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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921444/estimating-cancer-induction-risk-from-abdominopelvic-scanning-with-6-and-16-slice-computed-tomography
#1
Parinaz Mehnati, Ayoub Amirnia, Nasrollah Jabbari
PURPOSE: The biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIRVII) report estimates that the risk of getting cancer from radiation is increased by about a third from current regulation risk levels. The propose of this study was to estimate cancer induction risk from abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scanning of adult patients using 6- and 16-slice CT scanners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 200 patients with abdominopelvic CT scan in 6- and 16-slice scanners was conducted...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919337/radiation-and-circulatory-disease
#2
Mark P Little
Exposure to therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation is associated with damage to the heart and coronary arteries. However, only recently have studies with high-quality individual dosimetry data allowed this risk to be quantified while also adjusting for concomitant chemotherapy, and medical and lifestyle risk factors. At lower levels of exposure the evidence is less clear. In this article I review radiation-associated risks of circulatory disease in groups treated with radiotherapy for malignant and non-malignant disease, and in occupationally- or environmentally-exposed groups receiving rather lower levels of radiation dose, also for medical diagnostic purposes...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919334/ionizing-radiation-induced-cataracts-recent-biological-and-mechanistic-developments-and-perspectives-for-future-research
#3
Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Stephen Barnard, Scott Bright, Claudia Dalke, Miguel Jarrin, Sarah Kunze, Rick Tanner, Joseph R Dynlacht, Roy A Quinlan, Jochen Graw, Munira Kadhim, Nobuyuki Hamada
The lens of the eye has long been considered as a radiosensitive tissue, but recent research has suggested that the radiosensitivity is even greater than previously thought. The 2012 recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to substantially reduce the annual occupational equivalent dose limit for the ocular lens has now been adopted in the European Union and is under consideration around the rest of the world. However, ICRP clearly states that the recommendations are chiefly based on epidemiological evidence because there are a very small number of studies that provide explicit biological, mechanistic evidence at doses <2Gy...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910025/cytogenetics-for-biological-dosimetry
#4
Michelle Ricoul, Tamizh Gnana-Sekaran, Laure Piqueret-Stephan, Laure Sabatier
Cytogenetics is the gold-standard in biological dosimetry for assessing a received dose of ionizing radiation. More modern techniques have recently emerged, but none are as specific as cytogenetic approaches, particularly the dicentric assay. Here, we will focus on the principal cytogenetic techniques used for biological dosimetry: the dicentric assay in metaphase cells, the micronuclei assay in binucleated cells, and the premature condensed chromosome (PCC) assay in interphase cells. New fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques (such as telomere-centromere hybridization) have facilitated the analysis of the dicentric assay and have permitted to assess the dose a long time after irradiation by translocation analysis (such as by Tri-color FISH or Multiplex-FISH)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908159/a-preclinical-microbeam-facility-with-a-conventional-x-ray-tube
#5
Stefan Bartzsch, Craig Cummings, Stephan Eismann, Uwe Oelfke
PURPOSE: Microbeam radiation therapy is an innovative treatment approach in radiation therapy that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide and a few hundreds of micrometer spaced planar x-ray beams as treatment fields. In preclinical studies these fields efficiently eradicated tumors while normal tissue could effectively be spared. However, development and clinical application of microbeam radiation therapy is impeded by a lack of suitable small scale sources. Until now, only large synchrotrons provide appropriate beam properties for the production of microbeams...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906782/predicting-heart-dose-in-breast-cancer-patients-who-received-3d-conformal-radiation-therapy
#6
Daniel Wollschläger, Heiko Karle, Marcus Stockinger, Detlef Bartkowiak, Sandra Bührdel, Hiltrud Merzenich, Thomas Wiegel, Heinz Schmidberger, Maria Blettner
Cardiac late effects are a major health concern for long-term survivors after radiotherapy for breast cancer. Large cohort studies to better understand the exact dose-response relationship require individual estimates of radiation dose to the heart. To predict individual cardiac dose from information that is typically available for all members of a retrospective epidemiological cohort study, 774 female breast cancer patients treated with megavoltage tangential field radiotherapy in 1998-2008 were examined. All dose distributions were calculated using Eclipse with the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) for photon fields and the electron Monte Carlo algorithm for electron boost fields...
January 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904871/in-vivo-measurement-and-characterization-of-a-novel-formulation-of-177-lu-dota-octreotate
#7
Dale L Bailey, Thomas M Hennessy, Kathy P Willowson, E Courtney Henry, David Lh Chan, Alireza Aslani, Paul J Roach
OBJECTIVES: Lutetium-177 can be made with high specific activity and with no other isotopes of lutetium present, referred to as "No Carrier Added" (NCA) (177)Lu. We have radiolabelled DOTA-conjugated peptide DOTA-(Tyr(3))-octreotate with NCA (177)Lu ("NCA-LuTATE") and used it in nearly 40 therapeutic administrations for subjects with neuroendocrine tumours or meningiomas. In this paper, we report on our initial studies on aspects of the biodistribution and dosimetry of NCA-LuTATE from gamma camera 2D whole body (WB) and quantitative 3D SPECT (qSPECT) (177)Lu imaging...
