keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

cost efficient

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933699/room-temperature-arylation-of-thiols-breakthrough-with-aryl-chlorides
#1
Min Jiang, Haifang Li, Haijun Yang, Hua Fu
The formation of aryl C-S bonds is an important chemical transformation because aryl sulfides are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of biologically and pharmaceutically active molecules and organic materials. Aryl sulfides have traditionally been synthesized through the transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl halides with thiols. However, the aryl halides used are usually bromides and iodides; readily available, low-cost aryl chlorides often not reactive enough. Furthermore, the deactivation of transition-metal catalysts by thiols has forced chemists to use high catalyst loadings, specially designed ligands, high temperatures, and/or strong bases, thus leading to high costs and the incompatibility of some functional groups...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933095/direct-derivation-of-maize-plant-and-crop-height-from-low-cost-time-of-flight-camera-measurements
#2
Martin Hämmerle, Bernhard Höfle
BACKGROUND: In agriculture, information about the spatial distribution of crop height is valuable for applications such as biomass and yield estimation, or increasing field work efficiency in terms of fertilizing, applying pesticides, irrigation, etc. Established methods for capturing crop height often comprise restrictions in terms of cost and time efficiency, flexibility, and temporal and spatial resolution of measurements. Furthermore, crop height is mostly derived from a measurement of the bare terrain prior to plant growth and measurements of the crop surface when plants are growing, resulting in the need of multiple field campaigns...
2016: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932381/improving-the-efficiency-of-care-for-pediatric-patients-hospitalized-with-asthma
#3
Kathleen W Bartlett, Victoria M Parente, Vanessa Morales, Jillian Hauser, Heather S McLean
BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations are a leading cause of hospitalization among children. Despite the existence of national pediatric asthma guidelines, significant variation in care persists. At Duke Children's Hospital, we determined that our average length of stay (ALOS) and cost for pediatric asthma admissions exceeded that of our peers. Our aim was to reduce the ALOS of pediatric patients hospitalized with asthma from 2.9 days to 2.6 days within 12 months by implementing an asthma pathway within our new electronic health record...
December 8, 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931939/ex-situ-biogas-upgrading-and-enhancement-in-different-reactor-systems
#4
Panagiotis G Kougias, Laura Treu, Daniela Peñailillo Benavente, Kanokwan Boe, Stefano Campanaro, Irini Angelidaki
Biogas upgrading is envisioned as a key process for clean energy production. The current study evaluates the efficiency of different reactor configurations for ex-situ biogas upgrading and enhancement, in which externally provided hydrogen and carbon dioxide were biologically converted to methane by the action of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The methane content in the output gas of the most efficient configuration was >98%, allowing its exploitation as substitute to natural gas. Additionally, use of digestate from biogas plants as a cost efficient method to provide all the necessary nutrients for microbial growth was successful...
December 2, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931219/influences-on-teleconsultation-project-utilization-rates-the-role-of-dominant-logic
#5
David L Paul, Reuben R McDaniel
BACKGROUND: This research analyzes teleconsultation from both a mechanistic and complex adaptive system (CAS) dominant logic in order to further understand the influence of dominant logic on utilization rates of teleconsultation projects. In both dominant logics, the objective of teleconsultation projects is to increase access to and quality of healthcare delivery in a cost efficient manner. A mechanistic dominant logic perceives teleconsultation as closely resembling the traditional service delivery model, while a CAS dominant logic focuses on the system's emergent behavior of learning resulting from the relationships and interactions of participating healthcare providers...
