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Fat absorption, bile acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549240/dietary-salecan-reverts-partially-the-metabolic-gene-expressions-and-nmr-based-metabolomic-profiles-from-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#1
Qi Sun, Minghui Li, Xiao Yang, Xi Xu, Junsong Wang, Jianfa Zhang
Previous studies suggest that dietary salecan (a water-soluble β-glucan) effectively reduces high-fat-diet-induced adiposity through disturbing bile-acid-promoted emulsification in mice. However, the effects of salecan on metabolic genes and metabolites involved in lipid accumulation are mostly unknown. Here, we confirmed that dietary 3% and 6% salecan for 4 weeks markedly decreased fat accumulation in liver and adipose tissue in high-fat-diet rats, displaying a decrease in mRNA levels of SREBP1-C, FAS, SCD1 and ACC1 involved in de novo lipogenesis and a reduction of levels of GPAT1, DGAT1 and DGAT2 related to triglyceride synthesis...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527154/structure-based-classification-for-bile-salt-export-pump-bsep-inhibitors-using-comparative-structural-modeling-of-human-bsep
#2
Sankalp Jain, Melanie Grandits, Lars Richter, Gerhard F Ecker
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) actively transports conjugated monovalent bile acids from the hepatocytes into the bile. This facilitates the formation of micelles and promotes digestion and absorption of dietary fat. Inhibition of BSEP leads to decreased bile flow and accumulation of cytotoxic bile salts in the liver. A number of compounds have been identified to interact with BSEP, which results in drug-induced cholestasis or liver injury. Therefore, in silico approaches for flagging compounds as potential BSEP inhibitors would be of high value in the early stage of the drug discovery pipeline...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502496/minimal-food-effect-for-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-bioavailability-from-omega-3-acid-ethyl-esters-with-an-advanced-lipid-technologies-tm-alt-%C3%A2-based-formulation
#3
Miguel A Lopez-Toledano, Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson, Ahmed A Daak, Kevin C Maki, Colleen Johns, Adrian L Rabinowicz, Frederick D Sancilio
BACKGROUND: The absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) omega-3-acid ethyl esters (EEs) is influenced by food. There is a need for a formulation of EE that is less impacted by food effect. SC401 is a novel Advanced Lipid Technologies-based formulation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE. In the presence of an aqueous medium, Advanced Lipid Technologies forms stable micelles in situ independent of bile salt secretion. This effect is hypothesized to improve EPA-EE and DHA-EE bioavailability while it helps mitigate the food effect associated with their consumption...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475629/purification-and-characterization-of-recombinant-human-bile-salt-stimulated-lipase-expressed-in-milk-of-transgenic-cloned-cows
#4
Yuhang Wang, Fangrong Ding, Tao Wang, Wenjie Liu, Susanne Lindquist, Olle Hernell, Jianwu Wang, Jing Li, Ling Li, Yaofeng Zhao, Yunping Dai, Ning Li
Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) is a lipolytic digestive enzyme with broad substrate specificity secreted from exocrine pancreas into the intestinal lumen in all species and from the lactating mammary gland into the milk of some species, notably humans but not cows. BSSL in breast milk facilitates digestion and absorption of milk fat and promotes growth of small for gestational age preterm infants. Thus, purified recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL) can be used for treatment of patients with fat malabsorption and expressing rhBSSL in the milk of transgenic cloned cows would therefore be a mean to meet a medical need...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429841/the-development-evidence-and-current-use-of-atx-101-for-the-treatment-of-submental-fat
#5
REVIEW
Corey Georgesen, Shari R Lipner
ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid) is the first pharmaceutical therapy approved by the FDA for the reduction in submental fat. Deoxycholic acid is an endogenous secondary bile acid that normally solubilizes dietary fat, contributing to its breakdown and absorption within the gut. This article reviews the identification of deoxycholic acid as a lipolytic agent, and the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ATX-101. In addition to phase I/II trials, four Phase III clinical trials have evaluated safety and efficacy of ATX-101...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384537/characterization-of-colloidal-structures-during-intestinal-lipolysis-using-small-angle-neutron-scattering
#6
Oljora Rezhdo, Selena Di Maio, Peisi Le, Kenneth C Littrell, Rebecca L Carrier, Sow-Hsin Chen
HYPOTHESIS: Bile micelles are thought to mediate intestinal absorption, in part by providing a phase into which compounds can partition. Solubilizing capacity of bile micelles is enhanced during the digestion of fat rich food. We hypothesized that the intestinal digestion of triglycerides causes an increase in volume of micelles that can be quantitatively monitored over the course of digestion using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and that SANS can enable evaluation of the contribution of each of the components present during digestion to the size of micelles...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377401/cyp8b1-ablation-prevents-western-diet-induced-weight-gain-and-hepatic-steatosis-due-to-impaired-fat-absorption
