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Clinical microbiology

Linoj P Samuel
Clinical microbiology is a highly challenging technical discipline, which makes it difficult to harmonize processes and protocols. In addition, the lack of scientific consensus on some diagnostic algorithms and the need to address the diverse needs of different patient populations contribute to the lack of interlaboratory consistency. Laboratories utilize a number of measures and metrics, but the lack of standardized approaches and data collection means that they cannot effectively evaluate their performance against their peers...
June 23, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Pınar Zarakolu, Çağlayan Merve Ayaz, Gökhan Metan
Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterium that causes various hospital acquired infections, primarily ventilator-associated pneumonia and bloodstream infections. The multidrug resistance problem of the bacteria all over the world, is also a problem in our center. As the treatment options are decreasing combination therapies become a current issue. It is believed that in vitro synergy tests may guide to the selection of antibiotic combinations. The aim of this study was to present the antibiotic combinations used in the treatment of carbapenem resistant A...
April 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Mercedes Marín, Adrián Ruiz, Cristina Iglesias, Lidia Quiroga, Emilia Cercenado, Pablo Martín-Rabadán, Emilio Bouza, Belén Rodríguez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: The identification of Nocardia isolates still represents a challenge for MALDI-TOF MS despite its acceptance for most bacterial and fungal isolates. In this study we evaluate the identification of Nocardia isolates using direct spotting and an updated database. METHODS: Overall, 82 Nocardia isolates belonging to 13 species were identified by DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and secA1 genes. Nine of these well-characterized isolates from 6 Nocardia species were used to create an in-house library...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Iosif Bader, Efthalia Gkioxari, Vasiliki Petta, Theodoros Tsaras, Nikoletta Galanopoulou, Maria-Anna Archontouli, Filia Diamantea, Emmanouil Kastanakis, Napoleon Karagianidis, Vasiliki Filaditaki
Aspiration pneumonia has a high incidence in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia and results in high mortality rates. We aimed to evaluate microbiology and assess prognostic factors of aspiration pneumonia in the setting of a tertiary hospital pulmonology department. Community-acquired (CAAP) and healthcare-associated aspiration pneumonia (HCAAP) cases hospitalized over a period of a year were prospectively followed. Demographic, clinical, biological and radiological data were recorded at admission, while sputum, tracheal aspirates or bronchial washing samples were collected within 48 hours of admission...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Luca Guardabassi, Mike Apley, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Scott Weese
Optimization of antimicrobial treatment is a cornerstone in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Various national and international authorities and professional veterinary and farming associations have released generic guidelines on prudent antimicrobial use in animals. However, these generic guidelines need to be translated into a set of animal species- and disease-specific practice recommendations. This article focuses on prevention of antimicrobial resistance and its complex relationship with treatment efficacy, highlighting key situations where the current antimicrobial drug products, treatment recommendations, and practices may be insufficient to minimize antimicrobial selection...
May 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Aaron Pc Ong, Nikki Angbue Te, Sophia L Zagora, Richard Symes, Will Yates, Andrew A Chang, Peter J McCluskey, Matthew P Simunovic
IMPORTANCE: Endophthalmitis is a serious complication of intraocular procedures: knowledge of its causative organisms and outcomes may guide prevention and treatment. BACKGROUND: To determine the outcomes and spectrum of causative organisms in acute post-procedural endophthalmitis. DESIGN: A retrospective observational case series performed at a tertiary referral hospital during the period 1st July, 2012 to 31st July, 2017. PARTICIPANTS: 248 patients diagnosed with acute (≤ 6 weeks post inciting event) endophthalmitis...
