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Quantitative imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719742/integrated-smartphone-app-chip-system-for-on-site-ppb-level-colorimetric-quantitation-of-aflatoxins
#1
Xiaochun Li, Fan Yang, Jessica X H Wong, Hua-Zhong Yu
We demonstrate herein an integrated, smartphone-app-chip (SPAC) system for on-site quantitation of food toxins, as demonstrated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), at parts-per-billion (ppb) level in food products. The detection is based on an indirect competitive immunoassay fabricated on a transparent plastic chip with the assistance of a microfluidic channel plate. A 3D-printed optical accessory attached to a smartphone is adapted to align the assay chip and to provide uniform illumination for imaging, with which high-quality images of the assay chip are captured by the smartphone camera and directly processed using a custom-developed Android app...
July 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718993/role-of-fdg-pet-mri-fdg-pet-ct-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-perfusion-mri-in-differentiating-radiation-necrosis-from-tumor-recurrence-in-glioblastomas
#2
Mojgan Hojjati, Chaitra Badve, Vasant Garg, Curtis Tatsuoka, Lisa Rogers, Andrew Sloan, Peter Faulhaber, Pablo R Ros, Leo J Wolansky
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare the utility of quantitative PET/MRI, dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI (pMRI), and PET/CT in differentiating radiation necrosis (RN) from tumor recurrence (TR) in patients with treated glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). METHODS: The study included 24 patients with GBM treated with surgery, radiotherapy, and temozolomide who presented with progression on imaging follow-up. All patients underwent PET/MRI and pMRI during a single examination...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718938/quality-control-of-ultrasound-for-fetal-biometry-results-from-the-intergrowth-21-st-project
#3
Angelo Cavallaro, Stephen T Ash, Raffaele Napolitano, Sikolia Wanyonyi, Eric O Ohuma, Malid Molloholli, Joyce Sande, Ippokratis Sarris, Christos Ioannou, Tess Norris, Vera Donadono, Maria Carvalho, Manorama Purwar, Fernando C Barros, Yasmin A Jaffer, Enrico Bertino, Ruyan Pang, Michael G Gravett, Laurent J Salomon, Julia Alison Noble, Douglas G Altman, Aris T Papageorghiou
OBJECTIVES: To assess a comprehensive package of ultrasound quality control in a large multicentre study of fetal growth - the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. METHODS: We performed quality control (QC) measures on 20,313 ultrasound scan images taken prospectively from 4,321 fetuses at 14-41 weeks' gestation in eight geographical locations. At the time of each ultrasound examination, three fetal biometric variables were measured in triplicate on separately generated images: head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL)...
July 18, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718466/exploring-viscosity-polarity-and-temperature-sensitivity-of-bodipy-based-molecular-rotors
#4
Aurimas Vyšniauskas, Ismael López-Duarte, Nicolas Duchemin, Thanh-Truc Vu, Yilei Wu, Ekaterina M Budynina, Yulia A Volkova, Eduardo Peña Cabrera, Diana E Ramírez-Ornelas, Marina K Kuimova
Microviscosity is a key parameter controlling the rate of diffusion and reactions on the microscale. One of the most convenient tools for measuring microviscosity is by fluorescent viscosity sensors termed 'molecular rotors'. BODIPY-based molecular rotors in particular proved extremely useful in combination with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, for providing quantitative viscosity maps of living cells as well as measuring dynamic changes in viscosity over time. In this work, we investigate several new BODIPY-based molecular rotors with the aim of improving on the current viscosity sensing capabilities and understanding how the structure of the fluorophore is related to its function...
