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radiation dosimetry

Raquel M Schears, Zainab Farzal, Zehra Farzal, Anne C Fischer
BACKGROUND: The actual baseline of radiation exposure used in evaluating pediatric trauma is not known and has relied on estimates in the literature that may not reflect clinical reality. Our objectives were to determine the baseline amount of radiation delivered in a pediatric trauma evaluation and correlate radiation exposure with trauma activation status to identify the cohort most at risk. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated trauma patients (N = 1050) at an independent Level I children's hospital for each level of trauma activation (consults, alerts, stats) from June 2010 to January 2011...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
James R Kerns, David Followill, Jessica Lowenstein, Andrea Molineu, Paola Alvarez, Paige A Taylor, Stephen F Kry
PURPOSE: Reference dosimetry data can provide an independent second check of acquired values when commissioning or validating a treatment planning system (TPS). The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core at Houston (IROC-Houston) has measured numerous linear accelerators throughout its existence. The results of those measurements are given here, comparing accelerators and the agreement of measurement versus institutional TPS calculations. METHODS: Data from IROC-Houston on-site reviews from 2000 through 2014 were analyzed for all Elekta accelerators, approximately 50...
March 14, 2018: Medical Physics
Charles E Chambers, Hemantha K Koduri
Real time radiation dose monitoring in the cath lab may provide immediate feedback for potential dose reduction during PCI. Radiation dose monitoring to predict potential tissue injury utilizes equipment measured air Kerma at the interventional reference point (IRP) with then calculated specific tissue peak skin dose. The role of the cath lab Quality Committee is not only to assess individual high dose radiation cases but also to create processes and assess new technologies to assure radiation dose is best utilized in all cases...
March 1, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Saeed Bagherzadeh, Nasrollah Jabbari, Hamid Reza Khalkhali
PURPOSE: The present study attempts to calculate organ-absorbed and effective doses for cancer patients to estimate the possible cancer induction and cancer mortality risks resulting from 64-slice abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) simulations for radiotherapy treatment planning (RTTP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 70 patients, who underwent 64-slice abdominopelvic CT scan for RTTP, voluntarily participated in the present study. To calculate organ and effective doses in a standard phantom of 70 kg, the collected dosimetric parameters were used with the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Muzafar Khan, Gerd Heilemann, Peter Kuess, Dietmar Georg, Andreas Berg
Recent developments in radiation therapy aimed at more precise dose delivery along with higher dose gradients (dose painting) and more efficient dose delivery with higher dose rates e.g. flattening filter free (FFF) irradiation. Magnetic-resonance-imaging based polymer gel dosimetry offers 3D information for precise dose delivery techniques. Many of the proposed polymer gels have been reported to exhibit a dose response, measured as relaxation rate ΔR2(D) , which is dose rate dependent. A lack of or a reduced dose-rate sensitivity is very important for dosimetric accuracy, especially with regard to the increasing clinical use of FFF irradiation protocols with LINACs at high dose rates...
March 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Giuseppe Curcio
In the past 20 years of research regarding effects of mobile phone-derived electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human cognition, attention has been one of the first and most extensively investigated functions. Different domains investigated covered selective, sustained, and divided attention. Here, the most relevant studies on this topic have been reviewed and discussed. A total of 43 studies are reported and summarized: of these, 31 indicated a total absence of statistically significant difference between real and sham signal, 9 showed a partial improvement of attentional performance (mainly increase in speed of performance and/or improvement of accuracy) as a function of real exposure, while the remaining 3 showed inconsistent results (i...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Yusuf Menda, Mark T Madsen, Thomas M O'Dorisio, John Sunderland, Leonard G Watkins, Joseph S Dillon, Sarah L Mott, Michael King Schultz, Gideon K D Zamba, David L Bushnell, M Sue O'Dorisio
Pre-therapy PET imaging with86 Y-DOTATOC PET is considered the ideal dosimetry protocol for90 Y-DOTATOC therapy; however, its cost, low availability and the need for infusion of amino acids to mimic the therapy administration limit its use in the clinical setting. Objectives: To develop a dosimetric method for90 Y-DOTATOC therapy using90 Y-DOTATOC PET/CT and Bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT imaging and to determine if dosimetry-based administered activities differed significantly from standard administered dosages. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective Phase 2 trial of90 Y-DOTATOC therapy in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumors...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Aidan Leong, Patries Herst, Paul Kane
INTRODUCTION: The ability to understand treatment plan dosimetry and apply this understanding clinically is fundamental to the role of the radiation therapist. This study evaluates whether or not the Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) contributes to teaching treatment planning concepts to a cohort of first-year radiation therapy students. METHODS: We directly compared a custom-developed VERT teaching module with a standard teaching module with respect to the understanding of treatment planning concepts using a cross-over design...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Hosein Azimian, Mahdieh Dayyani, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
Objectives: Radiotherapy is one of the most effective modalities of cancer therapy, but clinical responses of individual patients varies considerably. To enhance treatment efficiency it is essential to implement an individual-based treatment. The aim of present study was to identify the mechanism of intrinsic apoptosis pathway on radiosensitivity and normal tissue complications caused by the radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten breast cancer patients were exposed to 6MV X-rays to deliver 1 and 2 Gy...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Christian Kühnel, Thomas Winkens, Philipp Seifert, Robert Drescher, Martin Freesmeyer
To assess the radiation exposure of the investigator during navigated fusion of nuclear medicine images with ultrasound after application of I-124. Dosimetry with two different types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) was performed in 25 patients. The dose rate at the patient's neck was measured with a calibrated dose rate meter (DRM) and served as the standard of reference. The average exposure per investigation at the patient's neck measured by LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs (cumulative: 212 μSv), LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs (cumulative: 112 μSv) and DRM (cumulative: 150...
