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J J Renema, A Menssen, W R Clements, G Triginer, W S Kolthammer, I A Walmsley
We demonstrate how boson sampling with photons of partial distinguishability can be expressed in terms of interference of fewer photons. We use this observation to propose a classical algorithm to simulate the output of a boson sampler fed with photons of partial distinguishability. We find conditions for which this algorithm is efficient, which gives a lower limit on the required indistinguishability to demonstrate a quantum advantage. Under these conditions, adding more photons only polynomially increases the computational cost to simulate a boson sampling experiment...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Henryk Laqua, Jörg Kussmann, Christian Ochsenfeld
Local hybrid functionals, that is, functionals with local dependence on the exact exchange energy density, generalize the popular class of global hybrid functionals and extend the applicability of density functional theory to electronic structures that require an accurate description of static correlation. However, the higher computational cost compared to conventional Kohn-Sham density functional theory restrained their widespread application. Here, we present a low-prefactor, linear-scaling method to evaluate the local hybrid exchange-correlation potential as well as the corresponding nuclear forces by employing a seminumerical integration scheme...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Yangen Zhou, Shun Zhang, Yu Ding, Leyuan Zhang, Changkun Zhang, Xiaohong Zhang, Yu Zhao, Guihua Yu
Simultaneous solar energy conversion and storage is receiving increasing interest for better utilization of the abundant yet intermittently available sunlight. Photoelectrodes driving nonspontaneous reversible redox reactions in solar-powered redox cells (SPRCs), which can deliver energy via the corresponding reverse reactions, present a cost-effective and promising approach for direct solar energy harvesting and storage. However, the lack of photoelectrodes having both high conversion efficiency and high durability becomes a bottleneck that hampers practical applications of SPRCs...
June 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Murooj Nadhom, Pavel Loskot
The Internet research is mainly driven by data. Obtaining such data by planning and launching measurement campaigns is rather time consuming and costly. Much more efficient, and in many cases, sufficient data acquisition strategy is to exploit the existing datasets available in public databases, repositories, and documents. Hence, the public data sources related to the Internet usage and other Internet statistics are systematically surveyed and categorized to make the search for the Internet data much easier and faster...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Mark G Shrime, Swagoto Mukhopadhyay, Blake C Alkire
Objective: To develop and test a method that allows an objective assessment of the value of any health policy in multiple domains. Methods: We developed a method to assist decision-makers with constrained resources and insufficient knowledge about a society's preferences to choose between policies with unequal, and at times opposing, effects on multiple outcomes. Our method extends standard data envelopment analysis to address the realities of health policy, such as multiple and adverse outcomes and a lack of information about the population's preferences over those outcomes...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
A Pievani, I M Michelozzi, B Rambaldi, V Granata, A Corsi, F Dazzi, A Biondi, M Serafini
There is still an unmet need for xenotransplantation models that efficiently recapitulate normal and malignant human hematopoiesis. Indeed, there are a number of strategies to generate humanized mice and specific protocols, including techniques to optimize the cytokine environment of recipient mice and drug alternatives or complementary to the standard conditioning regimens, that can be significantly modulated. Unfortunately, the high costs related to the use of sophisticated mouse models may limit the application of these models to studies that require an extensive experimental design...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alberto de Ramón-Fernández, Daniel Ruiz-Fernández, Diego Marcos-Jorquera, Virgilio Gilart-Iglesias
Nowadays, in many countries, stress is becoming a problem that increasingly affects the health of people. Suffering stress continuously can lead to serious behavioral disorders such as anxiety or depression. Every person, in his daily routine, can face many factors which can contribute to increase his stress level. This paper describes a flexible and distributed model to monitor environmental variables associated with stress, which provides adaptability to any environment in an agile way. This model was designed to transform stress environmental variables in value added information (key stress indicator) and to provide it to external systems, in both proactive and reactive mode...
June 14, 2018: Sensors
A Godfrey, V Hetherington, H Shum, P Bonato, N H Lovell, S Stuart
Wearable technology (WT) has become a viable means to provide low-cost clinically sensitive data for more informed patient assessment. The benefit of WT seems obvious: small, worn discreetly in any environment, personalised data and possible integration into communication networks, facilitating remote monitoring. Yet, WT remains poorly understood and technology innovation often exceeds pragmatic clinical demand and use. Here, we provide an overview of the common challenges facing WT if it is to transition from novel gadget to an efficient, valid and reliable clinical tool for modern medicine...
July 2018: Maturitas
J A Michel-Macarty, M A Murillo-Escobar, R M López-Gutiérrez, C Cruz-Hernández, L Cardoza-Avendaño
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Currently, telemedicine is levered upon the improvement in communication network technology such as Body Area Sensor Networks (BASN) to provided biomedicine solutions. Nevertheless, information security is an important issue since biomedical data is exchanged through insecure channels, which exposes private information that can be intercepted by malicious intruder. Therefore, secure communication protocols for multiuser networks in telemedicine applications are a big challenge...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Yaroub Elloumi, Mohamed Akil, Nasser Kehtarnavaz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The detection of optic nerve head (ONH) in retinal fundus images plays a key role in identifying Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) as well as other abnormal conditions in eye examinations. This paper presents a method and its associated software towards the development of an Android smartphone app based on a previously developed ONH detection algorithm. The development of this app and the use of the d-Eye lens which can be snapped onto a smartphone provide a mobile and cost-effective computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in ophthalmology...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Rui P Guerra, Alexandra M Carvalho, Paulo Mateus
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pharmacokinetics comprises the study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion over time. Clinical pharmacokinetics, focusing on therapeutic management, offers important insights towards personalised medicine through the study of efficacy and toxicity of drug therapies. This study is hampered by subject's high variability in drug blood concentration, when starting a therapy with the same drug dosage. Clustering of pharmacokinetics responses has been addressed recently as a way to stratify subjects and provide different drug doses for each stratum...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Samia Laokri, Rieza Soelaeman, David R Hotchkiss
BACKGROUND: The goal of universal health coverage is challenging for chronically under-resourced health systems. Although household out-of-pocket payments are the most important source of health financing in low-income countries, relatively little is known about the drivers of primary health care expenditure and the predictability of the burden associated with high fee-for-service payments. This study describes out-of-pocket health expenditure and investigates demand- and supply-side drivers of excessive costs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a central African country in the midst of a process of reforming its health financing system towards universal health coverage...
