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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926828/harnessing-cancer-cell-metabolism-for-theranostic-applications-using-metabolic-glycoengineering-of-sialic-acid-in-breast-cancer-as-a-pioneering-example
#1
REVIEW
Haitham A Badr, Dina M M AlSadek, Motawa E El-Houseini, Christopher T Saeui, Mohit P Mathew, Kevin J Yarema, Hafiz Ahmed
Abnormal cell surface display of sialic acids - a family of unusual 9-carbon sugars - is widely recognized as distinguishing feature of many types of cancer. Sialoglycans, however, typically cannot be identified with sufficiently high reproducibility and sensitivity to serve as clinically accepted biomarkers and similarly, almost all efforts to exploit cancer-specific differences in sialylation signatures for therapy remain in early stage development. In this report we provide an overview of important facets of glycosylation that contribute to cancer in general with a focus on breast cancer as an example of malignant disease characterized by aberrant sialylation...
November 25, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926784/preoperative-characteristics-and-cytological-features-of-136-histologically-confirmed-pancreatic-mucinous-cystic-neoplasms
#2
Aristana Scourtas, Jonathan C Dudley, William R Brugge, Abdurrahman Kadayifci, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Martha B Pitman
BACKGROUND: Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) of the pancreas present a management conundrum. The majority are benign but all are resected due to their malignant potential. Recent studies have recommended nonsurgical management. In the current study, the authors analyzed the preoperative imaging, cytology, and cyst fluid characteristics of 136 histologically confirmed MCNs to assess predictors of a high-risk (HR) cyst for surgical triage. METHODS: MCNs resected at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2014 formed the study cohort...
December 7, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925679/value-of-shear-wave-elastography-versus-contrast-enhanced-sonography-for-differentiating-benign-and-malignant-superficial-lymphadenopathy-unexplained-by-conventional-sonography
#3
Shi Tan, Li-Ying Miao, Li-Gang Cui, Peng-Fei Sun, Lin-Xue Qian
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of shear wave elastography (SWE) and contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnosis of superficial lymphadenopathy with abnormal imaging findings, which could not be otherwise confirmed by conventional sonography. METHODS: Forty-two enlarged superficial lymph nodes in 42 patients who met the screening criteria for this study were evaluated by both contrast-enhanced sonography and SWE. All lymph nodes underwent both methods using biopsy pathologic findings as a reference standard...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925605/large-scale-sparse-learning-from-noisy-tags-for-semantic-segmentation
#4
Aoxue Li, Zhiwu Lu, Liwei Wang, Peng Han, Ji-Rong Wen
In this paper, we present a large-scale sparse learning (LSSL) approach to solve the challenging task of semantic segmentation of images with noisy tags. Different from the traditional strongly supervised methods that exploit pixel-level labels for semantic segmentation, we make use of much weaker supervision (i.e., noisy tags of images) and then formulate the task of semantic segmentation as a weakly supervised learning (WSL) problem from the view point of noise reduction of superpixel labels. By learning the data manifolds, we transform the WSL problem into an LSSL problem...
December 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925595/classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-whole-brain-hierarchical-network
#5
Jin Liu, Min Li, Wei Lan, Fang-Xiang Wu, Yi Pan, Jianxin Wang
Regions of interest (ROIs) based classification has been widely investigated for analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images to assist the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) including its early warning and developing stages, e.g., mild cognitive impairment (MCI) including MCI converted to AD (MCIc) and MCI not converted to AD (MCInc). Since an ROI representation of brain structures is obtained either by pre-definition or by adaptive parcellation, the corresponding ROI in different brains can be measured...
December 2, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925590/modality-invariant-image-classification-based-on-modality-uniqueness-and-dictionary-learning
#6
Seungryong Kim, Rui Cai, Kihong Park, Sunok Kim, Kwanghoon Sohn
We present a unified framework for image classification of image sets taken under varying modality conditions. Our method is motivated by a key observation that the image feature distribution is simultaneously influenced by the semantic-class and the modality category label, which limits the performance of conventional methods for that task. With this insight, we introduce modality uniqueness as a discriminative weight that divides each modality cluster from all other clusters. By leveraging the modality uniqueness, our framework is formulated as unsupervised modality clustering and classifier learning based on modality-invariant similarity kernel...
December 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924333/a-classical-description-of-subnanometer-resolution-by-atomic-features-in-metallic-structures
#7
S Trautmann, J Aizpurua, I Götz, A Undisz, J Dellith, H Schneidewind, M Rettenmayr, V Deckert
Recent experiments have evidenced sub-nanometer resolution in plasmonic-enhanced probe spectroscopy. Such a high resolution cannot be simply explained using the commonly considered radii of metallic nanoparticles on plasmonic probes. In this contribution the effects of defects as small as a single atom found on spherical plasmonic particles acting as probing tips are investigated in connection with the spatial resolution provided. The presence of abundant edge and corner sites with atomic scale dimensions in crystalline metallic nanoparticles is evident from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images...
