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Quantitative imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915238/pontine-changes-in-metabolites-and-axonal-fibres-of-rats-following-four-week-alcohol-exposure-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-at-7-0-t
#1
Jianming Luo, Zhiwei Shen, Guang Chen, Dian Wang, Xiaojun Yu
AIMS: We characterized the metabolite content and axonal fibre changes in the rat pontine, in vivo, using (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner following chronic alcohol administration to explore new indicators for the early diagnosis and treatment of chronic alcoholism. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the EtOH and control groups (water group)...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915118/a-streamlined-acquisition-for-mapping-baseline-brain-oxygenation-using-quantitative-bold
#2
Alan J Stone, Nicholas P Blockley
Quantitative BOLD (qBOLD) is a non-invasive MR technique capable of producing quantitative measurements of the haemodynamic and metabolic properties of the brain. Here we propose a refinement of the qBOLD methodology, dubbed streamlined-qBOLD, in order to provide a clinically feasible method for mapping baseline brain oxygenation. In streamlined-qBOLD confounding signal contributions are minimised during data acquisition through the application of (i) a Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) preparation to remove cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) signal contamination, (ii) a Gradient Echo Slice Excitation Profile Imaging (GESEPI) acquisition to reduce the effect of macroscopic magnetic field gradients and (iii) an Asymmetric Spin Echo (ASE) pulse sequence to directly measure the reversible transverse relaxation rate, R2'...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915065/assessment-of-white-matter-transgression-during-neuroendoscopic-procedures-using-dti-fiber-tracking
#3
Sergio García, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Arnau Benet, Laura Oleaga, José Juan González Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Presurgical planning allows anticipating intraoperative difficulties, increasing efficiency, and reducing risks. Neuroendoscopy is a minimally invasive technique whose related complications have been focused on cortical function and surface vessels injury. However, white matter disruption has been insufficiently acknowledged. OBJECTIVE: To present a new surgical planning method based on diffusion tensor image that allows quantifying subcortical transgression and optimizing neuroendoscopic trajectories...
November 30, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914730/quantitative-comparison-of-operative-skill-using-2-and-3-dimensional-monitors-during-laparoscopic-phantom-tasks
#4
Masayasu Nishi, Shingo Kanaji, Yoshito Otake, Hitoshi Harada, Masashi Yamamoto, Taro Oshikiri, Tetsu Nakamura, Satoshi Suzuki, Yuki Suzuki, Yuta Hiasa, Yoshinobu Sato, Yoshihiro Kakeji
BACKGROUND: The recent development of stereoscopic images using 3-dimensional monitors is expected to improve techniques for laparoscopic operation. Several studies have reported technical advantages in using 3-dimensional monitors with regard to operative accuracy and working speed, but there are few reports that analyze forceps motions by 3-dimensional optical tracking systems during standardized laparoscopic phantom tasks. We attempted to develop a 3-dimensional motion analysis system for assessing laparoscopic tasks and to clarify the efficacy of using stereoscopic images from a 3-dimensional monitor to track forceps movement during laparoscopy...
November 30, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914078/computer-vision-based-image-analysis-of-bacteria
#5
Jonas Danielsen, Pontus Nordenfelt
Microscopy is an essential tool for studying bacteria, but is today mostly used in a qualitative or possibly semi-quantitative manner often involving time-consuming manual analysis. It also makes it difficult to assess the importance of individual bacterial phenotypes, especially when there are only subtle differences in features such as shape, size, or signal intensity, which is typically very difficult for the human eye to discern. With computer vision-based image analysis - where computer algorithms interpret image data - it is possible to achieve an objective and reproducible quantification of images in an automated fashion...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914043/a-revisit-to-quantitative-pet-with-18-f-fdopa-of-high-specific-activity-using-a-high-resolution-condition-in-view-of-application-to-regenerative-therapy
#6
Go Akamatsu, Akihito Ohnishi, Kazuki Aita, Hiroyuki Nishida, Yasuhiko Ikari, Masahiro Sasaki, Nobuo Kohara, Michio Senda
OBJECTIVE: With the advent of regenerative/cell therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD), (18)F-FDOPA has drawn new attention as a biomarker of the therapeutic that cannot be evaluated with radiopharmaceuticals for dopamine transporter. Since most previous (18)F-FDOPA PET studies were carried out many years ago with a PET scanner of lower resolution and with (18)F-FDOPA of low specific activity synthesized from (18)F-F2, we used a newer PET/CT scanner with a high-resolution condition and (18)F-FDOPA synthesized from (18)F-F(-) to re-evaluate this technique on normal subjects and patients with PD, together with D2 receptor imaging with (11)C-raclopride (RAC)...