#7
Enrico Bertaggia, Kristian K Jensen, Jose Castro-Perez, Yimeng Xu, Gilbert Di Paolo, Robin B Chan, Liangsu Wang, Rebecca A Haeusler
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol derivatives that regulate lipid metabolism, through their dual abilities to promote lipid absorption and activate BA receptors. However, different BA species have varying abilities to perform these functions. Eliminating 12α-hydroxy BAs in mice via Cyp8b1 knockout causes low body weight and improved glucose tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine mechanisms of low body weight in Cyp8b1(-/-) mice. We challenged Cyp8b1(-/-) mice with western type diet and assessed body weight and composition...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240162/effects-of-dietary-non-fiber-carbohydrates-on-composition-and-function-of-gut-microbiome-in-monogastrics-a-review
#8
Hailong Jiang, Dongsheng Che, Guixin Qin, Xiangjie Kong, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk
Non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) have a crucial function on the gut health of monogastrics. This paper aims to review the relevant published materials on the influence of NFC's on the gut's microbial population and composition in monogastrics, and points out the areas of the required research. Total bacteria count and Lactobacillus sp. were decreased with an increase in composition of dietary NFC intake, as well as accompanied by a decrease in the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels. Consequently, some metabolites were affected by the accumulation of the bile acids, including molecules which control different gene expression levels, as regulators involved in glucose (FXR and TGR5) and fat metabolism (cholesterol)...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191525/obesity-diabetes-and-the-role-of-bile-acids-in-metabolism
#9
Gerald H Tomkin, Daphne Owens
Bile acids have many activities over and above their primary function in aiding absorption of fat and fat soluble vitamins. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol, and thus are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids stimulate glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) production in the distal small bowel and colon, stimulating insulin secretion, and therefore, are involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Bile acids through their insulin sensitising effect play a part in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169529/deacetylated-konjac-glucomannan-is-less-effective-in-reducing-dietary-induced-hyperlipidemia-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#10
Mei-Ying Li, Guan-Ping Feng, Hong Wang, Rui-Li Yang, Zhenlin Xu, Yuan-Ming Sun
Konjac gel foods that mainly consist of deacetylated konjac glucomannan (Da-KGM) are considered to have the same health benefits as native konjac glucomannan (KGM); however, no definitive data support this notion. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Da-KGM and KGM on the hyperlipidemia and liver steatosis induced by high-fat diet feeding and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were fed (1) normal chow diet, (2) high-fat diet, (3) HFD with KGM, or (4) HFD with Da-KGM for 10 weeks...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111285/the-interrelationship-between-bile-acid-and-vitamin-a-homeostasis
#11
REVIEW
Ali Saeed, Mark Hoekstra, Martijn Oscar Hoeke, Janette Heegsma, Klaas Nico Faber
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin important for vision, reproduction, embryonic development, cell differentiation, epithelial barrier function and adequate immune responses. Efficient absorption of dietary vitamin A depends on the fat-solubilizing properties of bile acids. Bile acids are synthesized in the liver and maintained in an enterohepatic circulation. The liver is also the main storage site for vitamin A in the mammalian body, where an intimate collaboration between hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells leads to the accumulation of retinyl esters in large cytoplasmic lipid droplet hepatic stellate cells...
January 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028939/mechanism-based-modeling-of-gastric-emptying-rate-and-gallbladder-emptying-in-response-to-caloric-intake
#12
B Guiastrennec, D P Sonne, M Hansen, J I Bagger, A Lund, J F Rehfeld, O Alskär, M O Karlsson, T Vilsbøll, F K Knop, M Bergstrand
Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE...
December 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009872/medium-chain-fatty-acids-reduce-serum-cholesterol-by-regulating-the-metabolism-of-bile-acid-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#13
Yinghua Liu, Yong Zhang, Xinsheng Zhang, Qing Xu, Xueyan Yang, Changyong Xue
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the important risk factors of atherosclerosis (AS). The aim of this study is to explore the effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on serum cholesterol levels and their mechanism of action. Hyperlipemia, as a model of abnormal lipid hypermetabolism, was established by using a high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. Forty eight mice with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 4 groups, 12 mice per group, including the control group, the 2% caprylic acid (C8:0)-treated group, 2% capric acid (C10:0)-treated group, and 2% oleic acid (C18:1)-treated group...