December 8, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930955/environmental-impacts-and-production-performances-of-organic-agriculture-in-china-a-monetary-valuation
#6
Fanqiao Meng, Yuhui Qiao, Wenliang Wu, Pete Smith, Steffanie Scott
Organic agriculture has developed rapidly in China since the 1990s, driven by the increasing domestic and international demand for organic products. Quantification of the environmental benefits and production performances of organic agriculture on a national scale helps to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimum impacts on the environment. Data of organic production for 2013 were obtained from a national survey organized by the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930517/psychiatry-outpatient-visits-by-atopic-dermatitis-patients-varying-in-the-complexity-of-their-prescriptions-a-nationwide-cohort-study-conducted-from-2005-to-2013
#7
Jaeyong Shin, Young Choi, Eun-Cheol Park, Kwang Hoon Lee, Seo Young Hwang, Sang Ho Oh, Sang Gyu Lee
The uncomfortable symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) often trigger psychological stress.We investigated the association between AD severity and outpatient visits to psychiatrists using Korean National Health Insurance claims data from 2004 to 2013.This was a retrospective cohort analysis; we estimated hazard ratios (HRs).Of the 266,182 subjects, 18,290 (6.9%) had a history of visiting a psychiatrist, and 25,419 (9.5%) were diagnosed with AD. Compared with the subjects without AD, subjects with AD had a higher HR for visiting a psychiatrist (3...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930331/concentrator-photovoltaic-module-architectures-with-capabilities-for-capture-and-conversion-of-full-global-solar-radiation
#8
Kyu-Tae Lee, Yuan Yao, Junwen He, Brent Fisher, Xing Sheng, Matthew Lumb, Lu Xu, Mikayla A Anderson, David Scheiman, Seungyong Han, Yongseon Kang, Abdurrahman Gumus, Rabab R Bahabry, Jung Woo Lee, Ungyu Paik, Noah D Bronstein, A Paul Alivisatos, Matthew Meitl, Scott Burroughs, Muhammad Mustafa Hussain, Jeong Chul Lee, Ralph G Nuzzo, John A Rogers
Emerging classes of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929750/purification-and-immunogenicity-of-hemagglutinin-from-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-h5n1-expressed-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#9
Teen-Lee Pua, Xiao Ying Chan, Hwei-San Loh, Abdul Rahman Omar, Vidadi Yusibov, Konstantin Musiychuk, Alexandra C Hall, Megan V Coffin, Yoko Shoji, Jessica A Chichester, Hong Bi, Stephen J Streatfield
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 is an ongoing global health concern due to its severe sporadic outbreaks in Asia, Africa and Europe, which poses a potential pandemic threat. The development of safe and cost-effective vaccine candidates for HPAI is considered the best strategy for managing the disease and addressing the pandemic preparedness. The most potential vaccine candidate is the antigenic determinant of influenza A virus, hemagglutinin (HA). The present research was aimed at developing optimized expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and protein purification process for HA from the Malaysian isolate of H5N1 as a vaccine antigen for HPAI H5N1...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929748/evaluation-of-inflammatory-and-immune-responses-in-long-term-cultured-human-precision-cut-lung-slices
#10
Angela Temann, Tatiana Golovina, Vanessa Neuhaus, Carolann Thompson, Jessica A Chichester, Armin Braun, Vidadi Yusibov
The development of systems that are more accurate and time-efficient in predicting safety and efficacy of target products in humans are critically important in reducing the cost and duration of pharmaceutical development. To circumvent some of the limitations imposed by the use of animal models, ex vivo systems, such as precision-cut lung slices (PCLS), have been proposed as an alternative for evaluating safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we have established a human PCLS system and methodology for PCLS cultivation that can provide long-term viability and functionality in culture...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929667/optimizing-mri-logistics-focused-process-improvements-can-increase-throughput-in-an-academic-radiology-department
#11
Jeremy J O'Brien, Jeremy Stormann, Kelli Roche, Ines Cabral-Goncalves, Annamarie Monks, Donna Hallett, Koenraad J Mortele
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate the effect of focused process improvements on protocol selection and scheduling in the MRI division of a busy academic medical center, as measured by examination and room times, magnet fill rate, and potential revenue increases and cost savings to the department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Focused process improvements, led by a multidisciplinary team at a large academic medical center, were directed at streamlining MRI protocols and optimizing matching protocol ordering to scheduling while maintaining or improving image quality...
December 8, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929376/pharmaceutical-regulation-in-15-european-countries-review
#12
Dimitra Panteli, Francis Arickx, Irina Cleemput, Guillaume Dedet, Helen Eckhardt, Emer Fogarty, Sophie Gerkens, Cornelia Henschke, Jennifer Hislop, Claudio Jommi, Daphne Kaitelidou, Pawel Kawalec, Ilmo Keskimaki, Madelon Kroneman, Julio Lopez Bastida, Pedro Pita Barros, Joakim Ramsberg, Peter Schneider, Susan Spillane, Sabine Vogler, Lauri Vuorenkoski, Helle Wallach Kildemoes, Olivier Wouters, Reinhard Busse
In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden)...