December 2, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914006/accurate-myocardial-blood-flow-measurements-quality-from-start-to-finish-is-key-to-success
#7
EDITORIAL
James Case
Overall repeatability and accuracy of myocardial blood flow measurements depend on the quality of the image data, the proper use of the quantitative software, and the training of clinical staff. Unlike most imaging tests, absolute blood flow measurements have the potential to provide accurate information beyond what is seen visually. This additive information has been shown to help identify multivessel disease, balanced ischemia, true normal studies, and quality control problems that may not be visible in the relative perfusion pattern...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913947/preclinical-evaluation-of-cathepsin-based-fluorescent-imaging-system-for-cytoreductive-surgery
#8
Carlos H F Chan, Lukas F Liesenfeld, Isabel Ferreiro-Neira, James C Cusack
BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) is a treatment option for peritoneal surface malignancies. The ability to detect microscopic foci of peritoneal metastasis intraoperatively may ensure the completeness of cytoreduction. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of a hand-held cathepsin-based fluorescent imaging system for intraoperative detection of appendiceal and colorectal peritoneal metastasis. METHODS: Peritoneal tumors and normal peritoneal tissues were collected from patients with appendiceal and colorectal peritoneal metastasis...
December 2, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913428/migration-pathways-of-thalamic-neurons-and-development-of-thalamocortical-connections-in-humans-revealed-by-diffusion-mr-tractography
#9
Molly Wilkinson, Tara Kane, Rongpin Wang, Emi Takahashi
The thalamus plays an important role in signal relays in the brain, with thalamocortical (TC) neuronal pathways linked to various sensory/cognitive functions. In this study, we aimed to see fetal and postnatal development of the thalamus including neuronal migration to the thalamus and the emergence/maturation of the TC pathways. Pathways from/to the thalami of human postmortem fetuses and in vivo subjects ranging from newborns to adults with no neurological histories were studied using high angular resolution diffusion MR imaging (HARDI) tractography...
December 2, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913424/digital-3d-reconstructions-using-histological-serial-sections-of-lung-tissue-including-the-alveolar-capillary-network
#10
Roman Grothausmann, Lars Knudsen, Matthias Ochs, Christian Mühlfeld
The alveolar capillary network (ACN) provides an enormously large surface area that is necessary for pulmonary gas exchange. Changes of the ACN during normal or pathological development or in pulmonary diseases are of great functional impact and warrant further analysis. Due to the complexity of the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the ACN, 2D approaches are limited in providing a comprehensive impression of the characteristics of the normal ACN or the nature of its alterations. Stereological methods offer a quantitative way to assess the ACN in 3D in terms of capillary volume, surface area or number but lack a 3D visualization to interpret the data...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913344/perceptual-image-fusion-using-wavelets
#11
Paul Hill, Mohammed Ebrahim Al-Mualla, David Bull
A perceptual image fusion method is proposed that employs explicit luminance and contrast masking models. These models are combined to give the perceptual importance of each coefficient produced by the Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform of each input image. This combined model of perceptual importance is used to select which coefficients are retained and furthermore to determine how to present the retained information in the most effective way. This work is the first to give a principled approach to image fusion from a perceptual perspective...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913326/delay-and-standard-deviation-beamforming-to-enhance-specular-reflections-in-ultrasound-imaging
#12
Raja Sekhar Bandaru, Anders Rasmus Sornes, Jeroen Hermans, Eigil Samset, Jan D'hooge
Although interventional devices, such as needles, guide wires, and catheters, are best visualized by X-ray, real-time volumetric echography could offer an attractive alternative as it avoids ionizing radiation; it provides good soft tissue contrast, and it is mobile and relatively cheap. Unfortunately, as echography is traditionally used to image soft tissue and blood flow, the appearance of interventional devices in conventional ultrasound images remains relatively poor, which is a major obstacle toward ultrasound-guided interventions...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913009/quantitative-changes-in-late-gadolinium-enhancement-at-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-in-the-early-phase-of-acute-myocarditis
#13
Enrico Ammirati, Francesco Moroni, Paola Sormani, Angelica Peritore, Angela Milazzo, Giuseppina Quattrocchi, Manlio Cipriani, Fabrizio Oliva, Cristina Giannattasio, Maria Frigerio, Alberto Roghi, Paolo G Camici, Patrizia Pedrotti
BACKGROUND: The presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) at cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with acute myocarditis (AM). Aim of our study was to quantify the changes in LGE extension (LGE%) early after AM and evaluate its relations with biventricular function and morphology. METHODS: We investigated 76 consecutive patients with AM (acute onset of chest pain/heart failure/ventricular arrhythmias not explained by other causes, and raised troponin) that met CMR criteria based on myocardial oedema at T2-weighted images and LGE on post-contrast images at median time of 6days from onset of symptoms...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911821/myth4-ferm-myosins-have-an-ancient-and-conserved-role-in-filopod-formation
