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radiation dosimetry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801951/modeling-ion-recombination-in-liquid-ionization-chambers-improvement-and-analysis-of-the-two-dose-rate-method
#1
Jonas Andersson, Heikki Tölli
PURPOSE: The use of liquid ionization chambers can provide useful information to endeavors with radiation dosimetry for highly modulated beams. Liquid ionization chambers may be particularly suitable for computed tomography applications where conventional ionization chambers do not present a high enough sensitivity for the spatial resolution required to characterize common X-ray beams. Due to the sensitivity, which leads to high charge densities, liquid ionization chambers can suffer from large recombination losses leading to degradation in signal to dose rate linearity...
August 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801023/thermoluminescence-of-metallic-oxides-development-and-applications-in-mexico-an-overview
#2
Juan Azorín Nieto
Interest in the study of the thermoluminescence of metallic oxides doped with various elements has been steadily increasing due to the characteristics of these materials and their possible applications in the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. Metal oxides such as zirconium oxide (ZrO2), aluminum oxide Al2O3, titanium oxide (TiO2), hafnium oxide (HfO2) and beryllium oxide (BeO) are very interesting semiconductor materials having a wide band gap with different important applications. Since 1998, in our country we have developed these materials un-doped and doped with various elements, using different preparation methods...
July 25, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799286/fetal-dose-conversion-factor-for-fetal-computed-tomography-examinations-a-mathematical-phantom-study
#3
Yuta Matsunaga, Ai Kawaguchi, Masanao Kobayashi, Shoichi Suzuki, Yasuki Asada, Kiyoshi Ito, Koichi Chida
This study aimed to examine the relationship between fetal dose and the dose-length product, and to evaluate the impact of the number of rotations on the fetal doses and maternal effective doses using a 320-row multidetector computed tomography unit in a wide-volume mode. The radiation doses for the pregnant woman and the fetus were estimated using ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator software for scan lengths ranging from 176 to 352 mm, using a 320-row unit in a wide-volume mode and an 80-row unit in a helical scanning mode...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797468/incidence-of-and-risk-factors-for-mandibular-osteoradionecrosis-in-patients-with-oral-cavity-and-oropharynx-cancers
#4
Dominic H Moon, Sung Ho Moon, Kyle Wang, Mark C Weissler, Trevor G Hackman, Adam M Zanation, Brian D Thorp, Samip N Patel, Jose P Zevallos, Lawrence B Marks, Bhishamjit S Chera
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of, and risk factors associated with, mandibular osteoradionecrosis (MORN) following radiation therapy (RT) for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient and treatment records of 252 consecutive patients with oral cavity or oropharynx cancers treated with RT by a single radiation oncologist at a high volume academic institution from August 2009 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. A Cox regression model was used to assess factors associated with the development of MORN...
September 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796750/in-vivo-electron-paramagnetic-resonance-tooth-dosimetry-dependence-of-radiation-induced-signal-amplitude-on-the-enamel-thickness-and-surface-area-of-ex-vivo-human-teeth
#5
Michitaka Umakoshi, Ichiro Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Hirata, Naoki Kunugita, Benjamin B Williams, Harold M Swartz, Minoru Miyake
In vivo L-band electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry is a newly developed and very promising method for retrospective biodosimetry in individuals who may have been exposed to significant levels of ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to determine the relationships among enamel thickness, enamel area, and measured electron paramagnetic resonance signal amplitude with a view to improve the quantitative accuracy of the dosimetry technique. Ten isolated incisors were irradiated using well-characterized doses, and their radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signals were measured...
August 7, 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781797/effect-of-modern-high-quality-prostate-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-on-outcome-evidence-from-a-community-radiation-oncology-program
#6
Johnny Kao, Amanda Zucker, Jonathan Timmins, Shankar Taramangalam, Jeffrey Pettit, Aaron J Woodall, Edward Loizides, Andrew T Wong
Radiation technique for prostate cancer has continuously evolved over the past several decades. The aim of the present study was to describe the effects of implementing modern prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (M-IMRT) on dosimetry and outcome. Between January 2010 and April 2012, 48 consecutive patients were treated with conventional prostate IMRT (C-IMRT) to a dose of 81 Gy. Between May 2012 and April 2015, 50 consecutive patients were treated with M-IMRT to the entire prostate to a dose of 75...
August 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781122/dosimetry-of-99m-tc-dtpa-dmsa-and-mag3-used-in-renal-function-studies-of-newborns-and-children
#7
Marcial Vásquez Arteaga, Víctor Murillo Caballero, Kelman Marín Rengifo
The dose to kidneys of newborns and 1-year old children was calculated using the MIRD methodology. In order to perform renal studies radiopharmaceutical like (99m)Tc-DTPA, (99m) Tc-MAG3 and (99m)Tc-DMSA are used. Here, besides the anatomic and structure information of kidneys another data are provided in benefit of patient, however during the radioisotope decay emitted radiations delivers, totally or partially, their energy. Therefore is important to estimate the internal radiation dose of the organs. The largest dose to kidneys comes from the self-dose and it is due to the charged particles emitted during (99m)Tc decay...