December 23, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929465/using-multi-fluorinated-bile-acids-and-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-bile-acid-transport
#14
Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Anan Said, Aaron C Shang, Su Xu, Diana Vivian, Melissa Metry, James E Polli, Jean-Pierre Raufman
Along with their traditional role as detergents that facilitate fat absorption, emerging literature indicates that bile acids are potent signaling molecules that affect multiple organs; they modulate gut motility and hormone production, and alter vascular tone, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy utilization. Changes in fecal bile acids may alter the gut microbiome and promote colon pathology including cholerrheic diarrhea and colon cancer. Key regulators of fecal bile acid composition are the small intestinal Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875503/influence-of-partial-external-biliary-diversion-on-the-lipid-profile-in-children-with-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis
#15
Irena Jankowska, Piotr Czubkowski, Aldona Wierzbicka, Joanna Pawłowska, Piotr Kaliciński, Piotr Socha
OBJECTIVES: The concentration of bile acids is highly increased in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol metabolism, and aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and dietary fat. The aim of our study was to investigate lipid metabolism in patients with PFIC with focus on the effect of partial external biliary diversion (PEBD). METHODS: In 26 patients with PFIC, who underwent PEBD surgery at the median age of 2...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#16
REVIEW
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383786/ttc39b-deficiency-stabilizes-lxr-reducing-both-atherosclerosis-and-steatohepatitis
#17
Joanne Hsieh, Masahiro Koseki, Matthew M Molusky, Emi Yakushiji, Ikuyo Ichi, Marit Westerterp, Jahangir Iqbal, Robin B Chan, Sandra Abramowicz, Liana Tascau, Shunichi Takiguchi, Shizuya Yamashita, Carrie L Welch, Gilbert Di Paolo, M Mahmood Hussain, Jay H Lefkowitch, Daniel J Rader, Alan R Tall
Cellular mechanisms that mediate steatohepatitis, an increasingly prevalent condition in the Western world for which no therapies are available, are poorly understood. Despite the fact that its synthetic agonists induce fatty liver, the liver X receptor (LXR) transcription factor remains a target of interest because of its anti-atherogenic, cholesterol removal, and anti-inflammatory activities. Here we show that tetratricopeptide repeat domain protein 39B (Ttc39b, C9orf52) (T39), a high-density lipoprotein gene discovered in human genome-wide association studies, promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of LXR...
July 14, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146480/cholesterol-7%C3%AE-hydroxylase-deficient-mice-are-protected-from-high-fat-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-metabolic-disorders
#18
Jessica M Ferrell, Shannon Boehme, Feng Li, John Y L Chiang
Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver. In addition to absorption and digestion of nutrients, bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis. We have backcrossed Cyp7a1(-/-) mice in a mixed B6/129Sv genetic background to C57BL/6J mice to generate Cyp7a1(-/-) mice in a near-pure C57BL/6J background. These mice survive well and have normal growth and a bile acid pool size ∼60% of WT mice...
July 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092559/age-related-changes-of-plasma-bile-acid-concentrations-in-healthy-adults-results-from-the-cross-sectional-karmen-study
#19
Lara Frommherz, Achim Bub, Eva Hummel, Manuela J Rist, Alexander Roth, Bernhard Watzl, Sabine E Kulling
Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050404/lipids-and-bariatric-procedures-part-2-of-2-scientific-statement-from-the-american-society-for-metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-asmbs-the-national-lipid-association-nla-and-obesity-medicine-association-oma
#20
REVIEW
Harold Bays, Shanu N Kothari, Dan E Azagury, John M Morton, Ninh T Nguyen, Peter H Jones, Terry A Jacobson, David E Cohen, Carl Orringer, Eric C Westman, Deborah B Horn, Wendy Scinta, Craig Primack
Bariatric procedures generally improve dyslipidemia, sometimes substantially so. Bariatric procedures also improve other major cardiovascular risk factors. This 2-part Scientific Statement examines the lipid effects of bariatric procedures and reflects contributions from authors representing the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), the National Lipid Association (NLA), and the Obesity Medicine Association (OMA). Part 1 was published in the Journal of Clinical Lipidology, and reviewed the impact of bariatric procedures upon adipose tissue endocrine and immune factors, adipose tissue lipid metabolism, as well as the lipid effects of bariatric procedures relative to bile acids and intestinal microbiota...
March 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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