March 2, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Alfonso Quintero-Quintero, Galo Patiño Camargo, Ángela Soriano Cruz, Juan Diego Palma Copete, Jorge Vilar Palop, Maria Del Carmen Pujades, Nieves Llorca Domaica, Facundo Ballester, Javier Vijande, Cristian Candela-Juan
Fluoroscopy guided interventional procedures provide remarkable benefits to patients. However, the medical staff working near the scattered radiation field may be exposed to high cumulative equivalent doses, thus requiring shielding devices such as lead aprons and thyroid collars. In this situation, it remains an acceptable practice to derive equivalent doses to the eye lenses or other unprotected soft tissues with a dosimeter placed above these protective devices. Nevertheless, the radiation backscattered by the lead shield differs from that generated during dosimeter calibration with a water phantom...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
N A Shkumat, M M Shroff, P Muthusami
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The benefit-risk assessment concerning radiation use in pediatric neuroangiography requires an extensive understanding of the doses delivered. This work evaluated the effective dose of 3D rotational angiography in a cohort of pediatric patients with complex neurovascular lesions and directly compared it with conventional 2D-biplane DSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three 3D rotational angiography acquisitions were acquired in 24 pediatric patients (mean age, 10...
March 1, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
A L M C Malthez, B Marczewska, D Kulig, P Bilski, M Kłosowski
TL (Thermoluminescent) and OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) techniques are both luminescent techniques widely applied in several areas into radiation dosimetry. The main difference between them are related to the employed stimulus (thermal or optical) for luminescent emission, as well as the advantages of each technique. Due to simplicity and not to be required heating, the OSL technique has been continuously improved and new researches in materials to be used with this technique have grown in the last decades...
February 22, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
M Port, B Pieper, H D Dörr, A Hübsch, M Majewski, M Abend
The degree of severity of hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) may vary across the range of radiation doses, such that dose alone may be a less reliable predictor of clinical course. We sought to elucidate the relationship between absorbed dose and risk of clinically relevant HARS in humans. We used the database SEARCH (System for Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories), which contains the histories of radiation accident victims. From 153 cases we extracted data on dose estimates using the dicentric assay to measure individual biological dosimetry...
March 1, 2018: Radiation Research
Sergio Righi, Martina Ugolini, Gianluca Bottoni, Matteo Puntoni, Massimiliano Iacozzi, Francesco Paparo, Manlio Cabria, Luca Ceriani, Monica Gambaro, Luca Giovanella, Arnoldo Piccardo
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the kinetics and dosimetry of64 CuCl2 in human prostate cancer (PCa) lesions. We prospectively evaluated 50 PCa patients with biochemical relapse after surgery or external beam radiation therapy. All patients underwent64 CuCl2 -PET/CT to detect PCa recurrence/metastases. Volumes of interest were manually drawn for each64 CuCl2 avid PCa lesion with a diameter > 1 cm on mpMRI in each patient. Time-activity curves for all lesions were obtained...
March 1, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Peter Covens, Jérémie Dabin, Olga De Troyer, Octavian Dragusin, Jan Maushagen, Lara Struelens
The European epidemiological study EURALOC aimed to establish a dose response relationship for low dose radiation induced eye lens opacities using interventional cardiologists as the study group. Within the EURALOC project, two dosimetry methodologies were developed serving as the basis for cumulative eye lens dose assessment. Besides being the cornerstone of the epidemiological part of the project, these dosimetry methodologies were also used to develop two calculation tools, "mEyeDose" and "mEyeDose_X" which enable to track, calculate, optimise and analyse eye lens doses in interventional cardiology...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Ambreen Khawar, Elisabeth Eppard, Jean Phlippe Sinnes, Frank Roesch, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Stefan Kürpig, Michael Meisenheimer, Florian C Gaertner, Markus Essler, Ralph A Bundschuh
AIM: [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 with 3.9-hour half-life, in vitro and in vivo characteristics similar to [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 and possibility of delayed imaging after 24 hours or later, implies it to be advantageous than [ Ga]Ga-PSMA-617 for pretherapeutic dosimetric assessment for [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 in metastatic castration-resistant prostate carcinoma (mCRPC) patients. In this study, we investigated biodistribution and radiation exposure to normal organs with [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 in mCRPC patients. METHODS: Five mCRPC patients (mean age, 69 years) enrolled for [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 therapy were injected with 40-62 MBq [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 intravenously; Siemens Biograph 2 PET/CT system was used to acquire dynamic PET data (30 minutes) in list mode over the abdomen, followed by the collection of static PET/CT images (skull to mid-thigh) at 45 minutes, 2 and approximately 20 hours postinjection...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Lance McKee
In this article, the author draws on his experience in the world of geospatial information technology standards to suggest a path toward acceleration of bioelectromagnetics science. Many studies show biological effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) radiation despite that fact that the radiation is too weak to cause temperature changes in biological features. Considered together in worst case scenarios, such effects, many of which appear to have long latencies, could have potentially disastrous consequences for the health and safety of humans and wildlife...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Research
Edward T Bramlitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Health Physics
Ryan O'Mara, Robert Hayes
In nuclear forensics or accident dosimetry, building materials such as bricks can be used to retrospectively determine radiation fields using thermoluminescence and/or optically stimulated luminescence. A major problem with brick material is that significant chemical processing is generally necessary to isolate the quartz from the brick. In this study, a simplified treatment process has been tested in an effort to lessen the processing burden for retrospective dosimetry studies. It was found that by using thermoluminescence responses, the dose deposition profile of a brick sample could be reconstructed without any chemical treatment...
April 2018: Health Physics
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