July 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718074/advances-in-imaging-instrumentation-for-nuclear-cardiology
#5
Jae Sung Lee, Gil Kovalski, Tali Sharir, Dong Soo Lee
Advances in imaging instrumentation and technology have greatly contributed to nuclear cardiology. Dedicated cardiac SPECT cameras incorporating novel, highly efficient detector, collimator, and system designs have emerged with the expansion of nuclear cardiology. Solid-state radiation detectors incorporating cadmium zinc telluride, which directly convert radiation to electrical signals and yield improved energy resolution and spatial resolution and enhanced count sensitivity geometries, are increasingly gaining favor as the detector of choice for application in dedicated cardiac SPECT systems...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717572/multiphoton-microscopy-for-label-free-identification-of-intramural-metastasis-in-human-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Jian Xu, Deyong Kang, Yaping Zeng, Shuangmu Zhuo, Xiaoqin Zhu, Liwei Jiang, Jianxin Chen, Jiangbo Lin
For complete removal of cancerous tissue in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), intramural metastasis (IM) should be identified preoperatively or intraoperatively. Here, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was introduced for label-free identification of IM in the esophageal wall, by a combination of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging, and spectral analysis. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the IM region was also performed. Quantitative parameters, including 3D fiber orientation, were measured by 3D-weighted orientation vector summation...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717568/robust-total-retina-thickness-segmentation-in-optical-coherence-tomography-images-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#7
Freerk G Venhuizen, Bram van Ginneken, Bart Liefers, Mark J J P van Grinsven, Sascha Fauser, Carel Hoyng, Thomas Theelen, Clara I Sánchez
We developed a fully automated system using a convolutional neural network (CNN) for total retina segmentation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) that is robust to the presence of severe retinal pathology. A generalized U-net network architecture was introduced to include the large context needed to account for large retinal changes. The proposed algorithm outperformed qualitative and quantitatively two available algorithms. The algorithm accurately estimated macular thickness with an error of 14.0 ± 22...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717412/diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-molecular-imaging-tool-caught-between-hope-hype-and-the-real-world-of-personalized-oncology
#8
REVIEW
Abhishek Mahajan, Sneha S Deshpande, Meenakshi H Thakur
"Personalized oncology" is a multi-disciplinary science, which requires inputs from various streams for optimal patient management. Humongous progress in the treatment modalities available and the increasing need to provide functional information in addition to the morphological data; has led to leaping progress in the field of imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging has undergone tremendous progress with various newer MR techniques providing vital functional information and is becoming the cornerstone of "radiomics/radiogenomics"...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717124/hyper-stain-inspector-a-framework-for-robust-registration-and-localised-co-expression-analysis-of-multiple-whole-slide-images-of-serial-histology-sections
#9
Nicholas Trahearn, David Epstein, Ian Cree, David Snead, Nasir Rajpoot
In this paper, we present a fast method for registration of multiple large, digitised whole-slide images (WSIs) of serial histology sections. Through cross-slide WSI registration, it becomes possible to select and analyse a common visual field across images of several serial section stained with different protein markers. It is, therefore, a critical first step for any downstream co-localised cross-slide analysis. The proposed registration method uses a two-stage approach, first estimating a fast initial alignment using the tissue sections' external boundaries, followed by an efficient refinement process guided by key biological structures within the visual field...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716680/three-dimensional-adiabatic-inversion-recovery-prepared-ultrashort-echo-time-cones-3d-ir-ute-cones-imaging-of-cortical-bone-in-the-hip
#10
Amin Nazaran, Michael Carl, Yajun Ma, Saeed Jerban, Yanchun Zhu, Xing Lu, Jiang Du, Eric Y Chang
PURPOSE: We present three-dimensional adiabatic inversion recovery prepared ultrashort echo time Cones (3D IR-UTE-Cones) imaging of cortical bone in the hip of healthy volunteers using a clinical 3T scanner. METHODS: A 3D IR-UTE-Cones sequence, based on a short pulse excitation followed by a 3D Cones trajectory, with a nominal TE of 32μs, was employed for high contrast morphological imaging of cortical bone in the hip of heathy volunteers. Signals from soft tissues such as muscle and marrow fat were suppressed via adiabatic inversion and signal nulling...
July 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716583/quantitative-analysis-of-geometry-and-lateral-symmetry-of-proximal-middle-cerebral-artery
#11
Roman Peter, Bart J Emmer, Adriaan C G M van Es, Theo van Walsum
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our work is to quantitatively assess clinically relevant geometric properties of proximal middle cerebral arteries (pMCA), to investigate the degree of their lateral symmetry, and to evaluate whether the pMCA can be modeled by using state-of-the-art deformable image registration of the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres. METHODS: Individual pMCA segments were identified, quantified, and statistically evaluated on a set of 55 publicly available magnetic resonance angiography time-of-flight images...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716215/clinical-and-radiographic-assessment-of-the-efficacy-of-a-collagen-membrane-in-regenerative-endodontics-a-randomized-controlled-clinical%C3%A2-trial
#12
Xijun Jiang, He Liu, Chufang Peng
INTRODUCTION: Recent reviews confirm a general lack of randomized, controlled clinical studies on the efficacy of regenerative endodontics in immature teeth affected by pulp and periapical diseases. Moreover, we have no evidence of the curative efficacy of collagen membranes used as scaffolds in regenerative endodontics. Here, we evaluated whether a Bio-Gide collagen membrane (Geistlich Pharma AG, Wolhusen, Switzerland) has efficacy in promoting dentin formation in regenerative endodontics...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715775/evolution-of-anti-her2-therapies-for-cancer-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Sagun Parakh, Hui K Gan, Adam C Parslow, Ingrid J G Burvenich, Antony W Burgess, Andrew M Scott
The development of HER2-directed monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors have provided benefits to cancer patients, as well as produced many insights into the biology of the ErbB receptor family. Current therapies based on ErbB family members have resulted in improved overall survival with associated improvements in quality of life for the cancer patients that respond to treatment. Compared to monotherapy using either two antibodies to block the HER2 receptor blockade or combinatorial approaches with HER2 antibodies and standard therapies has provided additional benefits...
