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Alexis Rump, Daniela Stricklin, Andreas Lamkowski, Stefan Eder, Matthias Port
In the case of an attack by a "dirty bomb" with cesium-137 there is a risk of internal contamination. The excretion of cesium-137 can be enhanced by Prussian Blue (PB), and thus the committed effective dose be reduced. We analyzed the benefit and costs of PB decorporation treatment. We simulated the reduction of the radiological dose by PB treatment after cesium-137 incorporation by inhalation. The saving of life time was quantified using the monetary "value of a statistical life" (VSL). Treatment costs were based on the market price of PB in Germany...
October 16, 2017: Drug Research
Xinan Liu, Ye Yu, Jinpeng Liu, Corrine F Elliott, Chen Qian, Jinze Liu
Motivation: Metagenomic read classification is a critical step in the identification and quantification of microbial species sampled by high-throughput sequencing. Although many algorithms have been developed to date, they suffer significant memory and/or computational costs. Due to the growing popularity of metagenomic data in both basic science and clinical applications, as well as the increasing volume of data being generated, efficient and accurate algorithms are in high demand. Results: We introduce MetaOthello, a probabilistic hashing classifier for metagenomic sequencing reads...
July 7, 2017: Bioinformatics
Mete Akgün, Hüseyin Demirci
Summary: The decreasing cost in high-throughput technologies led to a number of sequencing projects consisting of thousands of whole genomes. The paradigm shift from exome to whole genome brings a significant increase in the size of output files. Most of the existing tools which are developed to analyse exome files are not adequate for larger VCF files produced by whole genome studies. In this work we present VCF-Explorer, a variant analysis software capable of handling large files. Memory efficiency and avoiding computationally costly pre-processing step enable to carry out the analysis to be performed with ordinary computers...
July 7, 2017: Bioinformatics
Matt Kukla, Niccie McKay, Richard Rheingans, Jeff Harman, Jessica Schumacher, Karen L Kotloff, Myrone M Levine, Robert Breiman, Tamer Farag, Damian Walker, Dilruba Nasrin, Richard Omore, Ciara O'Reilly, Eric Mintz
In an environment of constrained resources, policymakers must identify solutions for financing and delivering health services that are efficient and sustainable. However, such solutions require that policymakers understand the complex interaction between household utilization patterns, factors influencing household medical decisions, and provider performance. This study examined whether and under what conditions out-of-pocket, transportation, and time costs influenced Kenyan households' choice of medical provider for childhood diarrhoeal illnesses...
October 5, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
Alessandro Pietrelli, Luca Valenti
Summary: Next-generation sequencing technologies have become the most powerful tool to discover genetic variants associated with human diseases. Although the dramatic reductions in the costs facilitate the use in the wet-lab and clinics, the huge amount of data generated renders their management by non-expert researchers and physicians extremely difficult. Therefore, there is an urgent need of novel approaches and tools aimed at getting the 'end-users' closer to the sequencing data, facilitating the access by non-bioinformaticians, and to speed-up the functional interpretation of genetic variants...
July 24, 2017: Bioinformatics
Pasi Rastas
Motivation: Accurate and dense linkage maps are useful in family-based linkage and association studies, quantitative trait locus mapping, analysis of genome synteny and other genomic data analyses. Moreover, linkage mapping is one of the best ways to detect errors in de novo genome assemblies, as well as to orient and place assembly contigs within chromosomes. A small mapping cross of tens of individuals will detect many errors where distant parts of the genome are erroneously joined together...
