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Quantitative imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031141/analysis-of-spastic-gait-in-cervical-myelopathy-linking-compression-ratio-to-spatiotemporal-and-pedobarographic-parameters
#1
Taro Nagai, Yasuhito Takahashi, Kenji Endo, Ryo Ikegami, Ryuichi Ueno, Kengo Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Gait dysfunction associated with spasticity and hyperreflexia is a primary symptom in patients with compression of cervical spinal cord. The objective of this study was to link maximum compression ratio (CR) to spatiotemporal/pedobarographic parameters. METHODS: Quantitative gait analysis was performed by using a pedobarograph in 75 elderly males with a wide range of cervical compression severity. CR values were characterized on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031113/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-small-animal-pet-shows-pre-and-post-synaptic-striatal-dopaminergic-deficits-in-an-animal-model-of-hiv
#2
Sanhita Sinharay, Dianne Lee, Swati Shah, Siva Muthusamy, Georgios Z Papadakis, Xiang Zhang, Dragan Maric, William C Reid, Dima A Hammoud
INTRODUCTION: In vivo imaging biomarkers of various HIV neuropathologies, including dopaminergic dysfunction, are still lacking. Towards developing dopaminergic biomarkers of brain involvement in HIV, we assessed the pre and postsynaptic components of the dopaminergic system in the HIV-1 transgenic rat (Tg), a well-characterized model of treated HIV+ patients, using small-animal PET imaging. METHODS: Fifteen to 18 month-old Tg and wild type (WT) rats were imaged with both [18F]-FP-CMT, a dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand (n=16), and [18F]-Fallypride, a D2/D3 dopamine receptor (D2/D3DR) ligand (n=16)...
August 31, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029139/quantitative-deformation-analysis-differentiates-ischaemic-and-non-ischaemic-cardiomyopathy-sub-group-analysis-of-the-vindicate-trial
#3
James R J Foley, Peter P Swoboda, Graham J Fent, Pankaj Garg, Adam K McDiarmid, David P Ripley, Bara Erhayiem, Tarique Al Musa, Laura E Dobson, Sven Plein, Klaus K Witte, John P Greenwood
Aims: To test the hypothesis that patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) have different torsion and strain parameters, and compare to healthy, age-matched controls. VINDICATE investigated efficacy of high-dose vitamin D on patients with heart failure (HF) secondary to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction of any aetiology. It is important to differentiate ICM and NICM as treatment and prognosis varies significantly. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) reliably determines aetiology of HF and tissue tagging techniques are recognized as the reference standard measures of strain and torsion...
October 3, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029074/multimodality-imaging-evaluation-of-chagas-disease-an-expert-consensus-of-brazilian-cardiovascular-imaging-department-dic-and-the-european-association-of-cardiovascular-imaging-eacvi
#4
Maria Carmo P Nunes, Luigi Paolo Badano, J Antonio Marin-Neto, Thor Edvardsen, Covadonga Fernández-Golfín, Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci, Bogdan A Popescu, Richard Underwood, Gilbert Habib, Jose Luis Zamorano, Roberto Magalhães Saraiva, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Fernando A Botoni, Márcia Melo Barbosa, Marcio Vinicius L Barros, Eduardo Falqueto, Marcus Vinicius Simões, André Schmidt, Carlos Eduardo Rochitte, Manoel Otávio Costa Rocha, Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, Patrizio Lancellotti
Aims: To develop a document by Brazilian Cardiovascular Imaging Department (DIC) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) to review and summarize the most recent evidences about the non-invasive assessment of patients with Chagas disease, with the intent to set up a framework for standardized cardiovascular imaging to assess cardiovascular morphologic and functional disturbances, as well as to guide the subsequent process of clinical decision-making. Methods and results: Chagas disease remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in Latin America, and has become a health problem in non-endemic countries...
September 25, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028905/quality-of-biological-images-reconstructed-using-localization-microscopy-data
#5
Blazej Ruszczycki, Tytus Bernas
Motivation: Fluorescence localization microscopy is extensively used to study the details of spatial architecture of subcellular compartments. This modality relies on determination of spatial positions of fluorophores, labeling an extended biological structure, with precision exceeding the diffraction limit. Several established models describe influence of pixel size, signal-to-noise ratio and optical resolution on the localization precision. The labeling density has been also recognized as important factor affecting reconstruction fidelity of the imaged biological structure...