#14
Karl J Petersen, Holly V Goodson, Ashley L Arthur, G W Gant Luxton, Anne Houdusse, Margaret A Titus
The formation of filopodia in Metazoa and Amoebozoa requires the activity of myosin 10 (Myo10) in mammalian cells and of Dictyostelium unconventional myosin 7 (DdMyo7) in the social amoeba Dictyostelium However, the exact roles of these MyTH4-FERM myosins (myosin tail homology 4-band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin; MF) in the initiation and elongation of filopodia are not well defined and may reflect conserved functions among phylogenetically diverse MF myosins. Phylogenetic analysis of MF myosin domains suggests that a single ancestral MF myosin existed with a structure similar to DdMyo7, which has two MF domains, and that subsequent duplications in the metazoan lineage produced its functional homolog Myo10...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911444/impact-of-optical-coherence-tomography-scanning-density-on-quantitative-analyses-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#15
S B Velaga, M G Nittala, R K Konduru, F Heussen, P A Keane, S R Sadda
PurposeTo assess the influence of varying B-scan frame-sampling densities on retinal thickness and volume measurements from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).MethodsVolume OCT data (512 × 128 macular cube over 6 × 6 mm) were collected from 39 eyes with neovascular AMD. All 128 B-scans in each image set were manually segmented, allowing quantification of the neurosensory retina, subretinal fluid (SRF), subretinal hyperreflective material (SRHM), and pigment epithelium detachment (PED)...
December 2, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911372/quantitative-hardness-measurement-by-instrumented-afm-indentation
#16
Arnaud Caron
In this work, a combination of amplitude-modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy and atomic force spectroscopy is applied for instrumented hardness measurements on an Au(111) surface with atomistic resolution of single plasticity events. A careful experimental procedure is described that includes the force sensor selection, its calibration, the calibration of the cantilever deflection detection system, and the minimization of instrumental drift for accurate and reproducible force-distance measurements...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911351/evaluation-of-differential-phase-contrast-cone-beam-ct-imaging-system
#17
Jiangkun Liu, Weixing Cai, Ruola Ning
Grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging enables the use of a hospital-grade X-ray tube, but compromises the image quality due to insufficiently coherent illumination. In this research, a bench-top DPC cone beam CT (DPC-CBCT) was systematically evaluated and compared with the traditional attenuation-based CBCT in terms of contrast to noise ratio, noise property, and contrast resolution through phantom studies. In order to evaluate DPC-CBCT for soft tissue imaging, breast specimen and small animal studies were carried out...
November 30, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911038/quantitating-the-cell-turning-images-into-numbers-with-imagej
#18
REVIEW
Ellen T Arena, Curtis T Rueden, Mark C Hiner, Shulei Wang, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri
Modern biological research particularly in the fields of developmental and cell biology has been transformed by the rapid evolution of the light microscope. The light microscope, long a mainstay of the experimental biologist, is now used for a wide array of biological experimental scenarios and sample types. Much of the great developments in advanced biological imaging have been driven by the digital imaging revolution with powerful processors and algorithms. In particular, this combination of advanced imaging and computational analysis has resulted in the drive of the modern biologist to not only visually inspect dynamic phenomena, but to quantify the involved processes...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910922/the-influence-of-laser-scribing-on-magnetic-domain-formation-in-grain-oriented-electrical-steel-visualized-by-directional-neutron-dark-field-imaging
#19
P Rauscher, B Betz, J Hauptmann, A Wetzig, E Beyer, C Grünzweig
The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the bulk magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel laminations. The core losses can be improved by post manufacturing methods, so-called domain refinement techniques. All these methods induce mechanical or thermal stress that refines the domain structure. The most commonly used technique is laser scribing due to the no-contact nature and the ease of integration in existing production systems. Here we show how directional neutron dark-field imaging allows visualizing the impact of laser scribing on the bulk and supplementary domain structure...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910875/an-integrated-modelling-framework-from-cells-to-organism-based-on-a-cohort-of-digital-embryos
#20
Paul Villoutreix, Julien Delile, Barbara Rizzi, Louise Duloquin, Thierry Savy, Paul Bourgine, René Doursat, Nadine Peyriéras
We conducted a quantitative comparison of developing sea urchin embryos based on the analysis of five digital specimens obtained by automatic processing of in toto 3D+ time image data. These measurements served the reconstruction of a prototypical cell lineage tree able to predict the spatiotemporal cellular organisation of a normal sea urchin blastula. The reconstruction was achieved by designing and tuning a multi-level probabilistic model that reproduced embryo-level dynamics from a small number of statistical parameters characterising cell proliferation, cell surface area and cell volume evolution along the cell lineage...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
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