August 3, 2017: Bioinformatics
Christoph Bösel, Herbert Gross
In beam shaping applications, the minimization of the number of necessary optical elements for the beam shaping process can benefit the compactness of the optical system and reduce its cost. The single freeform surface design for input wavefronts, which are neither planar nor spherical, is therefore of interest. In this work, the design of single freeform surfaces for a given zero-étendue source and complex target irradiances is investigated. Hence, not only collimated input beams or point sources are assumed...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Morteza Maali Amiri, Mark D Fairchild
There have been numerous methods for accessing the reflectance spectra; some methods enable one to obtain the spectra directly, such as using a spectrophotometer, hyper-spectral camera, and so forth. Even though the accuracy by which the spectra are obtained can be very high, the high price of these methods could pose an obstacle. On the other hand, there has been an interest in estimation of the spectral reflectance from colorimetric information that is more easily attainable; the accuracy in this case might not be as high but these methods are the most cost efficient...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
R Miandad, Rajeev Kumar, M A Barakat, C Basheer, A S Aburiazaiza, A S Nizami, M Rehan
A low-cost novel carbon-metal double layered oxides (C/MnCuAl-LDOs) nano-adsorbent was synthesized by co-precipitation, for the adsorption of Congo red (CR), using modified carbon derived from pyrolysis of polystyrene (PS) plastic waste. The synthesized C/MnCuAl-LDOs has a crystalline structure with a high surface area of 60.43m(2)/g and pore size of 99.85Å. Adsorption of CR using all prepared adsorbents from aqueous solution under equilibrium and kinetic conditions were evaluated against different values of the pH (4-10), initial CR concentrations (25-250mg/g), contact time (0-310min) and temperature (30-50°C)...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jia Peng, Kun Wei, Shu Yu, Xiang Yang, Xiang Zhao, Yu Liu, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Na Zhao, Qing Huang, Wei-Ling Fu
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the BRAF gene have been strongly associated with failure in cancer treatment using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies. To better diagnose and assess the prognosis of cancer patients, mutation screening of the BRAFV600E gene should be performed prior to clinical anti-tumor drug therapy to avoid ineffective treatment. METHODS: In our previous study, we developed a real-time wild-type blocking PCR (WTB-PCR), which can amplify the mutant allele at high efficiency while simultaneously inhibiting the amplification of wild-type alleles...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
Peng Zhou, Yanyong Wang, Chao Xie, Chen Chen, Hanwen Liu, Ru Chen, Jia Huo, Shuangyin Wang
Water splitting is promising for energy storage and conversion, but the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) hinders its wide application. The search for efficient and low-cost electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution has been pursued owing to their significance for green energy generation and storage. Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) based materials are promising for the OER to improve this weakness. However, the wide application of LDHs is limited by their electronic properties and active sites. Here we report a simple and promising method to improve the OER catalytic activity via an acid-base reaction, which resulted in an exfoliation process and multiple defects including Co, Fe and O vacancies...
October 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Fei Zhang, Fengwu Bai, Xinqing Zhao
Production of bioenergy and bio-based chemicals by using fermentable sugars released from low-cost renewable lignocellulosic biomass has received great attention. Efficient cellulolytic enzymes are crucial for lignocellulose bioconversion, but high cellulase production cost is limiting the bioconversion efficiency of cellulosic biomass and industrial applications of lignocellulose biorefinery. Studies on induction and regulation of cellulase in filamentous fungi will help to further develop superior fungal strains for efficient cellulase production and reduce cellulase production cost...
November 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
A Sergejevs, C T Clarke, D W E Allsopp, J Marugan, A Jaroenworaluck, W Singhapong, P Manpetch, R Timmers, C Casado, C R Bowen
Photocatalysis has a potential to become a cost effective industrial process for water cleaning. One of the most studied photocatalysts is titanium dioxide which, as a wide band gap semiconductor, requires ultraviolet (UV) light for its photoactivation. This is at the wavelengths where the efficiency of present-day light emitting diodes (LEDs) decreases rapidly, which presents a challenge in the use of UV-LEDs for commercially viable photocatalysis. There is also a need for accurate photocatalysis measurement of remediation rates of water-borne contaminants for determining optimum exposure doses in industrial applications...
