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Quantitative imaging

Wang Gang, Yu Lan, Zhou Xiao Ming, Li Zhi Ming, Zhao Rui Rui, Niu Lei, Sui Qing Lan, Li Hui Jian
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical significance of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging by evaluating cerebral hemodynamic changes quantitatively and qualitatively both before and after cranioplasty in patients with brain injury. METHODS: Sixteen patients with cerebral trauma underwent CTP imaging 2 days before and 10-15 days after cranioplasty. The cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time and time to peak were analysed in both the affected and corresponding contralateral regions, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, cortex and white matter...
August 22, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
Hieng Chiong Tie, Bing Chen, Xiuping Sun, Li Cheng, Lei Lu
The Golgi complex consists of serially stacked membrane cisternae which can be further categorized into sub-Golgi regions, including the cis-Golgi, medial-Golgi, trans-Golgi and trans-Golgi network. Cellular functions of the Golgi are determined by the characteristic distribution of its resident proteins. The spatial resolution of conventional light microscopy is too low to resolve sub-Golgi structure or cisternae. Thus, the immuno-gold electron microscopy is a method of choice to localize a protein at the sub-Golgi level...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yudu Li, Fan Lam, Bryan Clifford, Zhi-Pei Liang
OBJECTIVE: To provide a new approach for incorporating both spatial and spectral priors into the solution of the spectral quantification problem for magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). METHODS: A novel signal model is proposed, which represents the spectral distributions of each molecule as a subspace and the entire spectrum as a union-of-subspaces. Based on this model, the spectral quantification can be solved in two steps: a) subspace estimation based on the empirical distributions of the spectral parameters estimated using spectral priors, and b) parameter estimation for the union-of-subspaces model incorporating spatial priors...
August 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Andrew L Chang, Hon J Yu, Donald von Borstel, Taiki Nozaki, Saya Horiuchi, Yasuhiko Terada, Hiroshi Yoshioka
OBJECTIVE: This article covers the technical aspects and clinical applications of recent advancements in wrist MRI techniques, including T2 and T1rho mapping, compressed sensing, and isotropic 3D imaging using driven equilibrium sequences, variable-flip-angle refocusing pulse sequences, and parallel imaging. The clinical applications of these techniques include the quantitative analysis of cartilage and triangular fibrocartilaginous complex (TFCC) degeneration, faster scanning times, and improved resolution of complex wrist anatomy, allowing differentiation of degenerative from traumatic TFCC tears and improved morphologic evaluation of chondromalacia...
September 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Jiulong Zhang, Feng Zhang, Fuxia Xiao, Zuogang Xiong, Dong Liu, Ting Hua, Nekitsing Indima, Guangyu Tang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nerve root compression by lumbar disc herniation (LDH) induces a series of clinical symptoms, seriously affecting the patient's life and work. The purpose of this study is to investigate microstructural changes and fiber bundle abnormalities of the compressed L5 and S1 nerve roots in young patients with unilateral LDH by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Forty young patients with unilateral LDH and 17 healthy volunteers participated in the study, and 33 patients received follow-up DTI examination after one month of conservative treatment...
August 21, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
Madalsa Joshi, Jonathan R Dillman, Kamalpreet Singh, Suraj D Serai, Alexander J Towbin, Stavra Xanthakos, Bin Zhang, Weizhe Su, Andrew T Trout
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are increasingly used to quantify and monitor liver tissue characteristics including fat fraction, stiffness, and liver volume. The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-relationships between multiple quantitative liver metrics and patient-specific factors in a large pediatric cohort with known or suspected fatty liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, we retrospectively reviewed patient data and quantitative liver MRI results in children with known/suspected fatty liver disease...
