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Katsutoshi Mizuno, Erin E Dymek, Elizabeth F Smith
The complex waveforms characteristic of motile eukaryotic cilia and flagella are produced by the temporally and spatially regulated action of multiple dynein subforms generating sliding between subsets of axonemal microtubules. Multiple protein complexes have been identified that are associated with the doublet microtubules and that mediate regulatory signals between key axonemal structures, such as the radial spokes and central apparatus, and the dynein arm motors; these complexes include the N-DRC, MIA and CSC complexes...
October 22, 2016: Cytoskeleton
Helga Naburi, Phares Mujinja, Charles Kilewo, Till Bärnighausen, Nicola Orsini, Karim Manji, Gunnel Biberfeld, David Sando, Pascal Geldsetzer, Guerino Chalamila, Anna Mia Ekström
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major source of new HIV infections in children. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) using lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV (Option B+) is the major strategy for eliminating paediatric HIV. Ensuring that patients are satisfied with PMTCT services is important for optimizing uptake, adherence and retention in treatment. METHODS: We conducted a facility based quantitative cross-sectional survey in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, between March and April 2014, when the country was transitioning to the implementation of PMTCT Option B+...
2016: PloS One
Daniel Schober, Nicole Schwendener, Wolf-Dieter Zech, Christian Jackowski
Segmentation of the lungs using post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) data was so far not feasible due to post-mortem changes such as internal livores. Recently, an Osirix plug-in has been developed allowing automatically segmenting lungs also in PMCT data. The aim of this study was to investigate if the Hounsfield unit (HU) profiles obtained in PMCT data of the segmented lung tissue present with specific behaviour in relation to the cause of death. In 105 PMCT data sets of forensic cases, the entire lung volumes were segmented using the Mia Lite plug-in on Osirix...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Ivana Generalić Mekinić, Ivica Blažević, Ivana Mudnić, Franko Burčul, Mia Grga, Danijela Skroza, Iva Jerčić, Ivica Ljubenkov, Mladen Boban, Mladen Miloš, Višnja Katalinić
Sea fennel, a rediscovered star of the coastal cuisine, has been investigated for its phytochemical profile and biological potential. Sea fennel flowers, stems and leaves were analyzed for essential oils (EOs) isolated by hydrodistillation, as well as non-volatiles obtained by ethanolic extraction. Limonene were found to be a dominant compound in EOs and ethanolic extracts; ranging from 57.5-74.2 % and 0.7-8.1 mg/g dry plant material, respectively. In addition total phenolic content was determined for ethanolic extracts...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Marianne Ronovsky, Stefanie Berger, Alice Zambon, Sonali N Reisinger, Orsolya Horvath, Arnold Pollak, Claudia Lindtner, Angelika Berger, Daniela D Pollak
Gestational infection is increasingly being recognized for its involvement as causative mechanism in severe developmental brain abnormalities and its contribution to the pathogenesis of psychopathologies later in life. First observations in the widely accepted maternal immune activation (MIA) model based upon the systemic administration of the viral mimetic Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) have recently suggested a transmission of behavioral and transcriptional traits across generations. Although maternal care behavior (MCB) is known as essential mediator of the transgenerational effects of environmental challenges on offspring brain function and behavior, the possible propagation of alterations of MCB resulting from MIA to following generations has not yet been examined...
