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Fat absorption, bile acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207918/intake-of-green-plant-membrane-with-dietary-oil-suppresses-postprandial-hypertriglyceridemia-in-rats-via-promoting-excretion-of-bile-acids
#1
Hiroko Matsuda, Shinpei Ooi, Ryo Otokozawa, Kodai Kumazaki, Eri Udagawa, Masaya Asakura, Daisuke Suzuki, Takaaki Shirai
Green-plant membrane is a phytonutrient present in green leafy vegetables at high concentration. Postprandial increases in blood triglyceride levels result in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, dietary life and eating order also affect postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. In this study, the effects of once-daily intake of green-plant membrane with dietary oil on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, green-plant membrane bound hydrophobic bile acids but did not inhibit pancreatic lipase activity...
December 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195686/role-of-bile-acids-in-metabolic-control
#2
REVIEW
Antonio Molinaro, Annika Wahlström, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
Bile acids are endocrine molecules that in addition to facilitating the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients regulate numerous metabolic processes, including glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. The signaling actions of bile acids are mediated through specific bile-acid-activated nuclear and membrane-bound receptors. These receptors are not only expressed by tissues within the enterohepatic circulation such as the liver and the intestine, but also in other organs where bile acids mediate their systemic actions...
November 28, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184266/effects-of-saponin-from-trigonella-foenum-graecum-seeds-on-dyslipidemia
#3
Zhi Chen, Yan-Li Lei, Wen-Ping Wang, Ya-Ya Lei, Yan-Hua Liu, Jing Hei, Jin Hu, Hong Sui
Background: Saponins identified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds are reported effective on dyslipidemia. However, the definite mechanism is still not elucidated systematically. In this study, we evaluate the effects of saponin extract on cholesterol absorption, metabolism, synthesis, and reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Methods: Saponin extract was prepared according to a craft established in our previous study. After the establishment of dyslipidemia model, 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups, namely the control group (normal diet plus normal saline), HFD group (high fat diet plus normal saline), Lipitor group (high fat diet plus Lipitor (2 mg/kg)), and L, M, and H-saponin groups (high fat diet plus saponin in dosages of 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg, respectively)...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175670/apoe-is-a-major-determinant-of-hepatic-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-mice
#4
Sandra von Hardenberg, Carsten Gnewuch, Gerd Schmitz, Jürgen Borlak
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays a central role in lipid transport and cholesterol metabolism, with surplus cholesterol being removed from the liver through bile acid (BA) synthesis. Furthermore, BAs are of critical importance in fat absorption by forming intestinal lipid-bile salt mixed micelles. To define ApoE's role in BA homeostasis, the metabolism of cholesterol and BA was investigated in liver tissue and gallbladder bile of ApoE-deficient mice given a chow or high-cholesterol/high-fat diet (HCHF) diet for 6 months...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149831/molecular-mechanisms-triggered-by-bile-acids-on-iintestinal-ca2-absorption
#5
Ana Marchionatti, Maria Rivoira, Valeria Rodriguez, Adriana Perez, Nori Tolosa de Talamoni
Bile acids (BAs) are synthesized in the liver and are among the main components of bile. For many years, it was thought that they have only a role as emulsifiers of fat in the small intestine facilitating the absorption of lipids and lipid soluble vitamins. Lately, they are also considered important signaling molecules, not only by regulating their own synthesis, but also having a role in several metabolic diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of deoxycholic, ursodeoxycholic and litocholic acids and their combination upon the intestinal Ca2+ absorption...
November 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118282/the-role-of-bile-acids-in-glucose-metabolism-and-their-relation-with-diabetes
#6
José Alberto González-Regueiro, Lidia Moreno-Castañeda, Misael Uribe, Norberto C Chávez-Tapia
Bile acids (BAs), the end products of cholesterol catabolism, are essential for the absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins; but they have also emerged as novel signaling molecules that act as metabolic regulators. It has been well described that the enterohepatic circulation, a nuclear (FXR) and a cytoplasmic (TGR5/M-BAR) receptor aid in controlling hepatic bile acid synthesis. Modulating bile acid synthesis greatly impacts in metabolism, because these receptors also are implicated in glucose, lipid, and energy expenditure...