2016: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896673/the-clinical-safety-biodistribution-and-internal-radiation-dosimetry-of-18-f-ah113804-in-healthy-adult-volunteers
#8
E J Somer, R Owenius, A Wall, G Antoni, A Thibblin, J Sörensen
BACKGROUND: Quantitative biodistribution, venous blood and excretion data have been obtained following the intravenous bolus injection of AH113804 ((18)F) Injection in six healthy volunteers (HVs), four males and two females, up to approximately 5 h post-injection. For each subject, key organs and tissues were delineated and analytical fits were made to the image data as functions of time to yield the normalised cumulated activities. These were input to an internal radiation dosimetry calculation based upon the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema for the Cristy-Eckerman adult male or female phantom...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894049/effect-of-co-doping-of-sodium-on-the-thermoluminescence-dosimetry-properties-of-copper-doped-zinc-lithium-borate-glass-system
#9
REVIEW
A Saidu, H Wagiran, M A Saeed, Y S M Alajerami, A B A Kadir
The effect of sodium as a co-dopant on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate (ZLB: Cu) subjected to Co-60 gamma radiation is reported in this study. TL intensity is enhanced with the introduction of sodium in ZLB: Cu. The obtained glow curve is simple with a single peak. The annealing procedure and the best heating rate for the proposed thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) are established, and the phosphor is reusable. The TL response within the dose range of 0.5-1000Gy is investigated...
October 11, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893456/updated-effective-doses-in-radiology
#10
Jorge Vilar-Palop, José Vilar, Ildefonso Hernández-Aguado, Isabel González-Álvarez, Blanca Lumbreras
The aim of this study was to review recent literature in order to provide updated values of the typical effective doses associated with the top 20 imaging tests for adults and children and for the most widely used set of weights (ICRP60) as well as for the most recent one (ICRP103). We performed a systematic research on radiation dosimetry in radiology published from 2007 onwards through the Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library Plus databases. We also included studies backed by scientific or governmental organizations...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889802/f-18-labelled-psma-1007-biodistribution-radiation-dosimetry-and-histopathological-validation-of-tumor-lesions-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#11
Frederik L Giesel, B Hadaschik, J Cardinale, J Radtke, M Vinsensia, W Lehnert, C Kesch, Y Tolstov, S Singer, N Grabe, S Duensing, M Schäfer, O C Neels, W Mier, U Haberkorn, K Kopka, C Kratochwil
PURPOSE: The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted positron-emitting-tomography (PET) tracer (68)Ga-PSMA-11 shows great promise in the detection of prostate cancer. However, (68)Ga has several shortcomings as a radiolabel including short half-life and non-ideal energies, and this has motivated consideration of (18)F-labelled analogs. (18)F-PSMA-1007 was selected among several (18)F-PSMA-ligand candidate compounds because it demonstrated high labelling yields, outstanding tumor uptake and fast, non-urinary background clearance...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886992/characteristics-of-the-narrow-spectrum-beams-used-in-the-secondary-standard-dosimetry-laboratory-at-the-lebanese-atomic-energy-commission
#12
N Melhem, H El Balaa, G Younes, Z Al Kattar
The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission has different calibration methods for various types of dosimeters used in industrial, military and medical fields. The calibration is performed using different beams of X-rays (low and medium energy) and Gamma radiation delivered by a Cesium 137 source. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in charge of calibration services uses different protocols for the determination of high and low air kerma rate and for narrow and wide series...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886989/u-s-department-of-defense-multiple-parameter-biodosimetry-network
#13
William F Blakely, Alexander Romanyukha, Selena M Hayes, Ricardo A Reyes, H Michael Stewart, Matthew H Hoefer, Anthony Williams, Thad Sharp, L Andrew Huff
The U.S. Department of Defense (USDOD) service members are at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation due to radiation accidents, terrorist attacks and national defense activities. The use of biodosimetry is a standard of care for the triage and treatment of radiation injuries. Resources and procedures need to be established to implement a multiple-parameter biodosimetry system coupled with expert medial guidance to provide an integrated radiation diagnostic system to meet USDOD requirements. Current USDOD biodosimetry capabilities were identified and recommendations to fill the identified gaps are provided...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886987/integrated-operational-dosimetry-system-at-cern
#14
Gérald Dumont, Fernando Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Pierre Carbonez, Doris Forkel-Wirth, Pierre Ninin, Eloy Reguero Fuentes, Stefan Roesler, Joachim Vollaire
CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, upgraded its operational dosimetry system in March 2013 to be prepared for the first Long Shutdown of CERN's facilities. The new system allows the immediate and automatic checking and recording of the dosimetry data before and after interventions in radiation areas. To facilitate the analysis of the data in context of CERN's approach to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), this new system is interfaced to the Intervention Management Planning and Coordination Tool (IMPACT)...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885083/internal-dose-assessment-of-new-177lu-radiopharmaceuticals-and-its-role-in-radiation-protection-of-patients
#15
Nancy Puerta Yepes, Ana Rojo, Sebastián Gossio, José Luis Crudo
Since 2006, CNEA has been conducting studies on the production, labeling, quality control and NIH mice biodistribution of several radiopharmaceuticals based on (177)Lu locally produced. In order to contribute to ensuring the radiation protection of patients, the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the ARN has been complementing the preclinical study performing a dose assessment. This assessment included: the activity biodistribution analysis in NIH mice, the estimation of the absorbed dose, the extrapolation of the results to humans, the identification of healthy organs with high risk and the estimation of the maximum activity that can be administered to a patient without exceeding the threshold of radiotoxicity in healthy organs...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884938/the-russian-human-radiobiological-tissue-repository-a-unique-resource-for-studies-of-plutonium-exposed-workers
#16
Christopher Loffredo, David Goerlitz, Svetlana Sokolova, Leonidas Leondaridis, Mariya Zakharova, Valentina Revina, Evgeniya Kirillova
The Russian Radiobiological Human Tissue Repository (RHTR) at the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute in Ozyorsk, Russia, was established to collect and store biospecimens supporting research on health consequences of chronic, low-dose radiation exposures. The purpose of this paper is to describe the RHTR resources and the availability of high-quality biological specimens. RHTR has enrolled two groups of subjects from 1951 to the present time: exposed workers at the Mayak Production Association facilities and residents of Ozyorsk who were never occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (controls)...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881793/a-cytogenetic-biomonitoring-of-industrial-radiographers-occupationally-exposed-to-low-levels-of-ionizing-radiation-by-using-cbmn-assay
#17
Mahsa Shakeri, Farideh Zakeri, Vahid Changizi, Mohammad Reza Rajabpour, Mohammad Reza Farshidpour
Industrial radiography is the process of using either gamma-emitting radionuclide sources or X-ray machines to examine the safety of industrial materials. The average annual effective dose in industrial radiography is one of the highest among radiation workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 60 industrial radiographers and 40 non-exposed individuals as the control group by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay...
November 23, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873240/improved-safety-and-efficacy-of-213-bi-dotatate-targeted-alpha-therapy-of-somatostatin-receptor-expressing-neuroendocrine-tumors-in-mice-pre-treated-with-l-lysine
#18
Ho Sze Chan, Mark W Konijnenberg, Tamara Daniels, Monique Nysus, Mehran Makvandi, Erik de Blois, Wouter A Breeman, Robert W Atcher, Marion de Jong, Jeffrey P Norenberg
BACKGROUND: Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers advantages over current β-emitting conjugates for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of neuroendocrine tumors. PRRT with (177)Lu-DOTATATE or (90)Y-DOTATOC has shown dose-limiting nephrotoxicity due to radiopeptide retention in the proximal tubules. Pharmacological protection can reduce renal uptake of radiopeptides, e.g., positively charged amino acids, to saturate in the proximal tubules, thereby enabling higher radioactivity to be safely administered...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867921/neurological-change-after-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-involving-the-motor-cortex
#19
Chang-Yong Park, Hyun-Yong Choi, Sang-Ryul Lee, Tae Hoon Roh, Mi-Ra Seo, Se-Hyuk Kim
BACKGROUND: Although Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) can provide beneficial therapeutic effects for patients with brain metastases, lesions involving the eloquent areas carry a higher risk of neurologic deterioration after treatment, compared to those located in the non-eloquent areas. We aimed to investigate neurological change of the patients with brain metastases involving the motor cortex (MC) and the relevant factors related to neurological deterioration after GKRS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical, radiological and dosimetry data of 51 patients who underwent GKRS for 60 brain metastases involving the MC...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865669/pin-photodiode-performance-comparison-for-dosimetry-in-radiology-applications
#20
Charles N P Oliveira, Helen J Khoury, Edval J P Santos
Performance comparison of selected photodiodes for usage as radiation detectors for radio-protection is presented. In this study, based on the criteria of minimum sensitive area of 5mm(2), minimum half angle 60° and low cost, four commercial photodiodes are selected for evaluation: SFH205, SFH206, BPW34, and BPX90F. Photodiodes are low cost, small volume and lightweight detectors. As an electronic transducer, photodiode detector is an attractive approach for the development of low power portable electronic dosimeter for direct-reading real-time radiation dose measurement...
November 16, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
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