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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734821/deep-learning-poised-to-revolutionise-diagnostic-imaging
#1
Bryant Furlow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734511/the-burden-and-etiology-of-diarrheal-illness-in-developing-countries
#2
REVIEW
Karen L Kotloff
Reductions in mortality from diarrheal diseases among young children have occurred in recent decades; however, approximately 500,000 children continue to die each year. Moreover, similar reductions in disease incidence have not been seen, episodes that impact the growth and development of young children. Two recent studies, MAL-ED and GEMS, have more clearly defined the burden and cause of diarrhea among young children, identifying four leading pathogens: rotavirus, CryptosporidiumShigella, and heat stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724316/molecular-diagnosis-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#3
Xuewen Song, Amirreza Haghighi, Ioan-Andrei Iliuta, York Pei
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disease that accounts for 5-10% of end-stage renal disease in developed countries. Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 account for a majority of cases. Mutation screening of PKD1 is technically challenging largely due to the complexity resulting from duplication of its first 33 exons in six highly homologous pseudogenes (i.e. PKD1P1-P6). Protocol using locus-specific long-range and nested PCR has enabled comprehensive PKD1 mutation screening but is labor-intensive and costly...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722229/a-transposon-directed-epigenetic-change-in-zmcct-underlies-quantitative-resistance-to-gibberella-stalk-rot-in-maize
#4
Chao Wang, Qin Yang, Weixiang Wang, Yipu Li, Yanling Guo, Dongfeng Zhang, Xuena Ma, Wei Song, Jiuran Zhao, Mingliang Xu
A major resistance quantitative trait locus, qRfg1, significantly enhances maize resistance to Gibberella stalk rot, a devastating disease caused by Fusarium graminearum. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. We adopted a map-based cloning approach to identify the resistance gene at qRfg1 and examined the dynamic epigenetic changes during qRfg1-mediated maize resistance to the disease. A CCT domain-containing gene, ZmCCT, is the causal gene at the qRfg1 locus and a polymorphic CACTA-like transposable element (TE1) c...
July 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720834/chemical-inhibitors-of-candida-albicans-hyphal-morphogenesis-target-endocytosis
#5
Hagit Bar-Yosef, Nora Vivanco Gonzalez, Shay Ben-Aroya, Stephen J Kron, Daniel Kornitzer
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, typically found as a benign commensal yeast living on skin and mucosa, but poised to invade injured tissue to cause local infections. In debilitated and immunocompromised individuals, C. albicans may spread to cause life-threatening systemic infections. Upon contact with serum and at body temperature, C. albicans performs a regulated switch to filamentous morphology, characterized by emergence of a germ tube from the yeast cell followed by mold-like growth of branching hyphae...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#6
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715449/a-unique-enhancer-boundary-complex-on-the-mouse-ribosomal-rna-genes-persists-after-loss-of-rrn3-or-ubf-and-the-inactivation-of-rna-polymerase-i-transcription
#7
Chelsea Herdman, Jean-Clement Mars, Victor Y Stefanovsky, Michel G Tremblay, Marianne Sabourin-Felix, Helen Lindsay, Mark D Robinson, Tom Moss
Transcription of the several hundred of mouse and human Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes accounts for the majority of RNA synthesis in the cell nucleus and is the determinant of cytoplasmic ribosome abundance, a key factor in regulating gene expression. The rRNA genes, referred to globally as the rDNA, are clustered as direct repeats at the Nucleolar Organiser Regions, NORs, of several chromosomes, and in many cells the active repeats are transcribed at near saturation levels. The rDNA is also a hotspot of recombination and chromosome breakage, and hence understanding its control has broad importance...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711755/palliative-care-clinicians-caring-for-patients-before-and-after-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-device
#8
Sara E Wordingham, Colleen K McIlvennan, Timothy J Fendler, Amy L Behnken, Shannon M Dunlay, James N Kirkpatrick, Keith M Swetz
