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Fat absorption, bile acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656109/bile-acids-are-important-direct-and-indirect-regulators-of-the-secretion-of-appetite-and-metabolism-regulating-hormones-from-the-gut-and-pancreas
#1
Rune E Kuhre, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Olav Larsen, Sara L Jepsen, Emilie Balk-Møller, Daniel B Andersen, Carolyn F Deacon, Kristina Schoonjans, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Reidar Albrechtsen, Bolette Hartmann, Mette M Rosenkilde, Jens J Holst
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids (BAs) facilitate fat absorption and may play a role in glucose and metabolism regulation, stimulating the secretion of gut hormones. The relative importance and mechanisms involved in BA-stimulated secretion of appetite and metabolism regulating hormones from the gut and pancreas is not well described and was the purpose of this study. METHODS: The effects of bile acids on the secretion of gut and pancreatic hormones was studied in rats and compared to the most well described nutritional secretagogue: glucose...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553998/new-insights-in-the-multiple-roles-of-bile-acids-and-their-signaling-pathways-in-metabolic-control
#2
Jan F de Boer, Vincent W Bloks, Esther Verkade, M Rebecca Heiner-Fokkema, Folkert Kuipers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a growing awareness that individual bile acid species exert different physiological functions, beyond their classical roles in bile formation and fat absorption, due to differential stimulatory effects on the bile-acid-activated receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and takeda G receptor 5 (TGR5). This review integrates recent findings on the role of individual bile acids and their receptors in metabolic control, with special emphasis on cholesterol homeostasis...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522553/association-between-chronic-pancreatitis-and-urolithiasis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#3
Chien-Hua Chen, Cheng-Li Lin, Long-Bin Jeng
PURPOSE: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) can cause fat or bile acid malabsorption due to exocrine insufficiency. Fat or bile acid malabsorption has been reported to increase the risk of urolithiasis through increased intestinal oxalate absorption. However, no studies have reported an association between CP and urolithiasis. METHODS: We identified 15,848 patients (age: ≥20 years) diagnosed as having CP between 2000 and 2010 from the National Health Insurance Research Database as the study cohort...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521205/bile-acid-derivatives-from-old-molecules-to-a-new-potent-therapeutical-use-an-overview
#4
Marine Blanchet, Jean Michel Brunel
Bile acids or bile salts, belong to a large family of biological steroid derivatives found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates. These amphipathic molecules possess numerous functions, including eliminating cholesterol from the body, driving the flow of bile to eliminate catabolites, emulsifying fat-soluble vitamins to enable their absorption, aiding in motility and in reducing the bacteria flora found in the small intestine and biliary tract. In this review, we investigate progress towards synthetic bile acid derivatives, with special emphasis on how they might be used for various biological applications and the challenges that remain in developing these compounds as potent drugs of the future especially in the field of microbiology (antimicrobial activities) and cancer (anticancer agents)...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481310/therapeutic-modulation-of-the-bile-acid-pool-by-cyp8b1-knockdown-protects-against-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#5
Raphael Chevre, Laia Trigueros-Motos, David Castaño, Tricia Chua, Maria Corlianò, Jay V Patankar, Lareina Sng, Lauren Sim, Tan Liang Juin, Guillaume Carissimo, Lisa F P Ng, Cheryl Neo Jia Yi, Chelsea Chandani Eliathamby, Albert K Groen, Michael R Hayden, Roshni R Singaraja
Bile acids (BAs) are surfactant molecules that regulate the intestinal absorption of lipids. Thus, the modulation of BAs represents a potential therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by hepatic accumulation of fat and is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. Cyp8b1 is a critical modulator of the hydrophobicity index of the BA pool. As a therapeutic proof of concept, we aimed to determine the impact of Cyp8b1 inhibition in vivo on BA pool composition and as protection against NAFLD...
February 26, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477281/hypothalamic-sensing-of-bile-acids-a-gut-feeling
#6
Allison W Xu
Bile acids facilitate dietary fat absorption upon release into the small intestine after a meal. A recent study by Liu and colleagues identifies a gut-brain axis wherein bile acids signal an energy-replete state to hypothalamic AgRP neurons via activation of neuronal FGF receptors, which orchestrate whole-body glucose metabolism.
