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Sofia Bougioukli, Osamu Sugiyama, William Pannell, Brandon Ortega, Matthew Tan, Amy Tang, Robert Yoho, Daniel A Oakes, Jay R Lieberman
Ex vivo regional gene therapy strategies using animal mesenchymal stem cells genetically modified to overexpress osteoinductive growth factors has been successfully used in a variety of animal models to induce both heterotopic and orthotopic bone formation. However, in order to adapt regional gene therapy for clinical applications it is essential to assess the osteogenic capacity of transduced human cells and choose the cell type that demonstrates the best clinical potential. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were selected in our study for in vitro evaluation, before and after transduction with a lentiviral two-step transcriptional amplification system (TSTA) overexpressing BMP-2 (LV-TSTA-BMP-2) or GFP (LV-TSTA-GFP); cell growth, transduction efficiency, BMP-2 production and osteogenic capacity were assessed...
December 6, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
Xue-Qing Huang, Hong-Ye Yang, Tao Luo, Cui Huang, Franklin R Tay, Li-Na Niu
Strategies based on the combination of nanocarrier delivery systems and scaffolds provide bone tissue engineering scaffolds with multifunctional capability. Zirconia, a biocompatible ceramic commonly used in orthopedic and dental implants, was used to synthesize hollow mesoporous nanocapsules for loading, storage and sustained release of a novel polyamine-stabilized liquid precursor phase of amorphous calcium phosphate (PAH-ACP) for collagen biomineralization and bone marrow stromal cells osteoinduction. Hollow mesoporous zirconia (hmZrO2) nanocapsules loaded with biomimetic precursors exhibited pH-sensitive release capability and good biocompatibility...
December 2, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Khorshid Kamguyan, Ali Asghar Katbab, Morteza Mahmoudi, Esben Thormann, Saeed Zajforoushan Moghaddam, Lida Moradi, Shahin Bonakdar
A cell-imprinted poly(dimethylsiloxane)/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite substrate was fabricated to engage topographical, mechanical, and chemical signals to stimulate and boost stem cell osteogenic differentiation. The physicochemical properties of the fabricated substrates, with nanoscale resolution of osteoblast morphology, were probed using a wide range of techniques including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, and water contact angle measurements. The osteogenic differentiation capacity of the cultured stem cells on these substrates was probed by alizarin red staining, ALP activity, osteocalcin measurements, and gene expression analysis...
November 30, 2017: Biomaterials Science
Chang-Kai Chen, Nai-Jen Chang, Yung-Tsan Wu, Earl Fu, E-Chin Shen, Chien-Wei Feng, Zhi-Hong Wen
PURPOSE: To investigate the osteoconductive effect of a chitosan scaffold in a rat skull defect model. Previous publications have demonstrated the osteoinductive properties as scaffold materials with growth factors; however, whether chitosan alone has osteoconductive ability is unclear. This study used cross-linked chitosan scaffolds for in vivo evaluation of scaffold-supported bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects using histopathological analysis and examination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium, phosphorus, and calcitonin serum levels...
November 16, 2017: Implant Dentistry
G Barbanti Bròdano, C Griffoni, A Nataloni, M Manfrini, G Giavaresi, S Bandiera, A Gasbarrini, S Terzi, R Ghermandi, G Tedesco, M Girolami, M Tognon, M Fini
Vertebral fusion is performed in order to stabilize the spine in the presence of degenerative, traumatic or oncological pathologies that alter its stability. The autologous bone, harvested from the patient’s iliac crest or from the lamina during surgery, is still considered the “gold standard” for spine fusion due to its osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. However, several biological and synthetic bone substitutes have been introduced as alternatives for regenerating bone tissue...
October 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
F Verdoni, R D D’Amato, L Mangiavini, M D Lombardo, G M Peretti
Non-union (or pseudoarthrosis) is defined as a fracture that fails to consolidate after 6 months from the trauma. Current conservative treatments consist of biological (i.e. with calcium, Vitamin D) and mechanical stimulation. Moreover, surgical approaches include the use of endomidollar nail osteosynthesis, compression plates that are often associated with bone grafts. External fixation is a valid surgical alternative especially in case of septic non-unions. Indeed, compression-distraction osteosynthesis results in a significant improvement in bone vascularisation and exerts a powerful osteoinductive stimulus on the non-union site...