August 21, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
Dmitriy Shin, Mikhail Kovalenko, Ilker Ersoy, Yu Li, Donald Doll, Chi-Ren Shyu, Richard Hammer
BACKGROUND: Visual heuristics of pathology diagnosis is a largely unexplored area where reported studies only provided a qualitative insight into the subject. Uncovering and quantifying pathology visual and nonvisual diagnostic patterns have great potential to improve clinical outcomes and avoid diagnostic pitfalls. METHODS: Here, we present PathEdEx, an informatics computational framework that incorporates whole-slide digital pathology imaging with multiscale gaze-tracking technology to create web-based interactive pathology educational atlases and to datamine visual and nonvisual diagnostic heuristics...
2017: Journal of Pathology Informatics
A Scharmga, K K Keller, M Peters, A van Tubergen, J P van den Bergh, B van Rietbergen, R Weijers, D Loeffen, E M Hauge, P Geusens
We evaluated whether cortical interruptions classified as vascular channel (VC) on high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) could be confirmed by histology. We subsequently evaluated the image characteristics of histologically identified VCs on matched single and multiplane HR-pQCT images. Four 3-mm thick portions in three anatomic metacarpophalangeal joint specimens were selected for histologic sectioning. First, VCs identified with HR-pQCT were examined for confirmation on histology...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Stefano Bencivenga, Max Bush, Katharina Schiessl, Scott Boden, Robert Sablowski
DELLA proteins associate with transcription factors to control plant growth in response to gibberellin (1) . Semi-dwarf DELLA mutants with improved harvest index and decreased lodging greatly improved global food security during the 'green revolution' in the 1960-1970s (2) . However, DELLA mutants are pleiotropic and the developmental basis for their effects on plant architecture remains poorly understood. Here, we show that DELLA proteins have genetically separable roles in controlling stem growth and the size of the inflorescence meristem, where flowers initiate...
August 21, 2017: Nature Plants
Tessa D Kooiman, Carly E Calabrese, Ryne Didier, Judy A Estroff, Bonnie L Padwa, Maarten J Koudstaal, Cory M Resnick
PURPOSE: Micrognathia is the initiating feature of Robin sequence (RS) and leads to airway obstruction. Prenatal identification of micrognathia is currently qualitative and has not correlated with postnatal findings in previous studies. Oropharyngeal airway space has not been evaluated prenatally. The purposes of this study were to 1) quantitate mandibular characteristics and oropharyngeal size at prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2) identify differences in fetuses with postnatal RS compared with those with micrognathia (without RS) and normal controls...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
David J Donnelly
The process of discovering and developing a new pharmaceutical is a long, difficult, and risky process that requires numerous resources. Molecular imaging techniques such as PET have recently become a useful tool for making decisions along a drug candidate's development timeline. PET is a translational, noninvasive imaging technique that provides quantitative information about a potential drug candidate and its target at the molecular level. Using this technique provides decisional information to ensure that the right drug candidate is being chosen, for the right target, at the right dose within the right patient population...
September 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Robert Turner, Daniel De Haan
The volume of published research at the levels of systems and cellular neuroscience continues to increase at an accelerating rate. At the same time, progress in psychiatric medicine has stagnated and scientific confidence in cognitive psychology research is under threat due to careless analysis methods and underpowered experiments. With the advent of ultra-high field MRI, with submillimeter image voxels, imaging neuroscience holds the potential to bridge the cellular and systems levels. Use of these accurate and precisely localized quantitative measures of brain activity may go far in providing more secure foundations for psychology, and hence for more appropriate treatment and management of psychiatric illness...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Janna E van Timmeren, Ralph T H Leijenaar, Wouter van Elmpt, Bart Reymen, Philippe Lambin
BACKGROUND: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans are typically acquired daily for positioning verification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Quantitative information, derived using radiomics, can potentially contribute to (early) treatment adaptation. The aims of this study were to (1) describe and investigate a methodology for feature selection of a longitudinal radiomics approach (2) investigate which time-point during treatment is potentially useful for early treatment response assessment...