February 21, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382564/diabetic-cognitive-dysfunction-is-associated-with-increased-bile-acids-in-liver-and-activation-of-bile-acid-signaling-in-intestine
#7
Xue Wang, Fangyu Wang, Yidan Zhang, Hui Xiong, Yanjun Zhang, Pengwei Zhuang, Youcai Zhang
Impaired regulation of bile acid (BA) homeostasis has been suggested to be associated with adverse metabolic consequences. However, whether BA homeostasis is altered in diabetes-induced cognitive dysfunction (DCD) remains unknown. In the present study, mice were divided into four groups, namely normal control (NC) group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, diabetes without cognitive dysfunction (unDCD) group, and DCD group. Compared to HFD mice, the concentration of total BAs in liver was higher in unDCD and DCD mice, due to increased intestinal BA absorption...
January 27, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325602/bile-acid-metabolism-in-liver-pathobiology
#8
John Y L Chiang, Jessica M Ferrell
Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 11, 2018: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313296/the-biological-effects-of-the-hypolipidaemic-drug-probucol-microcapsules-fed-daily-for-4-weeks-to-an-insulin-resistant-mouse-model-potential-hypoglycaemic-and-anti-inflammatory-effects
#9
Armin Mooranian, Rebecca Negrulj, Ryu Takechi, John Mamo, Hesham Al-Sallami, Hani Al-Salami
Probucol (PB) is an hypolipidaemic drug with potential antidiabetic effects. We showed recently using in vitro studies that when PB was incorporated with stabilising lipophilic bile acids and microencapsulated using the polymer sodium alginate, the microcapsules showed good stability but poor and irregular PB release. This suggests that PB microcapsules may exhibit better release profile and hence better absorption, if more hydrophilic bile acids were used, such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Accordingly, this study aimed to produce PB-UDCA microcapsules and examine PB absorption and antidiabetic effects in our mouse-model of insulin-resistance and diabetes (fed high-fat diet; HFD)...
January 8, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286303/disturbed-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#10
REVIEW
Ali Saeed, Robin P F Dullaart, Tim C M A Schreuder, Hans Blokzijl, Klaas Nico Faber
Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A's functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs).The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1) it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
December 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278293/green-tea-polyphenol-egcg-alleviates-metabolic-abnormality-and-fatty-liver-by-decreasing-bile-acid-and-lipid-absorption-in-mice
#11
Jinbao Huang, Simin Feng, Anna Liu, Zhuqing Dai, Hong Wang, Kenneth Reuhl, Wenyun Lu, Chung S Yang
SCOPE: The tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to ameliorate metabolic abnormalities and fatty liver. The present study investigates the mechanisms of actions of EGCG on bile acid homeostasis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice are fed a low-fat diet, a high-fat western-style diet, or a high-fat western-style diet containing 0.32% EGCG. The effects of the treatments on biochemical parameters, gene expression, and lipidomics are analyzed...
February 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207918/intake-of-green-plant-membrane-with-dietary-oil-suppresses-postprandial-hypertriglyceridemia-in-rats-via-promoting-excretion-of-bile-acids
#12
Hiroko Matsuda, Shinpei Ooi, Ryo Otokozawa, Kodai Kumazaki, Eri Udagawa, Masaya Asakura, Daisuke Suzuki, Takaaki Shirai
Green-plant membrane is a phytonutrient present in green leafy vegetables at high concentration. Postprandial increases in blood triglyceride levels result in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, dietary life and eating order also affect postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. In this study, the effects of once-daily intake of green-plant membrane with dietary oil on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, green-plant membrane bound hydrophobic bile acids but did not inhibit pancreatic lipase activity...
January 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195686/role-of-bile-acids-in-metabolic-control
#13
REVIEW
Antonio Molinaro, Annika Wahlström, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
Bile acids are endocrine molecules that in addition to facilitating the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients regulate numerous metabolic processes, including glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. The signaling actions of bile acids are mediated through specific bile-acid-activated nuclear and membrane-bound receptors. These receptors are not only expressed by tissues within the enterohepatic circulation such as the liver and the intestine, but also in other organs where bile acids mediate their systemic actions...