September 25, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028326/ratiometric-ph-imaging-with-a-co-ii-2-mri-probe-via-cest-effects-of-opposing-ph-dependences
#6
Agnes E Thorarinsdottir, Kang Du, James H P Collins, T David Harris
We report a Co2-based magnetic resonance (MR) probe that enables the ratiometric quantitation and imaging of pH through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). This approach is illustrated in a series of air- and water-stable Co(II)2 complexes featuring CEST-active tetra(carboxamide) and/or hydroxyl-substituted bisphosphonate ligands. For the complex bearing both ligand types, variable-pH CEST and NMR analyses reveal highly-shifted carboxamide and hydroxyl peaks with intensities that increase and decrease with increasing pH, respectively...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028325/dna-aptamer-based-activatable-probes-for-photoacoustic-imaging-in-living-mice
#7
Jing-Jing Zhang, Lukas P Smaga, Nitya Sai Reddy Satyavolu, Jefferson Chan, Yi Lu
DNA aptamers have been demonstrated to be a powerful class of molecules for sensing a wide range of targets, but have so far been quite limited when applied to imaging in living animals, because most aptamer probes are fluorescence- based, which has limited imaging penetration depth. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has emerged as a promising alternative to MRI and X-ray tomography in biomedical imaging, due to its ability to afford high-resolution images at depths in the cm range. Despite its promise, PA imaging is still limited by the lack of a general strategy to design selective and activatable probes for a wide range of targets...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028040/ex-vivo-validation-of-photo-magnetic-imaging
#8
Alex Luk, Farouk Nouizi, Hakan Erkol, Mehmet B Unlu, Gultekin Gulsen
We recently introduced a new high-resolution diffuse optical imaging technique termed photo-magnetic imaging (PMI), which utilizes magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT) to monitor the 3D temperature distribution induced in a medium illuminated with a near-infrared light. The spatiotemporal temperature distribution due to light absorption can be accurately estimated using a combined photon propagation and heat diffusion model. High-resolution optical absorption images are then obtained by iteratively minimizing the error between the measured and modeled temperature distributions...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027859/quantitative-cerebral-blood-flow-using-xenon-enhanced-ct-after-decompressive-craniectomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Aditya Vedantam, Claudia S Robertson, Shankar P Gopinath
OBJECTIVE Few studies have reported on changes in quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) after decompressive craniectomy and the impact of these measures on clinical outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate global and regional CBF patterns in relation to cerebral hemodynamic parameters in patients after decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS The authors studied clinical and imaging data of patients who underwent xenon-enhanced CT (XeCT) CBF studies after decompressive craniectomy for evacuation of a mass lesion and/or to relieve intractable intracranial hypertension...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027530/-automatic-morphometric-analysis-as-a-method-for-determining-the-level-of-extracellular-matrix-components-and-for-quantifying-nuclear-antigens
#10
I S Gumenyuk, L M Chuprinenko, A S Sotnichenko, T V Gaivoronskaya, S E Gumenyuk, E A Gubareva, E V Kuevda, V A Krutova, S N Alekseenko
Automated image analysis methods are highly important for biotechnology research. The authors developed and tested a program for the morphometric analysis of photomicrographs of the sections processed using the standard immunohistochemical examination protocols. The color deconvolution method used in the algorithm was proven to be effective in mapping the distribution of DAB chromogen in the sample containing multiple dyes. The experiment demonstrated that the level of extracellular matrix proteins could be comparatively quantified in different groups of samples...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027209/heterogeneous-distribution-of-alectinib-in-neuroblastoma-xenografts-revealed-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionisation-mass-spectrometry-imaging-a-pilot-study
#11
Shoraku Ryu, Mitsuhiro Hayashi, Hiroaki Aikawa, Isamu Okamoto, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Akinobu Hamada
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The penetration of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor alectinib in neuroblastomas and the relationship between alectinib and ALK expression are unknown. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative investigation of the inter- and intra-tumoural distribution of alectinib in different neuroblastoma xenograft models using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The distribution of alectinib in NB1 (ALK amplification) and SK-N-FI (ALK wild-type) xenograft tissues was analysed using MALDI-MSI...
October 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026905/imaging-a%C3%AE-1-42-fibril-elongation-reveals-strongly-polarised-growth-and-growth-incompetent-states
#12
Laurence J Young, Gabriele S Kaminski Schierle, Clemens F Kaminski
The major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is the deposition of plaques of amyloid fibrils formed from amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Kinetic studies have contributed significantly towards a mechanistic understanding of amyloid fibril self-assembly, however dynamic features of the aggregation process cannot be captured using ensemble methods. Here we present an assay for imaging Aβ42 aggregation dynamics at the single fibril level, allowing for the quantitative extraction of concentration and temperature dependent kinetic parameters...
October 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026896/tau-and-pet-mri-imaging-biomarkers-for-detecting-and-diagnosing-early-dementia
#13
Yongxia Zhou, Bing Bai
Specific objective of this project is to quantify the neuropathological tau depositions in brain regions and to investigate primary age-related tau pathology and associations with amyloid and glucose-metabolism, neurocognitive tests and MRI metrics. Preliminary results demonstrated higher temporal deposition especially in the hippocampus and the inferior temporal regions compared to mean cortical deposition. Quantitative Braak stage-based regional analyses found highest tau deposition in the Braak stage II in the preclinical samples...