October 4, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101656/impact-of-enteric-health-and-mucosal-permeability-on-skeletal-health-and-lameness-in-poultry
#7
L R Bielke, B M Hargis, J D Latorre
Intestinal barrier leakage and/or altered gut microbial composition has been shown to markedly impact both osteoblast and osteoclast activities, systemically through circulation of gut immune cells and cytokines and locally by causing inflammation of extraintestinal organs such as the liver and bone marrow. Mild cases of heightened intestinal inflammation can cause bone loss in male mice in the absence of any overt nutritional deficiencies or weight loss, which has also been shown in chickens that have been infected with Salmonella...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080344/bile-acids-and-cancer-direct-and-environmental-dependent-effects
#8
Agostino Di Ciaula, David Q-H Wang, Emilio Molina-Molina, Raquel Lunardi Baccetto, Giuseppe Calamita, Vincenzo O Palmieri, Piero Portincasa
Bile acids (BAs) regulate the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, cholesterol and lipids but have also a key role as singalling molecules and in the modulation of epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression and metabolism. These homeostatic pathways, when disrupted, are able to promote local inflammation, systemic metabolic disorders and, ultimately, cancer. The effect of hydrophobic BAs, in particular, can be linked with cancer in several digestive (mainly oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, biliary tract, colon) and extra-digestive organs (i...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080336/bile-acid-physiology
#9
Agostino Di Ciaula, Gabriella Garruti, Raquel Lunardi Baccetto, Emilio Molina-Molina, Leonilde Bonfrate, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
The primary bile acids (BAs) are synthetized from colesterol in the liver, conjugated to glycine or taurine to increase their solubility, secreted into bile, concentrated in the gallbladder during fasting, and expelled in the intestine in response to dietary fat, as well as bio-transformed in the colon to the secondary BAs by the gut microbiota, reabsorbed in the ileum and colon back to the liver, and minimally lost in the feces. BAs in the intestine not only regulate the digestion and absorption of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins, but also play a key role as signaling molecules in modulating epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression, and lipid and glucose metabolism by activating farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (GPBAR-1, also known as TGR5) in the liver, intestine, muscle and brown adipose tissue...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037249/a-novel-self-micro-emulsifying-delivery-system-smeds-formulation-significantly-improves-the-fasting-absorption-of-epa-and-dha-from-a-single-dose-of-an-omega-3-ethyl-ester-concentrate
#10
Yan Qin, Hilde Nyheim, Else Marie Haram, Joseph M Moritz, Svein Olaf Hustvedt
BACKGROUND: Absorption of EPA and DHA from Omega-3-acid ethyl ester (EE) concentrate supplements occurs most efficiently when taken in context of a fatty meal; adequate fat intake is required to release bile salts that emulsify and pancreatic enzymes that digest omega-3-containing lipids in the intestine. Current guidelines recommend reduction in fat intake and therefore there is a need to optimize the absorption of Omega-3 in those consuming low-fat or no-fat meals. To this end, BASF has developed an Absorption Acceleration Technology, a novel self-micro-emulsifying delivery system (SMEDS) formulation of highly concentrated Omega-3-acid EE which enables rapid emulsification and microdroplet formation upon entering the aqueous environment of the gut therefore enhances the absorption...
October 16, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986309/farnesoid-x-receptor-a-homeostat-for-hepatic-nutrient-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Vittoria Massafra, Saskia W C van Mil
The Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor activated by bile acids (BAs). BAs are amphipathic molecules that serve as fat solubilizers in the intestine under postprandial conditions. In the post-absorptive state, BAs bind FXR in the hepatocytes, which in turn provides feedback signals on BA synthesis and transport and regulates lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. Therefore, FXR acts as a homeostat of all three classes of nutrients, fats, sugars and proteins. Here we re-analyze the function of FXR in the perspective of nutritional metabolism, and discuss the role of FXR in liver energy homeostasis in postprandial, post-absorptive and fasting/starvation states...
October 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894048/the-role-of-bile-acids-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bowel-diseases
#12
Magdalena Panek-Jeziorna, Agata Mulak
Bile acids not only play a cardinal role in the digestion and absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins, but also significantly affect gastrointestinal motor, sensory and secretory functions, intestinal barrier permeability and the regulation of the inflammatory response. The results of recent studies have revealed complex interactions between bile acids and the gut microbiota. In addition, bile acids also play a role of signaling molecules regulating the activity of lipid and glucose metabolic pathways, as well as a role of ligands for transcription factors...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885549/mdg-1-a-potential-regulator-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE-ameliorates-dyslipidemia-in-mice
#13
Xu Wang, Linlin Shi, Sun Joyce, Yuan Wang, Yi Feng
Hyperlipidemia is a serious epidemic disease caused by lipid metabolism disorder, which is harmful to human health. MDG-1, a β-d-fructan polysaccharide extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to improve abnormal blood lipid levels and alleviate diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism on hyperlipidemia is largely unknown. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were randomly separated into three groups, respectively: low-fat diet (Con), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet plus 5‰ MDG-1 (HFD + MDG-1)...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756207/pregnane-x-receptor-pxr-deficiency-improves-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-via-induction-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-15-fgf15-expression
#14
Li-Yang Zhao, Jia-Yi Xu, Zhe Shi, Neal A Englert, Shu-Yun Zhang
Obesity has become a significant global health problem, and is a high risk factor for a variety of metabolic diseases. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 plays an important role in the regulation of metabolism. Xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR/NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR/NR1I3) play important roles in xenobiotic detoxification and metabolism, and also are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. However, the effects that PXR and CAR have on the regulation of FGF15 are unknown...