January 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184266/effects-of-saponin-from-trigonella-foenum-graecum-seeds-on-dyslipidemia
#14
Zhi Chen, Yan-Li Lei, Wen-Ping Wang, Ya-Ya Lei, Yan-Hua Liu, Jing Hei, Jin Hu, Hong Sui
Background: Saponins identified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds are reported effective on dyslipidemia. However, the definite mechanism is still not elucidated systematically. In this study, we evaluate the effects of saponin extract on cholesterol absorption, metabolism, synthesis, and reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Methods: Saponin extract was prepared according to a craft established in our previous study. After the establishment of dyslipidemia model, 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups, namely the control group (normal diet plus normal saline), HFD group (high fat diet plus normal saline), Lipitor group (high fat diet plus Lipitor (2 mg/kg)), and L, M, and H-saponin groups (high fat diet plus saponin in dosages of 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg, respectively)...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175670/apoe-is-a-major-determinant-of-hepatic-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-mice
#15
Sandra von Hardenberg, Carsten Gnewuch, Gerd Schmitz, Jürgen Borlak
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays a central role in lipid transport and cholesterol metabolism, with surplus cholesterol being removed from the liver through bile acid (BA) synthesis. Furthermore, BAs are of critical importance in fat absorption by forming intestinal lipid-bile salt mixed micelles. To define ApoE's role in BA homeostasis, the metabolism of cholesterol and BA was investigated in liver tissue and gallbladder bile of ApoE-deficient mice given a chow or high-cholesterol/high-fat diet (HCHF) diet for 6 months...
February 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149831/molecular-mechanisms-triggered-by-bile-acids-on-iintestinal-ca2-absorption
#16
Ana Marchionatti, Maria Rivoira, Valeria Rodriguez, Adriana Perez, Nori Tolosa de Talamoni
Bile acids (BAs) are synthesized in the liver and are among the main components of bile. For many years, it was thought that they have only a role as emulsifiers of fat in the small intestine facilitating the absorption of lipids and lipid soluble vitamins. Lately, they are also considered important signaling molecules, not only by regulating their own synthesis, but also having a role in several metabolic diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of deoxycholic, ursodeoxycholic and litocholic acids and their combination upon the intestinal Ca2+ absorption...
November 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118282/the-role-of-bile-acids-in-glucose-metabolism-and-their-relation-with-diabetes
#17
José Alberto González-Regueiro, Lidia Moreno-Castañeda, Misael Uribe, Norberto C Chávez-Tapia
Bile acids (BAs), the end products of cholesterol catabolism, are essential for the absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins; but they have also emerged as novel signaling molecules that act as metabolic regulators. It has been well described that the enterohepatic circulation, a nuclear (FXR) and a cytoplasmic (TGR5/M-BAR) receptor aid in controlling hepatic bile acid synthesis. Modulating bile acid synthesis greatly impacts in metabolism, because these receptors also are implicated in glucose, lipid, and energy expenditure...
November 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101656/impact-of-enteric-health-and-mucosal-permeability-on-skeletal-health-and-lameness-in-poultry
#18
L R Bielke, B M Hargis, J D Latorre
Intestinal barrier leakage and/or altered gut microbial composition has been shown to markedly impact both osteoblast and osteoclast activities, systemically through circulation of gut immune cells and cytokines and locally by causing inflammation of extraintestinal organs such as the liver and bone marrow. Mild cases of heightened intestinal inflammation can cause bone loss in male mice in the absence of any overt nutritional deficiencies or weight loss, which has also been shown in chickens that have been infected with Salmonella...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080344/bile-acids-and-cancer-direct-and-environmental-dependent-effects
#19
Agostino Di Ciaula, David Q-H Wang, Emilio Molina-Molina, Raquel Lunardi Baccetto, Giuseppe Calamita, Vincenzo O Palmieri, Piero Portincasa
Bile acids (BAs) regulate the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, cholesterol and lipids but have also a key role as singalling molecules and in the modulation of epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression and metabolism. These homeostatic pathways, when disrupted, are able to promote local inflammation, systemic metabolic disorders and, ultimately, cancer. The effect of hydrophobic BAs, in particular, can be linked with cancer in several digestive (mainly oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, biliary tract, colon) and extra-digestive organs (i...
November 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080336/bile-acid-physiology
#20
Agostino Di Ciaula, Gabriella Garruti, Raquel Lunardi Baccetto, Emilio Molina-Molina, Leonilde Bonfrate, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
The primary bile acids (BAs) are synthetized from colesterol in the liver, conjugated to glycine or taurine to increase their solubility, secreted into bile, concentrated in the gallbladder during fasting, and expelled in the intestine in response to dietary fat, as well as bio-transformed in the colon to the secondary BAs by the gut microbiota, reabsorbed in the ileum and colon back to the liver, and minimally lost in the feces. BAs in the intestine not only regulate the digestion and absorption of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins, but also play a key role as signaling molecules in modulating epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression, and lipid and glucose metabolism by activating farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (GPBAR-1, also known as TGR5) in the liver, intestine, muscle and brown adipose tissue...
November 2017: Annals of Hepatology
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