October 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Divya Arora, Nisha Sharma, Venugopal Singamaneni, Vishal Sharma, Manoj Kushwaha, Vidushi Abrol, Santosh Guru, Sonia Sharma, Ajai Prakash Gupta, Shashi Bhushan, Sundeep Jaglan, Prasoon Gupta
BACKGROUND: The genus Xylaria has been reported as a rich source of biologically active secondary metabolites. In the present study, an endophytic fungus Xylaria psidii has been isolated from the leaf sample of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., characterized on the basis of its morphological features and sequence data for the ITS region (KU291350) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Biological screening of ethyl acetate extract of Xylaria psidii displayed a potential therapeutic effect on pancreatic cancer cells...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Preeti Rawat, Lokesh M Saroj, Anil Kumar, Tryambak D Singh, S K Tewari, Mahesh Pal
BACKGROUND: The plant Launaea procumbens belongs to the family Asteraceae and traditionally used in the treatment rheumatism, kidney, liver dysfunctions and eye diseases. In the present study Phytochemical analysis and fractions of methanolic extract of L. procumbens leaves were tested in vitro for their cytotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract and fractions of Launaea procumbens against four cancer cell lines K562, HeLa, MIA-Pa-Ca-2 and MCF-2 by SRB assay...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Lauren M Postlewait, Cecilia G Ethun, Mia R McInnis, Nipun Merchant, Alexander Parikh, Kamran Idrees, Chelsea A Isom, William Hawkins, Ryan C Fields, Matthew Strand, Sharon M Weber, Clifford S Cho, Ahmed Salem, Robert C G Martin, Charles Scoggins, David Bentrem, Hong J Kim, Jacquelyn Carr, Syed Ahmad, Daniel E Abbott, Gregory C Wilson, David A Kooby, Shishir K Maithel
Importance: Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) harbor malignant potential, and current guidelines recommend resection. However, data are limited on preoperative risk factors for malignancy (adenocarcinoma or high-grade dysplasia) occurring in the setting of an MCN. Objectives: To examine the preoperative risk factors for malignancy in resected MCNs and to assess outcomes of MCN-associated adenocarcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Patients who underwent pancreatic resection of MCNs at the 8 academic centers of the Central Pancreas Consortium from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2014, were retrospectively identified...
October 19, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Mie Rostved Rasmussen, Kirstine Lykke Nielsen, Mia Roest Laursen, Camilla Bak Nielsen, Pia Svendsen, Henrik Dimke, Erik Ilsø Christensen, Mogens Johannsen, Søren Kragh Moestrup
Loss-of-function mutations in the transmembrane ABCC6 transport protein cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum - an ectopic, metabolic mineralization disorder affecting the skin, eye and vessels. ABCC6 is assumed to mediate efflux of one or several small molecule compounds from the liver cytosol to the circulation. Untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was employed to inspect liver cytosolic extracts from mice with targeted disruption of the Abcc6 gene. Absence of the ABCC6 protein induced an altered profile of metabolites in the liver causing accumulation of compounds as more features were upregulated than downregulated in ABCC6-deficient mice...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Mia Edgar, Andria M Caruso, Esther Kim, Robert D Foss
Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated form of squamous cell carcinoma caused by a chromosomal rearrangement of the NUT gene on chromosome 15. These tumors have a predilection for midline and paramidline structures of the upper aerodigestive tract and mediastinum and can affect patients across a broad age range, including children. In the current example, a 53 year old male presented with a mass originating in the left nasal cavity. The clinical, radiographic, and morphologic features of NMC are discussed...
October 18, 2016: Head and Neck Pathology
Carl Savage, Louise Parke, Mia von Knorring, Pamela Mazzocato
BACKGROUND: Health care has experimented with many different quality improvement (QI) approaches with greater variation in name than content. This has been dubbed pseudoinnovation. However, it could also be that the subtleties and differences are not clearly understood. To explore this further, the purpose of this study was to explore how hospital managers perceive lean in the context of QI. METHODS: We used a qualitative study design with semi-structured interviews to explore twelve top managers' perceptions of the relationship between lean and quality improvement (QI) at a university-affiliated hospital...