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are an available treatment option for carefully-selected patients with advanced heart failure. Initially developed as a bridge to transplantation, LVADs are now also offered to patients ineligible for transplantation as destination therapy (DT). Individuals with a DT-LVAD will live the remainder of their lives with the device in place. While survival and quality of life improve with LVADs compared to medical therapy, complications persist including bleeding, infection, and stroke...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706227/phenomenological-model-for-defect-interactions-in-irradiated-functional-materials
#9
Steven J Brewer, Cory D Cress, Samuel C Williams, Hanhan Zhou, Manuel Rivas, Ryan Q Rudy, Ronald G Polcawich, Evan R Glaser, Jacob L Jones, Nazanin Bassiri-Gharb
The ability to tailor the performance of functional materials, such as semiconductors, via careful manipulation of defects has led to extraordinary advances in microelectronics. Functional metal oxides are no exception - protonic-defect-conducting oxides find use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen-deficient high-temperature superconductors are poised for power transmission and magnetic imaging applications. Similarly, the advantageous functional responses in ferroelectric materials that make them attractive for use in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), logic elements, and environmental energy harvesting, are derived from interactions of defects with other defects (such as domain walls) and with the lattice...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697666/bacterial-cell-division-nonmodels-poised-to-take-the-spotlight
#10
Prahathees J Eswara, Kumaran S Ramamurthi
The last three decades have witnessed an explosion of discoveries about the mechanistic details of binary fission in model bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Caulobacter crescentus. This was made possible not only by advances in microscopy that helped answer questions about cell biology but also by clever genetic manipulations that directly and easily tested specific hypotheses. More recently, research using understudied organisms, or nonmodel systems, has revealed several alternate mechanistic strategies that bacteria use to divide and propagate...
July 11, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696660/transient-nanoscopic-phase-separation-in-biological-lipid-membranes-resolved-by-planar-plasmonic-antennas
#11
Pamina Martina Winkler, Raju Regmi, Valentin Flauraud, Juergen Brugger, Herve Rigneault, Jerome Wenger, Maria F Garcia-Parajo
Nanoscale membrane assemblies of sphingolipids, cholesterol and certain proteins, also known as lipid rafts, play a crucial role in facilitating a broad range of important cell functions. Whereas on living cell membranes lipid rafts have been postulated to have nanoscopic dimensions and being highly transient, the existence of a similar type of dynamic nanodomains in multicomponent lipid bilayers has been questioned. Here, we perform fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on planar plasmonic antenna arrays with different nanogap sizes to assess the dynamic nanoscale organization of mimetic biological membranes...
July 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688187/reexamining-opportunities-for-therapeutic-protein-production-in-eukaryotic-microorganisms
#12
REVIEW
M Catherine Bartlett, Chapman Wright, Angel Kuo, Noelle Colant, Matthew Westoby, J Christopher Love
Antibodies are an important class of therapeutics and are predominantly produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines. While this manufacturing platform is sufficiently productive to supply patient populations of currently approved therapies, it is unclear whether or not the current CHO platform can address two significant areas of need: affordable access to biologics for patients around the globe and production of unprecedented quantities needed for very large populations of patients. Novel approaches to recombinant protein production for therapeutic biologic products may be needed, and might be enabled by non-mammalian expression systems and recent advances in bioengineering...
July 8, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687935/update-of-ablative-fractionated-lasers-to-enhance-cutaneous-topical-drug-delivery
#13
REVIEW
Jill S Waibel, Ashley Rudnick, Deborah R Shagalov, Danielle M Nicolazzo
Ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) enhance uptake of therapeutics and this newly emerging field is called laser-assisted drug delivery (LAD). This new science has emerged over the past decade and is finding its way into clinical practice. LAD is poised to change how medicine delivers drugs. Topical and systemic application of pharmaceutical agents for therapeutic effect is an integral part of medicine. With topical therapy, the stratum corneum barrier of the skin impairs the ability of drugs to enter the body...