October 16, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Shafiq-Ur-Rehman Massan, Asim Imdad Wagan, Muhammad Mujtaba Shaikh, Muhammad Saleh Shah
In this work, the numerical data related to wind turbine micrositing problem is presented. The data is acquired using the differential evolution algorithm (DEA) at different wind speeds. The data obtained through DEA include total dissipated power, cost per installation of unit turbine, and the efficiency of algorithm after installation of any particular number turbines; and are depicted versus number of turbines. The data provided in this paper can be used directly without having to spend weeks of computational time to simulate the results; and can readily be used for comparison with other existing (Massan et al...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Chengcheng Li, Fengming Lin, Le Zhou, Lei Qin, Bingzhi Li, Zhihua Zhou, Mingjie Jin, Zhan Chen
BACKGROUND: The induction of cellulase production by insoluble carbon source cellulose was a common and efficient strategy, but has some drawbacks, such as difficult fermentation operation, substantial cellulase loss, long fermentation time, and high energy-consumption, resulting in high cost of cellulase production in industry. These drawbacks can be overcome if soluble carbon sources are utilized as the inducers for cellulase production. However, until now the induction efficiency of most soluble carbon sources, especially lactose and glucose, is still inferior to cellulose despite extensive efforts have been made by either optimizing the fermentation process or constructing the recombinant strains...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jafar Shariatkhah, Zahra Farajzadeh, Kolsoom Khazaee
BACKGROUND: Job stress is a prevalent and costly problem in different working conditions. Stress can degrade care quality in nurses and elevate their willingness to leave the job. This study aimed to determine the effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management on nurses' job stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study with a control group, 40 nurses from the educational hospitals in Birjand who had completed a job stress questionnaire with a score of more than 100 were selected and randomly allocated to two groups...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
John F Thomas, Douglas K Novins, Patrick W Hosokawa, Christina A Olson, Dru Hunter, Alison S Brent, Gerard Frunzi, Anne M Libby
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated a videoconference-based psychiatric emergency consultation program (telepsychiatry) at geographically dispersed emergency department (ED) sites that are part of the network of care of an academic children's hospital system. The study compared program outcomes with those of usual care involving ambulance transport to the hospital for in-person psychiatric emergency consultation prior to disposition to inpatient care or discharge home. METHODS: This study compared process outcomes in a cross-sectional, pre-post design at five network-of-care sites before and after systemwide implementation of telepsychiatry consultation in 2015...
October 16, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Benedykt R Jany, Arkadiusz Janas, Franciszek Krok
The quantitative composition of metal alloy nanowires on InSb semiconductor surface and gold nanostructures on germanium surface is determined by blind source separation (BSS) machine learning (ML) method using non negative matrix factorization (NMF) from energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectrum image maps measured in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The BSS method blindly decomposes the collected EDX spectrum image into three source components, which correspond directly to the X-ray signals coming from the supported metal nanostructures, bulk semiconductor signal and carbon background...
October 15, 2017: Nano Letters
Eun Ji Jeong, Dae Won Moon, Joon Suk Oh, Jin Seok Moon, Hyunbin Seong, Kwang Yup Kim, Nam Soo Han
Leuconostoc mesenteroides is used as a starter to produce high quality kimchi product. In this study, an efficient and economical cabbage juice medium (CJM) was developed by process optimization of cabbage extraction and pasteurization and by compositional supplementation of various lacking nutrients. The pasteurized cabbage juice was determined to be a good medium candidate to cultivate L. mesenteroides showing maximal cell numbers (9.85 × 10⁸ CFU/ml) after 24h. Addition of sucrose and yeast extract with soy peptone resulted in increment of bacterial cell counts in CJM showing supplementing effect of lacking nutrients...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Anuj Kumar, Abhishek Roy, Rashmi Priyadarshinee, Bratin Sengupta, Alok Malaviya, Dalia Dasguptamandal, Tamal Mandal
Rice is one of the imperative staple foods, particularly in the developing countries. The exponential boom in human population has resulted in the continuous expansion in the rice industry in order to meet the food demands. The various stages of paddy processing release huge quantity of solid wastes, mainly rice husk, rice husk ash and liquid wastes in the form of rice industry wastewater. The discharge of the rice industry wastewater imparts a substantial threat to the aquatic bodies and the nearby surrounding and, thus, consequently demands eco-benign treatment plan...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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