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Fat absorption, bile acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875503/influence-of-partial-external-biliary-diversion-on-the-lipid-profile-in-children-with-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis
#1
Irena Jankowska, Piotr Czubkowski, Aldona Wierzbicka, Joanna Pawłowska, Piotr Kaliciński, Piotr Socha
OBJECTIVES: The concentration of bile acids is highly increased in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol metabolism, and aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and dietary fat. The aim of our study was to investigate lipid metabolism in patients with PFIC with focus on the effect of partial external biliary diversion (PEBD). METHODS: In 26 patients with PFIC, who underwent PEBD surgery at the median age of 2...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#2
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383786/ttc39b-deficiency-stabilizes-lxr-reducing-both-atherosclerosis-and-steatohepatitis
#3
Joanne Hsieh, Masahiro Koseki, Matthew M Molusky, Emi Yakushiji, Ikuyo Ichi, Marit Westerterp, Jahangir Iqbal, Robin B Chan, Sandra Abramowicz, Liana Tascau, Shunichi Takiguchi, Shizuya Yamashita, Carrie L Welch, Gilbert Di Paolo, M Mahmood Hussain, Jay H Lefkowitch, Daniel J Rader, Alan R Tall
Cellular mechanisms that mediate steatohepatitis, an increasingly prevalent condition in the Western world for which no therapies are available, are poorly understood. Despite the fact that its synthetic agonists induce fatty liver, the liver X receptor (LXR) transcription factor remains a target of interest because of its anti-atherogenic, cholesterol removal, and anti-inflammatory activities. Here we show that tetratricopeptide repeat domain protein 39B (Ttc39b, C9orf52) (T39), a high-density lipoprotein gene discovered in human genome-wide association studies, promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of LXR...
July 6, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146480/cholesterol-7%C3%AE-hydroxylase-deficient-mice-are-protected-from-high-fat-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-metabolic-disorders
#4
Jessica M Ferrell, Shannon Boehme, Feng Li, John Y L Chiang
Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver. In addition to absorption and digestion of nutrients, bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis. We have backcrossed Cyp7a1(-/-) mice in a mixed B6/129Sv genetic background to C57BL/6J mice to generate Cyp7a1(-/-) mice in a near-pure C57BL/6J background. These mice survive well and have normal growth and a bile acid pool size ∼60% of WT mice...
July 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092559/age-related-changes-of-plasma-bile-acid-concentrations-in-healthy-adults-results-from-the-cross-sectional-karmen-study
#5
Lara Frommherz, Achim Bub, Eva Hummel, Manuela J Rist, Alexander Roth, Bernhard Watzl, Sabine E Kulling
Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050404/lipids-and-bariatric-procedures-part-2-of-2-scientific-statement-from-the-american-society-for-metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-asmbs-the-national-lipid-association-nla-and-obesity-medicine-association-oma
#6
Harold Bays, Shanu N Kothari, Dan E Azagury, John M Morton, Ninh T Nguyen, Peter H Jones, Terry A Jacobson, David E Cohen, Carl Orringer, Eric C Westman, Deborah B Horn, Wendy Scinta, Craig Primack
Bariatric procedures generally improve dyslipidemia, sometimes substantially so. Bariatric procedures also improve other major cardiovascular risk factors. This 2-part Scientific Statement examines the lipid effects of bariatric procedures and reflects contributions from authors representing the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), the National Lipid Association (NLA), and the Obesity Medicine Association (OMA). Part 1 was published in the Journal of Clinical Lipidology, and reviewed the impact of bariatric procedures upon adipose tissue endocrine and immune factors, adipose tissue lipid metabolism, as well as the lipid effects of bariatric procedures relative to bile acids and intestinal microbiota...
March 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27031274/bile-salts-in-control-of-lipid-metabolism
#7
Marleen Schonewille, Jan Freark de Boer, Albert K Groen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The view on bile salts has evolved over the years from being regarded as simple detergents that aid intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients to being important hormone-like integrators of metabolism. This review provides an update on the rapidly developing field of interactions between bile salts and lipid metabolism, with a particular emphasis on the underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: The nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays major roles in bile salt-mediated signaling pathways...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26960175/influence-of-partial-external-biliary-diversion-on-the-lipid-profile-in-children-with-pfic
#8
Irena Jankowska, Piotr Czubkowski, Aldona Wierzbicka, Joanna Pawłowska, Piotr Kaliciński, Piotr Socha
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The concentration of bile acids is highly increased in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol metabolism, and aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and dietary fat. The aim of our study was to investigate lipid metabolism in PFIC patients with focus on the effect of partial external biliary diversion (PEBD). METHODS: In 26 patients with PFIC, who underwent PEBD surgery at the median age of 2...