July 28, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780842/-effect-of-image-fusion-technology-of-radioactive-particles-implantation-before-and-after-the-planning-target-and-dosimetry
#8
Y L Jiang, J P Yu, H T Sun, F X Guo, Z Ji, J H Fan, L J Zhang, X Li, J J Wang
Objective: To compare the post-implant target volumes and dosimetric evaluation with pre-plan, the gross tumor volume(GTV) by CT image fusion-based and the manual delineation of target volume in CT guided radioactive seeds implantation. Methods: A total of 10 patients treated under CT-guidance (125)I seed implantation during March 2016 to April 2016 were analyzed in Peking University Third Hospital.All patients underwent pre-operative CT simulation, pre-operative planning, implantation seeds, CT scanning after seed implantation and dosimetric evaluation of GTV...
August 1, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780202/tailor-made-ge-doped-silica-glass-for-clinical-diagnostic-x-ray-dosimetry
#9
Amjad Alyahyawi, T Jupp, M Alkhorayef, D A Bradley
In the modern clinical practice of diagnostic radiology there is a growing demand for radiation dosimetry, it also being recognized that with increasing use of X-ray examinations additional population dose will result, accompanied by an additional albeit low potential for genetic consequences. At the doses typical of diagnostic radiology there is also a low statistical risk for cancer induction; in adhering to best practice, to be also implied is a low but non-negligible potential for deterministic sensitive organ responses, including in regard to the skin and eyes...
July 22, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777832/endless-research-ii-the-genomic-era-neohippocratic-medicine
#10
EDITORIAL
Philip C Grammaticos, Dimitrios E Antoniou
The great progress of genetics research, during 2015-2017, will certainly influence all medical specialties including nuclear medicine. In nuclear medicine there are still problems to solve as to differentiate between infection, inflammation and cancer etc. Furthermore, in dosimetry and radiation protection there are worldwide problems. It has been reported that (64) Cu-cetuximab immune-PET represented EGFR expression levels in ESCC tumors and that (177) Lu-cetuximab radioimmunotherapy effectively inhibited the tumor growth...
May 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771919/comparison-of-aapm-addendum-to-tg-51-iaea-trs-398-and-jsmp-12-calibration-of-photon-beams-in-water
#11
Naoki Kinoshita, Hiroshi Oguchi, Yasuhiro Nishimoto, Toshiki Adachi, Hiroki Shioura, Hirohiko Kimura, Kunio Doi
The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Working Group on TG-51 published an Addendum to the AAPM's TG-51 protocol (Addendum to TG-51) in 2014, and the Japan Society of Medical Physics (JSMP) published a new dosimetry protocol JSMP 12 in 2012. In this study, we compared the absorbed dose to water determined at the reference depth for high-energy photon beams following the recommendations given in AAPM TG-51 and the Addendum to TG-51, IAEA TRS-398, and JSMP 12. This study was performed using measurements with flattened photon beams with nominal energies of 6 and 10 MV...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760560/hippocampal-dose-from-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-4-to-10-brain-metastases-risk-factors-feasibility-of-dose-reduction-via-re-optimization-and-patient-outcomes
#12
Samuel R Birer, Adam C Olson, Justus Adamson, Rodney Hood, Matthew Susen, Grace Kim, Joseph K Salama, John P Kirkpatrick
This study aimed to report hippocampal dose from single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for 4 to 10 brain metastases and determine feasibility of hippocampal-sparing SRS. Patients with 4 to 10 brain metastases receiving single-isocenter, multi-target single-fraction SRS were identified. Hippocampi were contoured using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 atlas. RTOG 0933 dose constraints were converted to a biologically effective dose using an alpha/beta of 2 (D100 421 cGy, Dmax 665 cGy)...
July 28, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759518/assessment-of-organ-dosimetry-for-planning-repeat-treatments-of-high-dose-131i-mibg-therapy-123i-mibg-versus-posttherapy-131i-mibg-imaging
#13
Neeta Pandit-Taskar, Pat Zanzonico, Patrick Hilden, Irina Ostrovnaya, Jorge A Carrasquillo, Shakeel Modak
PURPOSE: To evaluate detailed organ-based radiation-absorbed dose for planning double high-dose treatment with I-MIBG. METHODS: In a prospective study, 33 patients with high-risk refractory or recurrent neuroblastoma were treated with high-dose I-MIBG. Organ dosimetry was estimated from the first I-MIBG posttherapy imaging and from subsequent I-MIBG imaging prior to the planned second administration. Three serial whole-body scans were performed per patient 2 to 6 days after I-MIBG therapy (666 MBq/kg or 18 mCi/kg) and approximately 0...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757403/performance-of-a-palladium-103-line-source-for-prostate-brachytherapy-implants-a-phase-i-trial
#14
Richard Stock, David Beyer, Jed Kaminetsky, William Ge
PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of a polymer-encapsulated palladium-103 ((103) Pd) source with a unique linear radioactive distribution in prostate brachytherapy. This feasibility study assessed dosimetry, ease and efficiency of use, and side effects. The number of needles required for adequate coverage was the primary end point. METHODS AND MATERIALS: CivaString (103) Pd Model CS10 implants were preplanned for 25 patients. CivaStrings were custom manufactured according to plan...