June 21, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Wei-Hung Lin, Chin-Chung Tseng, An-Bang Wu, Yu-Tzu Chang, Te-Hui Kuo, Jo-Yen Chao, Ming-Cheng Wang, Jiunn-Jong Wu
Peritonitis is a serious complication and major cause of treatment failure in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Escherichia coli is the major pathogen in extraintestinal Gram-negative infections, including PD-related peritonitis. The outcomes of E. coli peritonitis in PD varied from relatively favorable outcomes to a higher incidence of treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of bacterial virulence and host characteristics on the outcomes of PD-related peritonitis caused by E...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Claire Calmettes, Frederic Gabriel, Elodie Blanchard, Vincent Servant, Stéphane Bouchet, Nathanael Kabore, Edouard Forcade, Camille Leroyer, Audrey Bidet, Valérie Latrabe, Thibaut Leguay, Stephane Vigouroux, Reza Tabrizi, Dominique Breilh, Isabelle Accoceberry, Manuel Tunon de Lara, Arnaud Pigneux, Noel Milpied, Pierre-Yves Dumas
Posaconazole prophylaxis has demonstrated efficacy in the prevention of invasive aspergillosis during prolonged neutropenia following acute myeloid leukemia induction chemotherapy. Antifungal treatment decreases serum galactomannan enzyme immunoassay diagnostic accuracy that could delay the diagnosis and treatment. We retrospectively studied patients with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent intensive chemotherapy and antifungal prophylaxis by posaconazole oral suspension. Clinical, radiological, microbiological features and treatment response of patients with invasive aspergillosis that occurred despite posaconazole prophylaxis were analyzed...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Seung Ji Kang, Su-Mi Choi, Jin-A Choi, Jin Un Choi, Tae-Hoon Oh, Seong Eun Kim, Uh Jin Kim, Eun Jeong Won, Hee-Chang Jang, Kyung-Hwa Park, Jong Hee Shin, Sun-Seog Kweon, Sook-In Jung
This study aimed to identify clinical or microbiological factors affecting the clinical relevance of Corynebacterium striatum isolated from blood cultures. A total of 64 isolates from 51 patients identified as C. striatum by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were assessed. More than two blood cultures were positive in 25 (48.1%) patients. Diabetes, solid tumor, and a history of previous exposure to antibiotics were more common in patients with multiple positive blood cultures...
2018: PloS One
Ray Hachem, Souha Kanj, Nelson Hamerschlak, Hala Saad, Fernanda Ferraz Assir, Nobuyoshi Mori, Ying Jiang, Fady Ghaly, Anne Marie Chaftari, Issam I Raad
BACKGROUND: The use of long-term central venous catheters (CVCs) could lead to serious bloodstream infections. Removal of the infected CVC and reinsertion of a new CVC are not always feasible and alternative lock therapy may be considered. We conducted a multicenter trial to assess the efficacy and safety of the lock therapy. METHODS: Between October 2013 and August 2014, we prospectively enrolled 20 patients with catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) or central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in our sister institutions in three countries including Brazil, Lebanon, and Japan...
June 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Leonardo Trombelli, Roberto Farina, Cléverson O Silva, Dimitris N Tatakis
OBJECTIVE: Clinical gingival inflammation is a well-defined site-specific condition for which several measurement systems have been proposed and validated, and epidemiological studies consistently indicate its high prevalence globally. However, it is clear that defining and grading a gingival inflammatory condition at a site level (i.e. a "gingivitis site") is completely different from defining and grading a "gingivitis case" (GC) (i.e. a patient affected by gingivitis), and that a "gingivitis site" does not necessarily mean a "GC"...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Leonardo Trombelli, Roberto Farina, Cléverson O Silva, Dimitris N Tatakis
OBJECTIVE: Clinical gingival inflammation is a well-defined site-specific condition for which several measurement systems have been proposed and validated, and epidemiological studies consistently indicate its high prevalence globally. However, it is clear that defining and grading a gingival inflammatory condition at a site level (i.e. a "gingivitis site") is completely different from defining and grading a "gingivitis case" (GC) (i.e. a patient affected by gingivitis), and that a "gingivitis site" does not necessarily mean a "GC"...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Iacovelli Alessandra, Spaziante Martina, Al Moghazi Samir, Giordano Alessandra, Ceccarelli Giancarlo, Venditti Mario
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia (KPC-Kp) has become a significant problem in terms of public health and clinical outcome in many hospitals in Southern Europe. Treatment options are usually limited and effective treatment of infections caused by these pathogens is a considerable challenge for clinicians. Ceftazidime-avibactam has been recently approved for the treatment of difficult-to-treat infections due to aerobic Gram-negative organisms in patients with limited treatment options...
