES: Equine corneas with 2 mm of perilimbal sclera were freshly harvested from 7 horses undergoing humane euthanasia...
July 29, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
J Mönki, M Hewetson, A-M K Virtala
BACKGROUND: Equine gastric glandular disease (EGGD) is a term used to classify erosive and ulcerative diseases of the glandular mucosa of the equine stomach. Epidemiologic studies of risk factors for EGGD have not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for EGGD. ANIMALS: Cases (n = 83) had endoscopic evidence of EGGD; controls (n = 34) included healthy horses and horses with equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) without EGGD...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Adiljan Kader, Xuexue Liu, Kunzhe Dong, Shen Song, Jianfei Pan, Min Yang, Xiaofei Chen, Xiaohong He, Lin Jiang, Yuehui Ma
Copy number variation (CNV), an essential form of genetic variation, has been increasingly recognized as one promising genetic marker in the analysis of animal genomes. Here, we used the Equine 70K single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array for the genome-wide detection of CNVs in 96 horses from three diverse Chinese breeds: Debao pony (DB), Mongolian horse (MG) and Yili horse (YL). A total of 287 CNVs were determined and merged into 122 CNV regions (CNVRs) ranging from 199 bp to 2344 kb in size and distributed in a heterogeneous manner on chromosomes...
October 2016: Animal Genetics
D Borkent, R J M Reardon, G McLachlan, S Smith, P M Dixon
BACKGROUND: Equine peripheral caries (PC) is an increasingly recognised disorder that causes premature wear of teeth and dental fractures and thus has major welfare implications. Little information is available on its prevalence or severity in UK horses and there are no proven associations with any risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To document the prevalence of PC over a wide area of the UK, assess its intra-oral distribution and severity in affected horses and examine for potential risk factors for its development...
July 16, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
N Sevane, S Dunner, A Boado, J Cañon
Equine osteochondrosis (OC) is a frequent developmental orthopaedic disease with high economic impact on the equine industry and may lead to premature retirement of the animal as a result of chronic pain and lameness. The genetic background of OC includes different genes affecting several locations; however, these genetic associations have been tested in only one or few populations, lacking the validation in others. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic determinants of OC in the Spanish Purebred horse breed...
October 2016: Animal Genetics
Juliana Mira, Mariana Herman, Luiza S Zakia, Giovane Olivo, Joao P Araujo, Alexandre S Borges, José P Oliveira-Filho
BACKGROUND: Aural plaques can be found on the inner surfaces of one or both ears of horses. Despite their low malignancy, these lesions can sometimes cause discomfort and sensitivity in horses, and a loss in commercial value due to their aesthetic effect. There has been a study describing the epidemiological features and the clinical prevalence of equine aural plaques in Brazil. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical prevalence and selected associated factors of aural plaques...
October 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
E P F Souto, L A Maia, R G Olinda, G J N Galiza, G D Kommers, E G Miranda-Neto, A F M Dantas, F Riet-Correa
Two cases of nasal pythiosis are reported in horses from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. From January 1986 to December 2015, the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Campina Grande received 830 equine samples, 156 (18.79%) of which were diagnosed with pythiosis. Of these, two horses (1.28%), a male and a female adult cross-breed, had lesions in the nasal cavity. Both horses had access to water reservoirs. Clinically, they had swelling in the rhinofacial region and a serosanguineous nasal discharge...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
N J Bamford, S J Potter, C L Baskerville, P A Harris, S R Bailey
The relationships between diet, obesity and insulin dysregulation in equids require further investigation due to their association with laminitis. This study examined the effect of dietary glycaemic load and increased adiposity on insulin sensitivity and adipokine concentrations in different equine breeds. Equal numbers of Standardbred horses, mixed-breed ponies and Andalusian horses were provided with ad libitum hay plus either cereal-rich (CHO; n = 12), fat-rich (FAT; n = 12) or control (CON; n = 9) meals over 20 weeks...
August 2016: Veterinary Journal
C S Smith, A McLAUGHLIN, H E Field, D Edson, D Mayer, S Ossedryver, J Barrett, D Waltisbuhl
Hendra virus (HeV) was first described in 1994 in an outbreak of acute and highly lethal disease in horses and humans in Australia. Equine cases continue to be diagnosed periodically, yet the predisposing factors for infection remain unclear. We undertook an analysis of equine submissions tested for HeV by the Queensland government veterinary reference laboratory over a 20-year period to identify and investigate any patterns. We found a marked increase in testing from July 2008, primarily reflecting a broadening of the HeV clinical case definition...
June 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
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