July 27, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750023/the-combination-of-the-error-correction-methods-of-gafchromic-ebt3-film
#15
Yinghui Li, Lixin Chen, Jinhan Zhu, Xiaowei Liu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to combine a set of methods for use of radiochromic film dosimetry, including calibration, correction for lateral effects and a proposed triple-channel analysis. These methods can be applied to GAFCHROMIC EBT3 film dosimetry for radiation field analysis and verification of IMRT plans. METHODS: A single-film exposure was used to achieve dose calibration, and the accuracy was verified based on comparisons with the square-field calibration method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749809/beyond-californium-a-neutron-generator-alternative-for-dosimetry-and-instrument-calibration-in-the-u-s
#16
Roman K Piper, Andrey V Mozhayev, Mark K Murphy, Alan K Thompson
Evaluations of neutron survey instruments, area monitors, and personal dosimeters rely on reference neutron radiations, which have evolved from the heavy reliance on (α,n) sources to a shared reliance on (α,n) and the spontaneous fission neutrons of californium-252 (Cf). Capable of producing high dose equivalent rates from an almost point source geometry, the characteristics of Cf are generally more favorable when compared to the use of (α,n) and (γ,n) sources or reactor-produced reference neutron radiations...
September 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744319/-177-lu-pentixather-comprehensive-preclinical-characterization-of-a-first-cxcr4-directed-endoradiotherapeutic-agent
#17
Margret Schottelius, Theresa Osl, Andreas Poschenrieder, Frauke Hoffmann, Seval Beykan, Heribert Hänscheid, Andreas Schirbel, Andreas K Buck, Saskia Kropf, Markus Schwaiger, Ulrich Keller, Michael Lassmann, Hans-Jürgen Wester
Purpose: Based on the clinical relevance of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) as a molecular target in cancer and on the success of [(68)Ga]pentixafor as an imaging probe for high-contrast visualization of CXCR4-expression, the spectrum of clinical CXCR4-targeting was expanded towards peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) by the development of [(177)Lu]pentixather. Experimental design: CXCR4 affinity, binding specificity, hCXCR4 selectivity and internalization efficiency of [(177)Lu]pentixather were evaluated using different human and murine cancer cell lines...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742061/test-study-of-boron-nitride-as-a-new-detector-material-for-dosimetry-in-high-energy-photon-beams
#18
Daniela Poppinga, Jannik Halbur, Sarah Lemmer, Bjoern Delfs, Dietrich Harder, Hui Khee Looe, Bjoern Poppe
The aim of this test study is to check whether boron nitride (BN) might be applied as a detector material in high energy photon-beam dosimetry. Boron nitride is a compound of boron and nitrogen and exists in various crystalline forms. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) possesses high mobility of the electrons and holes as well as a high volume resistivity, so that ionizing radiation in the clinical range of the dose rate can be expected to produce a measurable electrical current at low background current. Due to the low atomic numbers of its atomic constituents, its density (2...
July 25, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736283/multicellular-dosimetric-chain-for-molecular-radiotherapy-exemplified-with-dose-simulations-on-3d-cell-spheroids
#19
Vappu Reijonen, Liisa K Kanninen, Eero Hippeläinen, Yan-Ru Lou, Eero Salli, Alexey Sofiev, Melina Malinen, Timo Paasonen, Marjo Yliperttula, Antti Kuronen, Sauli Savolainen
PURPOSE: Absorbed radiation dose-response relationships are not clear in molecular radiotherapy (MRT). Here, we propose a voxel-based dose calculation system for multicellular dosimetry in MRT. We applied confocal microscope images of a spherical cell aggregate i.e. a spheroid, to examine the computation of dose distribution within a tissue from the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals. METHODS: A confocal microscope Z-stack of a human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 spheroid was segmented using a support-vector machine algorithm and a watershed function...
July 20, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732021/in-vitro-comparison-of-213bi-and-177lu-radiation-for-peptide-receptor-radionuclide-therapy
#20
Ho Sze Chan, Erik de Blois, Alfred Morgenstern, Frank Bruchertseifer, Marion de Jong, Wouter Breeman, Mark Konijnenberg
BACKGROUND: Absorbed doses for α-emitters are different from those for β-emitters, as the high linear energy transfer (LET) nature of α-particles results in a very dense energy deposition over a relatively short path length near the point of emission. This highly localized and therefore high energy deposition can lead to enhanced cell-killing effects at absorbed doses that are non-lethal in low-LET type of exposure. Affinities of DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotate (DOTATATE), 115In-DOTATATE, 175Lu-DOTATATE and 209Bi-DOTATATE were determined in the K562-SST2 cell line...
2017: PloS One
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