July 7, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685252/imaging-the-event-prone-coronary-artery-plaque
#14
Andreas A Giannopoulos, Dominik C Benz, Christoph Gräni, Ronny R Buechel
Acute coronary events, the dreaded manifestation of coronary atherosclerosis, remain one of the main contributors to mortality and disability in the developed world. The majority of those events are associated with atherosclerotic plaques-related thrombus formation following an acute disruption, that being rupture or erosion, of an event-prone lesion. These historically termed vulnerable plaques have been the target of numerous benchtop and clinical research endeavors, yet to date without solid results that would allow for early identification and potential treatment...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684420/structural-and-biochemical-analyses-indicate-that-a-bacterial-persulfide-dioxygenase-rhodanese-fusion-protein-functions-in-sulfur-assimilation
#15
Nicole Motl, Meredith A Skiba, Omer Kabil, Janet L Smith, Ruma Banerjee
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule that is toxic at elevated concentrations. In eukaryotes, it is cleared via a mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway, which comprises sulfide quinone oxidoreductase, persulfide dioxygenase (PDO), rhodanese, and sulfite oxidase and converts H2S to thiosulfate and sulfate. Natural fusions between the non-heme iron containing PDO and rhodanese, a thiol sulfurtransferase, exist in some bacteria. However, little is known about the role of the PDO-rhodanese fusion (PRF) proteins in sulfur metabolism...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681836/erratum-global-eradication-of-measles-are-we-poised
#16
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_233.].
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679230/complex-behavior-in-chains-of-nonlinear-oscillators
#17
Leandro M Alonso
This article outlines sufficient conditions under which a one-dimensional chain of identical nonlinear oscillators can display complex spatio-temporal behavior. The units are described by phase equations and consist of excitable oscillators. The interactions are local and the network is poised to a critical state by balancing excitation and inhibition locally. The results presented here suggest that in networks composed of many oscillatory units with local interactions, excitability together with balanced interactions is sufficient to give rise to complex emergent features...
June 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676845/th2-1-hybrid-cells-occurring-in-murine-and-human-strongyloidiasis-share-effector-functions-of-th1-cells
#18
Cristin N Bock, Subash Babu, Minka Breloer, Anuradha Rajamanickam, Yukhti Boothra, Marie-Luise Brunn, Anja A Kühl, Roswitha Merle, Max Löhning, Susanne Hartmann, Sebastian Rausch
Infections by the soil-transmitted threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis affect 30-100 million people worldwide, predominantly in tropic and sub-tropic regions. Here we assessed the T helper cell phenotypes in threadworm-infected patients and experimental murine infections with focus on CD4(+) T cells co-expressing markers of Th2 and Th1 differentiation. We show that mice infected with the close relative S. ratti generate strong Th2 responses characterized by the expansion of CD4(+) GATA-3(+) cells expressing IL-4/-5/-13 in blood, spleen, gut-draining lymph nodes, lung and gut tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676470/desirable-components-for-a-customized-home-based-digital-care-management-app-for-children-and-young-people-with-long-term-chronic-conditions-a-qualitative-exploration
#19
Ruth Nightingale, Andrew Hall, Carole Gelder, Simone Friedl, Eileen Brennan, Veronica Swallow
BACKGROUND: Mobile apps for mobile phones and tablet devices are widely used by children and young people aged 0-18 years with long-term health conditions, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), and their healthy peers for social networking or gaming. They are also poised to become a major source of health guidance. However, app development processes that are coproduced, rigorously developed, and evaluated to provide tailored, condition-specific, practical advice on day-to-day care management are seldom systematic or sufficiently described to enable replication...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675174/landmarks-in-the-treatment-of-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Niyati Lobo, Chloe Mount, Kawa Omar, Rajesh Nair, Ramesh Thurairaja, Muhammad Shamim Khan
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is an aggressive disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Radical cystectomy is the mainstay of treatment and has evolved since the first reported cystectomy in 1887 to include pelvic lymph node dissection and the creation of increasingly sophisticated urinary diversions, such as neobladders and pouches, which enable patients to maintain continence. Pioneering work in the 1970s established the therapeutic activity of cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer and resulted in the introduction of cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which led to the first improvement in survival outcomes in decades...
July 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
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