December 7, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924218/sex-related-differences-in-the-associations-between-plasma-free-fatty-acid-levels-and-clinical-features-in-patients-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#8
Chengzhi Yang, Changlin Zhang, Jiansong Yuan, Jingang Cui, Shengwen Liu, Fenghuan Hu, Weixian Yang, Xuanye Bi, Shubin Qiao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that inefficient energy utilization may play a pivotal role in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, whether plasma free fatty acid (FFA), a main energy substrate of heart, has an effect on HCM remains unclear. Besides, several studies have suggested sex-related differences in HCM features and FFA metabolism. Here, we aimed to explore the association between plasma FFA levels and HCM and potential effects of sex on this relation. METHODS: A total of 412 patients (age 47...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924174/feasibility-study-of-computational-fluid-dynamics-simulation-of-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-based-on-dual-source-computed-tomography
#9
Jing Lu, Jie Yu, Heshui Shi
BACKGROUND: Adding functional features to morphological features offers a new method for non-invasive assessment of myocardial perfusion. This study aimed to explore technical routes of assessing the left coronary artery pressure gradient, wall shear stress distribution and blood flow velocity distribution, combining three-dimensional coronary model which was based on high resolution dual-source computed tomography (CT) with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. METHODS: Three cases of no obvious stenosis, mild stenosis and severe stenosis in left anterior descending (LAD) were enrolled...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923929/end-stopping-predicts-curvature-tuning-along-the-ventral-stream
#10
Carlos R Ponce, Till S Hartmann, Margaret S Livingstone
: Neurons in primate inferotemporal cortex are clustered into patches of shared image preferences. Functional imaging has shown that these patches are activated by natural categories (e.g. faces, body parts and places), artificial categories (numerals, words) and geometric features (curvature and real-world size). These domains develop in the same cortical locations across monkeys and humans, which raises the possibility of common innate mechanisms. Although these commonalities could be high-level template-based categories, it is alternatively possible that the domain locations are constrained by low-level properties, such as end-stopping, eccentricity and the shape of the preferred images...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923786/retinal-microvascular-network-alterations-potential-biomarkers-of-cerebrovascular-and-neural-diseases
#11
Delia Cabrera DeBuc, Gabor Mark Somfai, Akos Koller
Increasing evidence suggests that the conditions of retinal microvessels are indicators to a variety of cerebrovascular, neurodegenerative, psychiatric and developmental diseases. Thus, non-invasive visualization of the human retinal microcirculation offers an exceptional opportunity for the investigation of not only the retinal but also cerebral microvasculature. In this review, we show how the conditions of the retinal microvessels could be used to assess the conditions of brain microvessels because of the microvascular network of the retina and brain share in many aspects standard features in development, morphology, function and pathophysiology...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923715/imaging-phenotyping-using-radiomics-to-predict-micropapillary-pattern-within-lung-adenocarcinoma
#12
So Hee Song, Hyunjin Park, Geewon Lee, Ho Yun Lee, Insuk Sohn, Hye Seung Kim, Seung Hak Lee, Ji Yun Jeong, Jhingook Kim, Kyung Soo Lee, Young Mog Shim
INTRODUCTION: Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) with micropapillary pattern have been reported to have a poor prognosis. However, few studies have reported on the imaging-based identification of micropapillary component, which were all subjective studies dealing with qualitative CT variables. We aimed to explore imaging phenotyping using a radiomics approach for predicting micropapillary pattern within lung ADC METHODS: We enrolled 339 patients who underwent complete resection for lung ADC. Histologic subtypes and grades of the ADCs were classified...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923387/mammographic-texture-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-by-tumor-type-and-estrogen-receptor-status
#13
Serghei Malkov, John A Shepherd, Christopher G Scott, Rulla M Tamimi, Lin Ma, Kimberly A Bertrand, Fergus Couch, Matthew R Jensen, Amir P Mahmoudzadeh, Bo Fan, Aaron Norman, Kathleen R Brandt, V Shane Pankratz, Celine M Vachon, Karla Kerlikowske
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that mammographic texture features are associated with breast cancer risk independent of the contribution of breast density. Thus, texture features may provide novel information for risk stratification. We examined the association of a set of established texture features with breast cancer risk by tumor type and estrogen receptor (ER) status, accounting for breast density. METHODS: This study combines five case-control studies including 1171 breast cancer cases and 1659 controls matched for age, date of mammogram, and study...