October 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549240/dietary-salecan-reverts-partially-the-metabolic-gene-expressions-and-nmr-based-metabolomic-profiles-from-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#15
Qi Sun, Minghui Li, Xiao Yang, Xi Xu, Junsong Wang, Jianfa Zhang
Previous studies suggest that dietary salecan (a water-soluble β-glucan) effectively reduces high-fat-diet-induced adiposity through disturbing bile-acid-promoted emulsification in mice. However, the effects of salecan on metabolic genes and metabolites involved in lipid accumulation are mostly unknown. Here, we confirmed that dietary 3% and 6% salecan for 4 weeks markedly decreased fat accumulation in liver and adipose tissue in high-fat-diet rats, displaying a decrease in mRNA levels of SREBP1-C, FAS, SCD1 and ACC1 involved in de novo lipogenesis and a reduction of levels of GPAT1, DGAT1 and DGAT2 related to triglyceride synthesis...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527154/structure-based-classification-for-bile-salt-export-pump-bsep-inhibitors-using-comparative-structural-modeling-of-human-bsep
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sankalp Jain, Melanie Grandits, Lars Richter, Gerhard F Ecker
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) actively transports conjugated monovalent bile acids from the hepatocytes into the bile. This facilitates the formation of micelles and promotes digestion and absorption of dietary fat. Inhibition of BSEP leads to decreased bile flow and accumulation of cytotoxic bile salts in the liver. A number of compounds have been identified to interact with BSEP, which results in drug-induced cholestasis or liver injury. Therefore, in silico approaches for flagging compounds as potential BSEP inhibitors would be of high value in the early stage of the drug discovery pipeline...
June 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502496/minimal-food-effect-for-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-bioavailability-from-omega-3-acid-ethyl-esters-with-an-advanced-lipid-technologies-tm-alt-%C3%A2-based-formulation
#17
Miguel A Lopez-Toledano, Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson, Ahmed A Daak, Kevin C Maki, Colleen Johns, Adrian L Rabinowicz, Frederick D Sancilio
BACKGROUND: The absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) omega-3-acid ethyl esters (EEs) is influenced by food. There is a need for a formulation of EE that is less impacted by food effect. SC401 is a novel Advanced Lipid Technologies-based formulation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE. In the presence of an aqueous medium, Advanced Lipid Technologies forms stable micelles in situ independent of bile salt secretion. This effect is hypothesized to improve EPA-EE and DHA-EE bioavailability while it helps mitigate the food effect associated with their consumption...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475629/purification-and-characterization-of-recombinant-human-bile-salt-stimulated-lipase-expressed-in-milk-of-transgenic-cloned-cows
#18
Yuhang Wang, Fangrong Ding, Tao Wang, Wenjie Liu, Susanne Lindquist, Olle Hernell, Jianwu Wang, Jing Li, Ling Li, Yaofeng Zhao, Yunping Dai, Ning Li
Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) is a lipolytic digestive enzyme with broad substrate specificity secreted from exocrine pancreas into the intestinal lumen in all species and from the lactating mammary gland into the milk of some species, notably humans but not cows. BSSL in breast milk facilitates digestion and absorption of milk fat and promotes growth of small for gestational age preterm infants. Thus, purified recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL) can be used for treatment of patients with fat malabsorption and expressing rhBSSL in the milk of transgenic cloned cows would therefore be a mean to meet a medical need...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429841/the-development-evidence-and-current-use-of-atx-101-for-the-treatment-of-submental-fat
#19
REVIEW
Corey Georgesen, Shari R Lipner
ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid) is the first pharmaceutical therapy approved by the FDA for the reduction in submental fat. Deoxycholic acid is an endogenous secondary bile acid that normally solubilizes dietary fat, contributing to its breakdown and absorption within the gut. This article reviews the identification of deoxycholic acid as a lipolytic agent, and the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ATX-101. In addition to phase I/II trials, four Phase III clinical trials have evaluated safety and efficacy of ATX-101...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384537/characterization-of-colloidal-structures-during-intestinal-lipolysis-using-small-angle-neutron-scattering
#20
Oljora Rezhdo, Selena Di Maio, Peisi Le, Kenneth C Littrell, Rebecca L Carrier, Sow-Hsin Chen
HYPOTHESIS: Bile micelles are thought to mediate intestinal absorption, in part by providing a phase into which compounds can partition. Solubilizing capacity of bile micelles is enhanced during the digestion of fat rich food. We hypothesized that the intestinal digestion of triglycerides causes an increase in volume of micelles that can be quantitatively monitored over the course of digestion using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and that SANS can enable evaluation of the contribution of each of the components present during digestion to the size of micelles...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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