March 7, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892120/lipids-and-bariatric-procedures-part-1-of-2-scientific-statement-from-the-national-lipid-association-american-society-for-metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-and-obesity-medicine-association-full-report
#9
Harold E Bays, Peter H Jones, Terry A Jacobson, David E Cohen, Carl E Orringer, Shanu Kothari, Dan E Azagury, John Morton, Ninh T Nguyen, Eric C Westman, Deborah B Horn, Wendy Scinta, Craig Primack
Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892119/lipids-and-bariatric-procedures-part-1-of-2-scientific-statement-from-the-national-lipid-association-american-society-for-metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-and-obesity-medicine-association-executive-summary
#10
Harold E Bays, Peter H Jones, Terry A Jacobson, David E Cohen, Carl E Orringer, Shanu Kothari, Dan E Azagury, John Morton, Ninh T Nguyen, Eric C Westman, Deborah B Horn, Wendy Scinta, Craig Primack
Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26843021/single-frequency-intake-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-rich-phytosterol-esters-attenuates-atherosclerosis-risk-factors-in-hamsters-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#11
Qianchun Deng, Xiao Yu, Jiqu Xu, Xiuying Kou, Mingming Zheng, Fenghong Huang, Qingde Huang, Lan Wang
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggested phytosterol esters (PE) exhibited an advantage over naturally occurring phytosterols in reducing atherosclerosis risk factors due to improved fat solubility and compatibility. However, the effects of dietary patterns of PE on lipid-lowering activity were limited and inconsistent. This study aimed to explore the effects of dose and frequency of α-linolenic acid rich phytosterol esters (ALA-PE) on cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism markers focused on intestinal cholesterol absorption and bioconversion of ALA in liver...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824238/mice-abundant-in-muricholic-bile-acids-show-resistance-to-dietary-induced-steatosis-weight-gain-and-to-impaired-glucose-metabolism
#12
Ylva Bonde, Gösta Eggertsen, Mats Rudling
High endogenous production of, or treatment with muricholic bile acids, strongly reduces the absorption of cholesterol. Mice abundant in muricholic bile acids may therefore display an increased resistance against dietary induced weight gain, steatosis, and glucose intolerance due to an anticipated general reduction in lipid absorption. To test this hypothesis, mice deficient in steroid 12-alpha hydroxylase (Cyp8b1-/-) and therefore abundant in muricholic acids were monitored for 11 weeks while fed a high fat diet...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26645872/the-management-of-patients-with-enteric-hyperoxaluria
#13
REVIEW
John R Asplin
Enteric hyperoxaluria is a common occurrence in the setting of fat malabsorption, usually due to intestinal resection or intestinal bypass surgery. Enhanced intestinal absorption of dietary oxalate leads to elevated renal oxalate excretion, frequently in excess of 100 mg/d (1.14 mmol/d). Patients are at increased risk of urolithiasis and loss of kidney function from oxalate nephropathy. Fat malabsorption causes increased binding of diet calcium by free fatty acids, reducing the calcium available to precipitate diet oxalate...
February 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26592515/isoflavones-and-phytosterols-contained-in-xuezhikang-capsules-modulate-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-high-fat-diet-mice
#14
Dong Feng, Jian-guo Sun, Run-bin Sun, Bing-chen Ou-Yang, Lan Yao, Ji-ye Aa, Fang Zhou, Jing-wei Zhang, Jian Zhang, Guang-ji Wang
AIM: Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular disease. Three fractions F1, F2 and F3 (primarily containing isoflavones, monacolins or phytosterols, respectively) are extracted from Xuezhikang capsules. In this study we evaluated the lipid-lowering effects of these fractions and explored the potential mechanisms of actions. METHODS: Mice treated with a high-fat diet (HFD) were orally administered lovastatin (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), XZK (1200 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), F1 (27...