July 2017: Jacobs Journal of Medical Diagnosis and Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026204/engineering-and-physical-sciences-in-oncology-challenges-and-opportunities
#14
REVIEW
Michael J Mitchell, Rakesh K Jain, Robert Langer
The principles of engineering and physics have been applied to oncology for nearly 50 years. Engineers and physical scientists have made contributions to all aspects of cancer biology, from quantitative understanding of tumour growth and progression to improved detection and treatment of cancer. Many early efforts focused on experimental and computational modelling of drug distribution, cell cycle kinetics and tumour growth dynamics. In the past decade, we have witnessed exponential growth at the interface of engineering, physics and oncology that has been fuelled by advances in fields including materials science, microfabrication, nanomedicine, microfluidics, imaging, and catalysed by new programmes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Physical Sciences in Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology...
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026139/partial-volume-correction-for-pet-quantification-and-its-impact-on-brain-network-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Jiarui Yang, Chenhui Hu, Ning Guo, Joyita Dutta, Lucia M Vaina, Keith A Johnson, Jorge Sepulcre, Georges El Fakhri, Quanzheng Li
Amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a valuable tool for research and diagnosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Partial volume effects caused by the limited spatial resolution of PET scanners degrades the quantitative accuracy of PET image. In this study, we have applied a method to evaluate the impact of a joint-entropy based partial volume correction (PVC) technique on brain networks learned from a clinical dataset of AV-45 PET image and compare network properties of both uncorrected and corrected image-based brain networks...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026095/alterations-of-regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-in-pituitary-adenoma-patients-with-visual-impairment
#16
Guidong Song, Jicheng Qiu, Chuzhong Li, Jiye Li, Songbai Gui, Haibo Zhu, Yazhuo Zhang
Evidences have showed that the deprivation of vision can considerably alter the resting-state activity both within and beyond the visual cortices. However, the functional changes of the brain cortices related to partially vision-deprivation are still largely unknown. Using resting-state functional MR imaging, we quantitatively evaluated the regional homogeneity(ReHo) and functional connectivity(FC) changes between 25 pituitary adenoma patients with visual impairment and 25 healthy controls(HCs). Compared with HCs, PAs exhibited significant increased ReHo in the left superior occipital gyrus, bilateral middle occipital gyrus and reduced ReHo in the left inferior frontal gyrus and right middle temporal gyrus...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025989/low-level-endogenous-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-psma-expression-in-non-prostatic-tumor-xenografts-is-sufficient-for-in-vivo-tumor-targeting-and-imaging
#17
Sridhar Nimmagadda, Mrudula Pullambhatla, Ying Chen, Princy Parsana, Ala Lisok, Samit Chatterjee, Ronnie Mease, Steven P Rowe, Shawn E Lupold, Kenneth J Pienta, Martin G Pomper
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed in prostate cancer and within the neovasculature of other solid tumors. The non-prostatic expression of PSMA has been reported exclusively within the neovasculature endothelial cells of non-prostate cancers, however, there are few reports on PSMA expression on epithelial cells. Herein we describe PSMA expression in non-prostatic epithelial cells and characterize the potential of PSMA-binding agents to non-invasively detect that expression. METHODS: PSMA expression data was extracted from publicly available genomic databases...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025210/up-to-date-doppler-techniques-for-breast-tumor-vascularity-superb-microvascular-imaging-and-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound
#18
Ah Young Park, Bo Kyoung Seo
Ultrasonographic Doppler techniques have improved greatly over the years, allowing more sophisticated evaluation of breast tumor vascularity. Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with second-generation contrast agents are two representative up-to-date techniques. SMI is a sensitive Doppler technique that adopts an intelligent filter system to separate low-flow signals from artifacts. With the development of second-generation contrast agents, CEUS has also emerged as a useful Doppler technique for evaluating tumor microcirculation...
August 19, 2017: Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024735/quantitative-analysis-of-technological-innovation-in-urology
#19
Nikita R Bhatt, Niall F Davis, David M Dalton, T E D McDermott, Robert J Flynn, Arun Z Thomas, Rustom P Manecksha
OBJECTIVE: To assess major areas of technological innovation in urology in the last 20 years using patent and publication data. METHODS: Patent and MEDLINE databases were searched between 1980 and 2012 electronically using the terms urology OR urological OR urologist AND "surgeon" OR "surgical" OR "surgery". The patent codes obtained were grouped in technology clusters, then further analyzed with individual searches, and growth curves were plotted. Growth rates and patterns were analyzed, and patents were correlated with publications as a measure of scientific support and of clinical adoption...
October 9, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024511/the-relationship-between-linear-osteological-and-radiographic-measurements-of-the-human-calcaneus-and-talus
#20
David Agoada
Plain radiographs of the foot are a common form of examination in individuals when medical evaluation is indicated. Their availability makes them useful for studying human variation where large sample sizes are crucial. Calcaneal and talar morphology are critical in the understanding of human foot form and function, but few studies have examined the accuracy of linear measurements of these bones taken from radiographs. If linear measurements are to be used in quantitative analysis, their accuracy must first be demonstrated...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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