October 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Chuan Fu, Haotian Bai, Jiaqi Zhu, Zhihao Niu, Yu Wang, Jianan Li, Xiaoyu Yang, Yunshen Bai
One of the goals of bone tissue engineering is to mimic native ECM in architecture and function, creating scaffolds with excellent biocompatibility, osteoinductive ability and mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to fabricate nanofibrous matrices by electrospinning a blend of poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), hydroxyapatite (HA), and grapheme oxide (GO) as a favourable platform for bone tissue engineering. The morphology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biological activity of all nanofibrous matrices were compared...
2017: PloS One
So Yeon Park, Sajeesh Kumar Madhurakkat Perikamana, Jong Ho Park, Sung Wng Kim, Heungsoo Shin, Sung Pyo Park, Hyun Suk Jung
Functional magnetic and biocompatible particles are of great interest because of their potential use in various bioapplications such as hyperthermia for cancer treatment, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and drug delivery. Herein, we introduce a facile method for synthesizing magnetic Fe nanocrystal/Fe-substituted calcium phosphate (Fe/FeCaP) heterostructured microspheres using a two-step procedure: (1) one-pot hydrothermal synthesis to prepare uniform-sized FeCaP microspheres and (2) post-reduction annealing at 600 °C for Fe extraction from FeCaP...
November 29, 2017: Nanoscale
Ning-Bo Li, Sheng-Jun Sun, Han-Ying Bai, Gui-Yong Xiao, Wen-Hua Xu, Jun-Han Zhao, Xin Chen, Yupeng Lu, Yi-Lin Zhang
Great efforts have been recently devoted to prepare nanoscale surfaces on titanium-based implants and achieve clinically fast osteoinduction and osseointegration relayed on the unique characteristics of nanostructure. In this work, we used the induction heating treatment (IHT) as rapid oxidation method to fabricate a porous nanoscale oxide layer on Ti6Al4V surface for better medical application. Well-distributed vertical nanopillars were yielded by IHT for 20-35 s on the alloy surface. The compositions of oxides contained rutile/anatase TiO2 and a small amount of Al2O3 between TiO2 grain boundaries (GBs)...
November 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
M S Bartov, A V Gromov, V N Manskih, E B Makarova, A P Rubshtein, M S Poponova, D M Savina, K S Savin, K E Nikitin, T M Grunina, I S Boksha, P A Orlova, M S Krivozubov, M E Subbotina, V G Lunin, A S Karyagina, A L Gintsburg
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 with an additional s-tag domain (s-tag-BMP-2) synthesized in E. coli is characterized by higher solubility and activity than the protein without additional s-tag domain, which increases the yield during purification and simplifies protein introduction into the osteoplastic materials. The high osteoinductivity of the demineralized bone matrix with s-tag-BMP-2 was shown on the model of regeneration of cranial defects of a critical size in mice and on the model of implantation of porous titanium matrix into defects of femoral and tibial bones in rabbits...
November 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Hwan D Kim, Sivashanmugam Amirthalingam, Seunghyun L Kim, Seunghun S Lee, Jayakumar Rangasamy, Nathaniel S Hwang
Various strategies have been explored to overcome critically sized bone defects via bone tissue engineering approaches that incorporate biomimetic scaffolds. Biomimetic scaffolds may provide a novel platform for phenotypically stable tissue formation and stem cell differentiation. In recent years, osteoinductive and inorganic biomimetic scaffold materials have been optimized to offer an osteo-friendly microenvironment for the osteogenic commitment of stem cells. Furthermore, scaffold structures with a microarchitecture design similar to native bone tissue are necessary for successful bone tissue regeneration...
November 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Tengbo Yu, Huazheng Pan, Yanling Hu, Hao Tao, Kai Wang, Chengdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to investigate whether autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can serve as bone-inducing factors to provide osteoinduction and improve bone regeneration for tissue-engineered bones fabricated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics. The current study will give more insight into the contradictory osteogenic capacity of PRP. METHODS: The concentration of platelets, platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured in PRP and whole blood...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
K Parvathi, Amit G Krishnan, A Anitha, R Jayakumar, Manitha B Nair
Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) is known as "bone setter" because of its ability to enhance fracture healing. Polymers incorporated with CQ at lower concentration have shown to enhance osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. However, for the healing of clinically relevant critical sized bone defects, large amount of CQ would be required. Based on this perception, a herbal fibrous sheet containing high weight percentage of CQ [20,40 and 60wt/wt% in poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA)] was fabricated through electrospinning...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rubén Aquino-Martínez, Alcira P Angelo, Francesc Ventura Pujol
BACKGROUND: Osteoinduction and subsequent bone formation rely on efficient mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment. It is also known that migration is induced by gradients of growth factors and cytokines. Degradation of Ca2+-containing biomaterials mimics the bone remodeling compartment producing a localized calcium-rich osteoinductive microenvironment. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) on MSC migration. In addition, to evaluate the influence of CaSO4 on MSC differentiation and the potential molecular mechanisms involved...