August 22, 2017: Acta Oncologica
Thomas R Pfeiffer, Ajay C Kanakamedala, Elmar Herbst, Kanto Nagai, Conor Murphy, Jeremy M Burnham, Adam Popchak, Richard E Debski, Volker Musahl
PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this observational study was to determine which factors, including sex, are associated with increased rotatory knee laxity in collegiate athletes with no history of knee injuries. It was hypothesized that increased rotatory knee laxity, measured by a quantitative pivot shift test, would correlate with female sex, increased anterior translation during the Lachman test, generalized ligamentous laxity, and knee hyperextension. METHODS: Ninety-eight collegiate athletes with a median age of 20 (range 18-25) years with no history of knee injuries were tested...
August 19, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Dae Hee Kim, Hyuna Kim, Hyun Taek Lim
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to determine whether ocular sighting dominance may influence the ocular torsion in patients with unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy (UCSOP). METHODS: This retrospective study included 22 UCSOP patients with radiologic evidence of unilateral superior oblique muscle hypoplasia on orbital magnetic resonance imaging and 66 healthy individuals with normal ocular motility as controls. Ocular torsion was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively using digital fundus photography...
August 19, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
James C Lee, Kelley R Branch, Christian Hamilton-Craig, Eric V Krieger
This review summaries the utility, application and data supporting use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to evaluate and quantitate aortic regurgitation. We systematically searched Medline and PubMed for original research articles published since 2000 that provided data on the quantitation of aortic regurgitation by CMR and identified 11 articles for review. Direct aortic measurements using phase contrast allow quantitation of volumetric flow across the aortic valve and are highly reproducible and accurate compared with echocardiography...
August 19, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Mona Al Mukaddam, Chamith S Rajapakse, Robert J Pignolo, Frederick S Kaplan, Stacy E Smith
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an ultra-rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder of heterotopic ossification (HO) characterized by skeletal anomalies and episodic soft tissue swelling (flare-ups) that can transform into heterotopic bone. The progressive development of heterotopic bone and progressive arthropathy leads to significant limitation of mobility. This paper will review various imaging modalities used in evaluating episodic soft tissue swelling (flare-ups), heterotopic bone and skeletal anomalies...
August 16, 2017: Bone
Mai Elfarnawany, Seyed Alireza Rohani, Soroush Ghomashchi, Daniel G Allen, Ning Zhu, Sumit K Agrawal, Hanif M Ladak
High resolution images are used as a basis for finite-element modeling of the middle-ear structures to study their biomechanical function. Commonly used imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (CT) and optical microscopy require extensive sample preparation, processing or staining using contrast agents to achieve sufficient soft-tissue contrast. We compare imaging of middle-ear structures in unstained, non-decalcified human temporal bones using conventional absorption-contrast micro-CT and using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI)...
August 5, 2017: Hearing Research
Sanne M Jansen, Daniel M de Bruin, Dirk J Faber, Iwan J G G Dobbe, Erik Heeg, Dan M J Milstein, Simon D Strackee, Ton G van Leeuwen
Patient morbidity and mortality due to hemodynamic complications are a major problem in surgery. Optical techniques can image blood flow in real-time and high-resolution, thereby enabling perfusion monitoring intraoperatively. We tested the feasibility and validity of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and sidestream dark-field microscopy (SDF) for perfusion diagnostics in a phantom model using whole blood. Microvessels with diameters of 50, 100, and 400  μm were constructed in a scattering phantom...
August 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Mitsutomi Ishiyama, Laurie A Soine, Hubert J Vesselle
BACKGROUND: Cardiac sarcoidosis is associated with major adverse cardiac events including cardiac arrest, for which anti-inflammatory treatment is indicated. Oral corticosteroid is the mainstay among treatment options; however, adverse effects are a major concern with long-term use. It would be beneficial for providers to predict treatment response and prognosis for proper management strategy of sarcoidosis, though it remains challenging. Fluorine (F)-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography(CT) has an advantage over anatomical imaging in providing semi-quantitative functional parameters such as standard uptake value (SUV), metabolic volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), which are well-established biomarkers in oncology...
August 18, 2017: EJNMMI Research
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