December 6, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923231/congenital-absence-of-the-pericardium-a-systematic-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#14
Bo Xu, Jorge Betancor, Craig Asher, Adriana Rosario, Allan Klein
Congenital absence of the pericardium (CAP) is a rare condition. Failure to recognize the clinical features of this condition can lead to incorrect and delayed diagnosis. Limited data are available regarding the optimal approach to diagnose and manage patients with suspected CAP. Due to the rare nature of CAP, this condition can present diagnostic and management dilemmas for clinicians. Using 3 cases of CAP as a framework, a clinically focused review on the diagnosis and management of CAP is presented. Clinicians will be provided with a systematic approach to evaluating patients with suspected CAP, incorporating key history, examination, and multimodality cardiovascular imaging investigations...
December 7, 2016: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922892/galectin-3-expression-in-benign-and-malignant-skin-diseases-with-epidermal-hyperplasia
#15
Ze-Xin Jiang, Guo-Zhen Tan, Zhen-Rui Shi, Yu-Ping Zhang, Yan-Fang Han, Liangchun Wang
Galectin-3 has been suggested relative to tumor genesis, progression, and metastasis in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma that are the most common skin cancers characterized by malignant epidermal proliferation. In this study, we evaluated galectin-3 expression in seborrheic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, and infectious diseases including verruca vulgaris, condyloma acuminatum, and chromoblastomycosis that are pathologically featured by benign epidermal proliferation. Galectin-3 expression was shown by immunohistochemical staining and quantified using the Image Pro Plus V6...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922502/the-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophies-and-the-dystrophinopathies
#16
Stanley Jones P Iyadurai, John T Kissel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The classic approach to identifying and accurately diagnosing limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) relied heavily on phenotypic characterization and ancillary studies including muscle biopsy. Because of rapid advances in genetic sequencing methodologies, several additional LGMDs have been molecularly characterized, and the diagnostic approach to these disorders has been simplified. This article summarizes the epidemiology, clinical features, and genetic defects underlying the LGMDs...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922501/an-overview-of-congenital-myopathies
#17
Jean K Mah, Jeffrey T Joseph
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article uses a case-based approach to highlight the clinical features as well as recent advances in molecular genetics, muscle imaging, and pathophysiology of the congenital myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Congenital myopathies refer to a heterogeneous group of genetic neuromuscular disorders characterized by early-onset muscle weakness, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Congenital myopathies are further classified into core myopathies, centronuclear myopathies, nemaline myopathies, and congenital fiber-type disproportion based on the key pathologic features found in muscle biopsies...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922113/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-quantitative-phenotypic-analysis-of-ct-images-as-a-potential-marker-of-prognosis
#18
Jiangdian Song, Zaiyi Liu, Wenzhao Zhong, Yanqi Huang, Zelan Ma, Di Dong, Changhong Liang, Jie Tian
This was a retrospective study to investigate the predictive and prognostic ability of quantitative computed tomography phenotypic features in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 661 patients with pathological confirmed as NSCLC were enrolled between 2007 and 2014. 592 phenotypic descriptors was automatically extracted on the pre-therapy CT images. Firstly, support vector machine (SVM) was used to evaluate the predictive value of each feature for pathology and TNM clinical stage. Secondly, Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the prognostic value of these imaging signatures selected by SVM which subjected to a primary cohort of 138 patients, and an external independent validation of 61 patients...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921227/-nosocomial-pneumonia-from-a%C3%A2-radiological-perspective
#19
REVIEW
P Agarwal, A Wielandner
Due to the high morbidity and mortality, nosocomial pneumonia represents a serious risk in hospitalized patients. The increased risk of infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens makes a timely diagnosis and prompt therapy indispensable. A newly occurring or progressive infiltrate in any patient who has been hospitalized for more than 48 h should be viewed with suspicion. In contrast to community acquired pneumonia (CAP), radiography plays a limited role in the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
December 5, 2016: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921159/differentiation-of-uterine-leiomyosarcoma-from-atypical-leiomyoma-diagnostic-accuracy-of-qualitative-mr-imaging-features-and-feasibility-of-texture-analysis
#20
Yulia Lakhman, Harini Veeraraghavan, Joshua Chaim, Diana Feier, Debra A Goldman, Chaya S Moskowitz, Stephanie Nougaret, Ramon E Sosa, Hebert Alberto Vargas, Robert A Soslow, Nadeem R Abu-Rustum, Hedvig Hricak, Evis Sala
PURPOSE: To investigate whether qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) features can distinguish leiomyosarcoma (LMS) from atypical leiomyoma (ALM) and assess the feasibility of texture analysis (TA). METHODS: This retrospective study included 41 women (ALM = 22, LMS = 19) imaged with MRI prior to surgery. Two readers (R1, R2) evaluated each lesion for qualitative MR features. Associations between MR features and LMS were evaluated with Fisher's exact test. Accuracy measures were calculated for the four most significant features...
December 5, 2016: European Radiology
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