July 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715618/measurement-of-net-formation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-flow-cytometry
#14
Sakiko Masuda, Sakika Shimizu, Junji Matsuo, Yuka Nishibata, Yoshihiro Kusunoki, Fumihiko Hattanda, Haruki Shida, Daigo Nakazawa, Utano Tomaru, Tatsuya Atsumi, Akihiro Ishizu
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular chromatin fibers adorned with antimicrobial proteins, such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), which are extruded from activated neutrophils. NETosis is the metamorphosis of neutrophils with NET formation that follows decondensation of DNA and rupture of the plasma membrane. Although NETs play important roles in innate immunity, excessive formation of NETs can be harmful to the hosts. Until now, various methods for evaluation of NETs have been reported. Although each has a virtue, the gold standard has not been established...
July 17, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715392/immunofluorescence-analysis-of-stress-granule-formation-after-bacterial-challenge-of-mammalian-cells
#15
Pascale Vonaesch, Philippe J Sansonetti, Pamela Schnupf
Fluorescent imaging of cellular components is an effective tool to investigate host-pathogen interactions. Pathogens can affect many different features of infected cells, including organelle ultrastructure, cytoskeletal network organization, as well as cellular processes such as Stress Granule (SG) formation. The characterization of how pathogens subvert host processes is an important and integral part of the field of pathogenesis. While variable phenotypes may be readily visible, the precise analysis of the qualitative and quantitative differences in the cellular structures induced by pathogen challenge is essential for defining statistically significant differences between experimental and control samples...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715383/discrimination-and-characterization-of-heterocellular-populations-using-quantitative-imaging-techniques
#16
Colleen M Garvey, Torin A Gerhart, Shannon M Mumenthaler
Cellular processes are complex and result from the interplay between multiple cell types and their environment. Existing cell biology techniques often do not allow for accurate interpretation of this interplay. Using a quantitative imaging-based approach, we present a high-content protocol for characterizing the dynamic phenotypic responses (i.e. morphology changes, proliferation, apoptosis) of heterogeneous cell populations to changes in environmental stimuli. We highlight our ability to distinguish between cell types based upon either fluorescence intensity or inherent morphology features depending on the application...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715339/development-of-a-low-cost-medical-ultrasound-scanner-using-a-monostatic-synthetic-aperture
#17
Thomas L A van den Heuvel, David J Graham, Kristopher J Smith, Chris L de Korte, Jeffrey A Neasham
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we present the design of low-cost medical ultrasound scanners aimed at the detection of maternal mortality risk factors in developing countries. METHOD: Modern ultrasound scanners typically employ a high element count transducer array with multichannel transmit and receive electronics. To minimize hardware costs, we employ a single piezoelectric element, mechanically swept across the target scene, and a highly cost-engineered single channel acquisition circuit...
July 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715302/characterization-of-humeral-head-displacements-during-dynamic-glenohumeral-neuromuscular-control-exercises-using-quantitative-ultrasound-imaging-a-feasibility-study
#18
Guillaume Desroches, François Desmeules, Dany H Gagnon
The objectives of the present study were to test the feasibility of measuring humeral head displacements using quantitative ultrasound imaging during the performance of two different dynamic glenohumeral neuromuscular control exercises and to investigate the influence of these exercises on the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and anterior-posterior distance (APD). Ten individuals who have no history of shoulder injury at the non-dominant shoulder completed three repetitions of an active humeral head lowering exercise and three repetitions of a posteriorisation exercise in a random order in a seated position...
June 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715209/comparison-of-the-predictive-performance-and-interpretability-of-random-forest-and-linear-models-on-benchmark-datasets
#19
Richard Liam Marchese Robinson, Anna Palczewska, Jan Palczewski, Nathan Kidley
The ability to interpret the predictions made by quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) offers a number of advantages. Whilst QSARs built using non-linear modelling approaches, such as the popular Random Forest algorithm, might sometimes be more predictive than those built using linear modelling approaches, their predictions have been perceived as difficult to interpret. However, a growing number of approaches have been proposed for interpreting non-linear QSAR models in general and Random Forest in particular...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714854/evaluation-of-bone-formation-in-calcium-phosphate-scaffolds-with-%C3%A2%C2%B5ct-method-validation-using-sem
#20
Susanne Lewin, Albert Barba, Cecilia Persson, Jordi Franch Serracanta, Maria Pau Ginebra, Caroline Öhman
There is a plethora of Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds used as synthetic substitutes to bone grafts. The scaffold performance is often evaluated from the quantity of bone formed within or in direct contact with the scaffold. Micro computed tomography (µCT) allows three-dimensional evaluation of bone formation inside scaffolds. However, the almost identical x-ray attenuation of CaP and bone obtrude the separation of these phases in µCT images. Commonly, segmentation of bone in µCT images is based on gray scale intensity, with manually determined global thresholds...
July 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
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