December 2015: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26586440/a-diet-sensitive-baf60a-mediated-pathway-links-hepatic-bile-acid-metabolism-to-cholesterol-absorption-and-atherosclerosis
#15
Zhuo-Xian Meng, Lin Wang, Lin Chang, Jingxia Sun, Jiangyin Bao, Yaqiang Li, Y Eugene Chen, Jiandie D Lin
Dietary nutrients interact with gene networks to orchestrate adaptive responses during metabolic stress. Here, we identify Baf60a as a diet-sensitive subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in the mouse liver that links the consumption of fat- and cholesterol-rich diet to elevated plasma cholesterol levels. Baf60a expression was elevated in the liver following feeding with a western diet. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of Baf60a reduced bile acid production and cholesterol absorption, and attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice...
November 24, 2015: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26584538/a-novel-gastrointestinal-microbiome-modulator-from-soy-pods-reduces-absorption-of-dietary-fat-in-mice
#16
Stephen Boué, Ilana Fortgang, Ronald J Levy, Deepak Bhatnagar, Matthew Burow, George Fahey, Mark L Heiman
OBJECTIVE: Simplification of diets, low in variety but high in energy, contributes to the loss in diversity observed in the obese gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome. A novel GI microbiome modulator (GIMM) as a dietary intervention was developed. METHODS: Mice were fed either an obesogenic diet (ObD) or an ObD containing 15% activated soy pod fiber (ObD-ASPF) for 30 days. The diets were isocaloric and balanced for macronutrient content. ASPF is a novel fiber preparation from whole soy pods that is activated to produce glyceollins...
January 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26572332/modification-of-deoiled-cumin-dietary-fiber-with-laccase-and-cellulase-under-high-hydrostatic-pressure
#17
Mengmei Ma, Taihua Mu
In this study, we evaluated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and enzyme (laccase and cellulase) treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and functional properties and antioxidant activity of deoiled cumin dietary fiber (DF). HHP-enzyme treatment increased the contents of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) (30.37 g/100g), monosaccharides (except for glucose), uronic acids, and total polyphenol. HHP-enzyme treatment altered the honey-comb structure of DF and generated new polysaccharides. DF modified by HHP-enzyme treatment exhibited improved water retention capacity (10...
January 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26551410/bioaccessibility-of-pahs-in-fuel-soot-assessed-by-an-in-vitro-digestive-model-with-absorptive-sink-effect-of-food-ingestion
#18
Yanyan Zhang, Joseph J Pignatello, Shu Tao, Baoshan Xing
We investigated the effects of changing physiological conditions in the digestive tract expected with food ingestion on the apparent bioaccessibility (Bapp) of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a fuel soot. A previously established in vitro digestive model was applied that included silicone sheet as a third-phase absorptive sink simulating passive transfer of PAHs to intestinal epithelium in the small intestine stage. The Bapp is defined as the fraction found in the digestive fluid plus sheet after digestion...
December 15, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26526836/bile-acids-in-physiology-pathology-and-pharmacology
#19
REVIEW
Jose J G Marin, Rocio I R Macias, Oscar Briz, Jesus M Banales, Maria J Monte
Bile acids, synthesized by hepatocytes from cholesterol, are specific and quantitatively important organic components of bile, where they are the main driving force of the osmotic process that generates bile flow toward the canaliculus. The bile acid pool comprises a variety of species of amphipathic acidic steroids. They are not mere detergent molecules that play a key role in fat digestion and the intestinal absorption of hydrophobic compounds present in the intestinal lumen after meals, including liposoluble vitamins...
2015: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26310319/effect-of-berberine-on-promoting-the-excretion-of-cholesterol-in-high-fat-diet-induced-hyperlipidemic-hamsters
#20
Xiao-Yang Li, Zhen-Xiong Zhao, Min Huang, Ru Feng, Chi-Yu He, Chao Ma, Shi-Heng Luo, Jie Fu, Bao-Ying Wen, Long Ren, Jia-Wen Shou, Fang Guo, Yangchao Chen, Xin Gao, Yan Wang, Jian-Dong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR), as a new medicine for hyperlipidemia, can reduce the blood lipids in patients. Mechanistic studies have shown that BBR activates the extracellular-signal regulated kinase pathway by stabilizing low-density-lipoprotein receptor mRNA. However, aside from inhibiting the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, the effects of BBR on other metabolic pathways of cholesterol have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the action of BBR on the excretion of cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters...
2015: Journal of Translational Medicine
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