October 19, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Rashi Arora, Sharad Sawney, Vikas Saini, Chris Steffi, Manisha Tiwari, Daman Saluja
BACKGROUND: A handful of studies have exploited antitumor potential of esculetin, a dihydroxy coumarine derivative; the targets to which it binds and the possible downstream mechanism for its cytotoxicity in cancer cells remain to be elucidated. Using pancreatic cancer cell lines as a model system, herein the study was initiated to check the efficacy of esculetin in inhibiting growth of these cancer cells, to decipher mechanism of its action and to predict its direct binding target protein...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Cancer
Cédric Seignez, Mia Phillipson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the mechanisms by which neutrophils contribute to angiogenesis in hypoxic tissues during different conditions and diseases (e.g., menstrual cycle, wound healing, ischemic diseases, cancers), with particular focus on the recently described proangiogenic neutrophil subpopulation. RECENT FINDINGS: The importance of neutrophils in initiation of angiogenesis has been described during the past decade, and is believed to occur through release of the well-known proangiogenic factors Bv8, vascular endothelial growth factor A, and matrix metalloproteinase 9...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
Mia Fahlen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Läkartidningen
Luke Pett, Konstantinos Kiakos, Vijay Satam, Pravin Patil, Sarah Laughlin-Toth, Matthew Gregory, Michael Bowerman, Kevin Olson, Mia Savagian, Megan Lee, Moses Lee, W David Wilson, Daniel Hochhauser, John A Hartley
BACKGROUND: Sequence specific polyamide HxIP 1, targeted to the inverted CCAAT Box 2 (ICB2) on the topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) promoter can inhibit NF-Y binding, re-induce gene expression and increase sensitivity to etoposide. To enhance biological activity, diamino-containing derivatives (HxI*P 2 and HxIP* 3) were synthesised incorporating an alkyl amino group at the N1-heterocyclic position of the imidazole/pyrrole. METHODS: DNase I footprinting was used to evaluate DNA binding of the diamino Hx-polyamides, and their ability to disrupt the NF-Y:ICB2 interaction assessed using EMSAs...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Esther A Guzmán, Dedra Harmody, Tara P Pitts, Brunilda Vera-Diaz, Priscilla L Winder, Yichao Yu, Amy E Wright
Pancreatic cancer presents one of the most negative prognosis of all cancers as it has usually metastasized by the time a patient is diagnosed. The American Cancer Society estimates that 93% of patients will die within 5 years of diagnosis, highlighting the need for new drugs to treat this disease. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) mediates the angiogenesis of tumors arising from Ras mutations, which are present in about 90% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Overexpression of IL-8 in pancreatic tumors is believed to promote tumor angiogenesis and to activate survival signaling pathways...
October 5, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Hongbo Hu, Baohui Yang, Yumin Li, Subin Zhang, Zheng Li
P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor (P2X7R) is known to play a significant role in inflammation and pain-causing diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). However, the mechanisms of action of P2X7R and its role in OA remain unclear. The articular cartilage is the crucial region in which pathological changes occur in OA, involving the dysregulation of degradation and maintenance mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms of action of P2X7R in articular cartilage in OA-induced pain and inflammation by using AZD9056, an antagonist of P2X7R...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Mark D Griffiths, Robert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics, Mia B Lichtenstein, Ricardo de la Vega, Bernadette Kun, Roberto Ruiz-Barquín, Jason Youngman, Attila Szabo
Research into the detrimental effects of excessive exercise has been conceptualized in a number of similar ways, including 'exercise addiction', 'exercise dependence', 'obligatory exercising', 'exercise abuse', and 'compulsive exercise'. Among the most currently used (and psychometrically valid and reliable) instruments is the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI). The present study aimed to further explore the psychometric properties of the EAI by combining the datasets of a number of surveys carried out in five different countries (Denmark, Hungary, Spain, UK, and US) that have used the EAI with a total sample size of 6,031 participants...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Jordan M Casey, Andrew H Baird, Simon J Brandl, Mia O Hoogenboom, Justin R Rizzari, Ashley J Frisch, Christopher E Mirbach, Sean R Connolly
Removal of predators is often hypothesized to alter community structure through trophic cascades. However, despite recent advances in our understanding of trophic cascades, evidence is often circumstantial on coral reefs because fishing pressure frequently co-varies with other anthropogenic effects, such as fishing for herbivorous fishes and changes in water quality due to pollution. Australia's outer Great Barrier Reef (GBR) has experienced fishing-induced declines of apex predators and mesopredators, but pollution and targeting of herbivorous fishes are minimal...
October 15, 2016: Oecologia
Annah B Wyss, Mia Hashibe, Yuan-Chin Amy Lee, Shu-Chun Chuang, Joshua Muscat, Chu Chen, Stephen M Schwartz, Elaine Smith, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Hal Morgenstern, Qingyi Wei, Guojun Li, Karl T Kelsey, Michael McClean, Deborah M Winn, Stimson Schantz, Guo-Pei Yu, Maura L Gillison, Jose P Zevallos, Paolo Boffetta, Andrew F Olshan
Previous studies on smokeless tobacco use and head and neck cancer (HNC) have found inconsistent and often imprecise estimates, with limited control for cigarette smoking. Using pooled data from 11 US case-control studies (1981-2006) of oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers (6,772 cases and 8,375 controls) in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium, we applied hierarchical logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for ever use, frequency of use, and duration of use of snuff and chewing tobacco separately for never and ever cigarette smokers...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
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