June 20, 2018: Infection
Daneeya Ekapopphan, Athicha Srisutthakarn, Walasinee Moonarmart, Ruangrat Buddhirongawatr, Norasuthi Bangphoomi
This study aims to determine the microbiological profile and risk factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in canine severe corneal ulcers. Thirty-two corneal and conjunctival swabs were collected from dogs with diagnosed severe corneal ulcers that presented to Prasu-Arthorn veterinary teaching hospital in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand from June 2015 to June 2016. Microorganisms were identified by means of genotypic and phenotypic approaches. Of 32 ulcers sampled, 26 (81.3%) yielded culturable microorganisms with 24 bacterial isolates and 7 fungal isolates...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Sarah Lohrenz, Jessica Minion, Mamata Pandey, Kumudhini Karunakaran
In the literature, cases of blastomycosis in Canada have been documented in provinces bordering the Great Lakes, including Ontario and Quebec, as well as Manitoba. This is the first study to our knowledge reporting cases of mycosis seen in southern Saskatchewan suggesting a broader area of endemicity. We searched the Regina Qu'Appelle Health Region (RQHR) Microbiology Laboratory for all culture-confirmed cases of Blastomyces from January 2000 to December 2015 and identified 15 cases. Thirteen cases were reviewed, identifying common presenting symptoms, misdiagnosis, comorbidities, travel history, time from presentation to diagnosis, diagnostic specimen, treatment, and clinical outcome...
June 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
F S Ferreira, S V Brito, H D M Coutinho, E P Souza, W O Almeida, R R N Alves
In Brazil, although a large number of animals are used in traditional medicine (at least 354 species), information about their biological activities is scarce. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal potential of zootherapeutic by-products from animals used in Brazilian traditional medicine and discuss the ecological and cultural consequences of such practices. The species analyzed were: Tupinambis merianae (skin), Iguana iguana (skin and body fat), Crotalus durissus (skin and body fat), Boa constrictor (skin), Euphractus sexcinctus (body fat) and Coendou prehensilis (quills)...
June 19, 2018: EcoHealth
Andrew D Wiese, Marie R Griffin, C Michael Stein, William Schaffner, Robert A Greevy, Edward F Mitchel, Carlos G Grijalva
OBJECTIVES: Hospitalisations for serious infections are common among middle age and older adults and frequently used as study outcomes. Yet, few studies have evaluated the performance of diagnosis codes to identify serious infections in this population. We sought to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of diagnosis codes for identifying hospitalisations due to serious infections among middle age and older adults. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified hospitalisations for possible infection among adults >=50 years enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid healthcare programme (2008-2012) using International Classifications of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes for pneumonia, meningitis/encephalitis, bacteraemia/sepsis, cellulitis/soft-tissue infections, endocarditis, pyelonephritis and septic arthritis/osteomyelitis...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Jordana E Hoppe, Brandie D Wagner, Frank J Accurso, Edith T Zemanick, Scott D Sagel
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are frequently treated in the outpatient setting with oral antibiotics. However, little is known about the characteristics of PEx managed on an outpatient basis and the effectiveness of oral antibiotic therapy. We sought to prospectively evaluate clinical and laboratory changes associated with oral antibiotic treatment for PEx. METHODS: Children with CF between 8 and 18 years of age prescribed two weeks of oral antibiotics for a PEx were eligible to enroll...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Kailynn J DeRonde, Jennifer E Girotto, David P Nicolau
Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO), often occurring in young children, is the most frequently diagnosed type of osteomyelitis in pediatric patients. Optimizing antibiotics is essential as delays to receipt of appropriate therapy can lead to chronic osteomyelitis, as well as impairments in bone growth and development. Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) are in a key position to help improve the care of patients with AHO as they contain a pharmacist with expertise in antibiotic drug selection, optimization of dosing, and microbiologic test review...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Sabine Zirlik, Markus Friedrich Neurath, Norbert Meidenbauer, Michael Vieth, Florian Siegfried Fuchs
BACKGROUND In many studies, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has proven to be a useful tool in pulmonology; nevertheless, the application in this field is still experimental. By contrast, CLE is almost a standard technique in gastroenterology. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the identification of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) components applying CLE, using a dye. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 21 patients with various underlying diseases a bronchoscopy with BAL was performed. As in routine clinical practice common, BAL fluid (BALF) was analyzed in terms of cytologic, virologic, and microbiologic aspects...
June 19, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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