October 2016: Health Systems in Transition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929327/the-development-of-automaticity-in-short-term-memory-search-item-response-learning-and-category-learning
#13
Rui Cao, Robert M Nosofsky, Richard M Shiffrin
In short-term-memory (STM)-search tasks, observers judge whether a test probe was present in a short list of study items. Here we investigated the long-term learning mechanisms that lead to the highly efficient STM-search performance observed under conditions of consistent-mapping (CM) training, in which targets and foils never switch roles across trials. In item-response learning, subjects learn long-term mappings between individual items and target versus foil responses. In category learning, subjects learn high-level codes corresponding to separate sets of items and learn to attach old versus new responses to these category codes...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929074/probing-the-role-of-cation-%C3%AF-interaction-in-the-thermotolerance-and-catalytic-performance-of-endo-polygalacturonases
#14
Tao Tu, Yeqing Li, Xiaoyun Su, Kun Meng, Rui Ma, Yuan Wang, Bin Yao, Zhemin Lin, Huiying Luo
Understanding the dynamics of the key pectinase, polygalacturonase, and improving its thermotolerance and catalytic efficiency are of importance for the cost-competitive bioconversion of pectic materials. By combining structure analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, eight mutagenesis sites having the potential to form cation-π interactions were identified in the widely used fungal endo-polygalacturonase PG63. In comparison to the wild-type, three single mutants H58Y, T71Y and T304Y showed improved thermostability (the apparent Tms increased by 0...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929037/internal-luminescence-efficiencies-in-ingap-gaas-ge-triple-junction-solar-cells-evaluated-from-photoluminescence-through-optical-coupling-between-subcells
#15
David M Tex, Mitsuru Imaizumi, Hidefumi Akiyama, Yoshihiko Kanemitsu
In-situ characterization is one of the most powerful techniques to improve material quality and device performance. Especially in view of highly efficient tandem solar cells this is an important issue for improving the cost-performance ratio. Optical techniques are suitable characterization methods, since they are non-destructing and contactless. In this work, we measured the power dependence of photoluminescence (PL) from the InGaP and GaAs subcells of an industry-standard triple-junction solar cell. High luminescence yields enhance the luminescence coupling, which was directly verified by time-resolved PL measurements...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928654/using-certified-timber-extraction-to-benefit-jaguar-and-ecosystem-conservation
#16
REVIEW
John Polisar, Benoit de Thoisy, Damián I Rumiz, Fabricio Díaz Santos, Roan Balas McNab, Rony Garcia-Anleu, Gabriela Ponce-Santizo, Rosario Arispe, Claudia Venegas
The jaguar Panthera onca requires large areas of relatively intact habitats containing adequate amounts of prey to survive. Since a substantial portion of jaguar range occurs outside of strict protected areas, there is a need for economic incentives for habitat conservation, which carefully managed selective logging can provide. Forest Stewardship Council and Pan European Forest Council certifications intended to regulate wood extraction to maintain the ecological functions of forests require evidence of biodiversity and ecosystem conservation...
December 7, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928452/evaluation-of-the-unit-rod-surgical-instrumentation-in-duchenne-scoliosis-a-retrospective-study
#17
Nedelcu T, Georgescu I
The article represents a retrospective clinical and radiological study. Objectives. Evaluating the safety and efficiency of the surgical treatment by using the Unit Rod for scoliosis in adolescents and children presenting Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. Summary. Surgical management of myopathic scoliosis still causes controversies regarding the timing of surgery (patient's age), the pelvic inclusion in the arthrodesis or the advantages of surgery over the conservatory treatment. The patients are very fragile and a long surgery with massive blood loss could lead to serious complications...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927807/the-cost-quality-relationship-in-european-hospitals-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Rikke Søgaard, Ulrika Enemark
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between cost and quality in European hospitals. METHODS: Juran's cost-quality curve served as a theoretical framework, linked to basic efficiency concepts. Based on systematic database searches, citation searches and cross-referencing, we identify 1093 empirical studies. After exclusion of studies from outside Europe (699), non-hospital settings (10 studies), lack of a cost parameter (194) or a quality parameter (27 studies), 22 studies (28 analyses) were assessed for direction of association and methodological heterogeneity...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925586/a-bayesian-additive-model-for-understanding-public-transport-usage-in-special-events
#19
Filipe Rodrigues, Stanislav Borysov, Bernardete Ribeiro, Francisco Pereira
Public special events, like sports games, concerts and festivals are well known to create disruptions in transportation systems, often catching the operators by surprise. Although these are usually planned well in advance, their impact is difficult to predict, even when organisers and transportation operators coordinate. The problem highly increases when several events happen concurrently. To solve these problems, costly processes, heavily reliant on manual search and personal experience, are usual practice in large cities like Singapore, London or Tokyo...
December 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925316/functional-species-encapsulated-in-nitrogen-doped-porous-carbon-as-a-highly-efficient-catalyst-to-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#20
Li Song, Tao Wang, Yiou Ma, Hairong Xue, Hu Guo, Xiaoli Fan, Wei Xia, Hao Gong, Jianping He
The scarcity, high cost and poor stability of precious metal-based electrocatalysts have stimulated the development of novel non-precious metal catalysts to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for the use in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Here, we in-situ fabricated a hybrid material (Co-W-C/N) with functional species (tungsten carbide and cobalt nanoparticles) encapsulated in N-doped porous carbon framework, through a facile multi-constituents co-assembly method combined with subsequent annealing treatment...
December 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
keyword
keyword
54320
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"