November 16, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
E Della Bella, A Parrilli, A Bigi, S Panzavolta, S Amadori, G Giavaresi, L Martini, V Borsari, M Fini
The demand of new strategies for the induction of bone regeneration is continuously increasing. Biomimetic porous gelatin-nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with tailored properties were previously developed, showing a positive response in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present paper, we focused on their osteoinductive properties. The effect of scaffolds on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) was investigated in vitro. hMSCs were seeded on GEL (type A gelatin) and GEL containing 10wt% hydroxyapatite (GEL-HA) and cultured in osteogenic medium...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Shin Won Kwon, Chi Heon Kim, Chun Kee Chung, Tae Hyun Park, Su Heon Woo, Sung-Jae Lee, Seung Heon Yang
Objective: In addition to bone bridging inside a cage or graft (intragraft bone bridging, InGBB), extragraft bone bridging (ExGBB) is commonly observed after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with a stand-alone cage. However, solid bony fusion without the formation of ExGBB might be a desirable condition. We hypothesized that an insufficient contact area for InGBB might be a causative factor for ExGBB. The objective was to determine the minimal area of InGBB by finite element analysis...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Yi-Hsiung Lin, Chung-Yi Chen, Liang-Yin Chou, Chung-Hwan Chen, Lin Kang, Chau-Zen Wang
The natural pure compound obtusilactone A (OA) was identified in Cinnamomum kotoense Kanehira & Sasaki, and shows effective anti-cancer activity. We studied the effect of OA on osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). OA possesses biocompatibility, stimulates Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity and facilitates mineralization of BMSCs. Expression of osteogenesis markers BMP2, Runx2, Collagen I, and Osteocalcin was enhanced in OA-treated BMSCs. An in vivo rat model with local administration of OA via needle implantation to bone marrow-residing BMSCs revealed that OA increased the new bone formation and trabecular bone volume in tibias...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yao-Jen Liu, Wen-Ta Su, Po-Hung Chen
Various biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds blended with biochemical signal molecules with adequate osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties have attracted significant interest in hard tissue engineering regeneration. We evaluated the distinct effects of magnesium borate, zinc borate, and boric acid blended into chitosan scaffold for osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth. Stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth cells are a potential source of functional osteoblasts for applications in bone tissue engineering, but the efficiency of osteoblastic differentiation is low, thereby significantly limiting their clinical applications...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Albert Barba, Anna Diez-Escudero, Yassine Maazouz, Katrin Rappe, Montserrat Espanol, Edgar Benjamín Montufar, Mar Bonany, Joanna Maria Sadowska, Jordi Guillem-Marti, Caroline Öhman-Mägi, Cecilia Persson, Maria-Cristina Manzanares, Jordi Franch, Maria-Pau Ginebra
Some biomaterials are osteoinductive, i.e., they are able to trigger the osteogenic process by inducing the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to the osteogenic lineage. Although the underlying mechanism is still unclear, microporosity and specific surface area (SSA) have been identified as critical factors in the material-associated osteoinduction. However, only sintered ceramics, with a limited range of porosities and SSA, have been analysed so far. In this work we were able to extend this range to the nanoscale, through the foaming and 3D-printing of biomimetic calcium phosphates, obtaining scaffolds with controlled micro and nanoporosity together with a tailored macropore architecture...
November 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Agnieszka Śmieszek, Joanna Szydlarska, Aleksandra Mucha, Martyna Chrapiec, Krzysztof Marycz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the pro-osteogenic properties of sol-gel-derived silica/zirconium dioxide coatings functionalized with 1 mM of metformin. The matrices were applied on 316L stainless steel using dip-coating technique. First of all, physicochemical properties of biomaterials were evaluated. Surface morphology and topography was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The chemical composition was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
November 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
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