June 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Qiang Ma, Xian-Xiang Zeng, Chunjiao Zhou, Qi Deng, Peng-Fei Wang, Tong-Tong Zuo, Xu-Dong Zhang, Ya-Xia Yin, Xiong-Wei Wu, Li-Yuan Chai, Yu-Guo Guo
Highly catalytic electrodes play a vital role in exploiting the capability of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) but suffer from a tedious synthesis process and ambiguous interaction mechanisms for catalytic sites. Herein, a facile pyrolysis of urea was applied to prepare graphitic carbon nitride-modified graphite felt (GF@CN), and by the virtue of a density functional theory-assisted calculation, the electron-rich pyridinic nitrogen atom of CN granules is demonstrated as the adsorption center for redox species and plays the key role in improving the performance of VRFBs, with 800 cycles and an energy efficiency of 75% at 150 mA cm2...
June 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jinbao Liu, Jichang Han, Yang Zhang, Huanyuan Wang, Hui Kong, Lei Shi
The storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) should improve soil fertility. Conventional determination of SOC is expensive and tedious. Visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy is a practical and cost-effective approach that has been successfully used SOC concentration. Soil spectral inversion model could quickly and efficiently determine SOC content. This paper presents a study dealing with SOC estimation through the combination of soil spectroscopy and stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR), partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component regression (PCR)...
June 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Peng Tang, Jie Wu, Hou Liu, Youcai Liu, Xingding Zhou
One of the newly developed methods for Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) determination is leveraged on the cell enumeration by flow cytometry (FC) which could provide a rapid and automated solution for AOC measurement. However, cell samples staining with fluorescence dye is indispensable to reduce background and machine noise. This step would bring additional cost and time consuming for this method. In this study, a green fluorescence protein (GFP) tagged strain derived of AOC testing strain Pseudomonas fluorescens P-17 (GFP-P17) was generated using Tn5 transposon mutagenesis...
2018: PloS One
Sulav Duwal, Laura Dickinson, Saye Khoo, Max von Kleist
To achieve the 90-90-90 goals set by UNAIDS, the number of new HIV infections needs to decrease to approximately 500,000 by 2020. One of the 'five pillars' to achieve this goal is pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Truvada (emtricitabine-tenofovir) is currently the only medication approved for PrEP. Despite its advantages, Truvada is costly and requires individuals to adhere to the once-daily regimen. To improve PrEP, many next-generation regimen, including long-acting formulations, are currently investigated...
June 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Armen Khararjian, Prakash Mathew, Ajuni Choudhary, Alexander Baras
CONTEXT: - Intraoperative pathology consultation is an important tool for many surgical procedures and is deemed appropriate when the pathology result immediately alters surgical management. OBJECTIVE: - To evaluate the utility of intraoperative gross examinations of colorectal resections and to better understand the associated costs. DESIGN: - The pathology database of our institution was searched for colorectal resections for primary disease, and those cases were separated into 3 categories: frozen section performed, intraoperative gross examination performed, and no intraoperative consultation...
June 14, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Jun Yin, Yichuan Lin, Chunquan Zhang, Jing Li, Nanfeng Zheng
Perovskite based solar cells have been developed intensively in recent years due to their attractive applications in next generation photovoltaics with low cost and high efficiency. However, the fabrication processes need to be further improved to meet the requirement in actual industrial production with reliable process and scalable fabrication. Here, thermal / solvent engineering coordinately enhanced rapid crystallization strategy is reported to realize the fast and robust preparation of perovskite films...
June 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
D Dimitrov, D Pressyanov
The CD/DVDs used as radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) detectors can provide a sufficiently sensitive and cost-efficient option for passive radiation monitoring in underground mines. This note presents results of measurements made under real environmental conditions by CD/DVDs. Comparison with conventional diffusion chambers was made and good correspondence was observed. Correlation between 222Rn and 220Rn was studied by CD/DVDs and no signs for any correlation were observed. Dedicated study in a mine gallery showed that CD/DVDs can be successfully used for the purposes of ventilation diagnostics by identifying sources of air contaminated with radon...
June 13, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Caitlin McDowell, Maged Abdelsamie, Michael F Toney, Guillermo C Bazan
Organic photovoltaics (OPV) have the advantage of possible fabrication by energy-efficient and cost-effective deposition methods, such as solution processing. Solvent additives can provide fine control of the active layer morphology of OPVs by influencing film formation during solution processing. As such, solvent additives form a versatile method of experimental control for improving organic solar cell device performance. This review provides a brief history of solution-processed bulk heterojunction OPVs and the advent of solvent additives, putting them into context with other methods available for morphology control...
June 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
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