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Michael A Bohl, Kaith K Almefty, Mark C Preul, Jay D Turner, U Kumar Kakarla, Edward M Reece, Steve W Chang
BACKGROUND: Vascularized bone grafts (VBGs) are described as having superior osteogenicity, osteoconductivity, and osteoinductivity compared with other graft types, and have been used in high-risk patients to augment arthrodesis. Pedicled VBGs are rotated on an intact vascular pedicle and therefore maintain all the benefits of VBG, but avoid many of the challenges and additional morbidity of free-tissue transfer. This study describes a novel surgical technique for rotating vascularized spinous process into the posterolateral space for augmenting arthrodesis in patients undergoing posterolateral fusion (PLF)...
April 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Mohammad Mousaei Ghasroldasht, Maryam M Matin, Hossein Kazemi Mehrjerdi, Hojjat Naderi-Meshkin, Ali Moradi, Masoud Rajabioun, Faeze Alipour, Samaneh Ghasemi, Mohammad Zare, Mahdi Mirahmadi, Hamid Reza Bidkhori, Ahmad Reza Bahrami
ECM components include a number of osteoinductive and osteoconductive factors, which are involved in bone fracture healing. In this study, a combination of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs), cancellous bone graft (CBG), and chitosan hydrogel (CHI) was applied to the in non-union bone fracture and healing effects were evaluated for the first time. After creation of animal models with non-union fracture in rats, they were randomly classified into seven groups. Radiography at 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after surgery, indicated the positive effects of Ad-MSCs+CBG+CHI and Ad-MSCs+CBG in treatment of bone fractures as early as 2 weeks after the surgery...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Sien Lin, Liao Cui, Guanghua Chen, Jianping Huang, Yanhua Yang, Kaijie Zou, Yuxiao Lai, Xinluan Wang, Liyi Zou, Tie Wu, Jack Chun Yiu Cheng, Gang Li, Bo Wei, Wayne Yuk Wai Lee
Spinal disorders often require surgical treatment called spinal fusion to restore a stabilized spine where bone grafts are implanted for the fusion of adjacent vertebras. In this study, we developed a bioactive composite scaffold incorporated with salvianolic acid B (SB), an active component extracted from Danshen. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of SB-incorporated porous scaffold on spinal fusion models. The composite scaffolds composed of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) and tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) were fabricated with low-temperature rapid prototyping technique, which incorporated SB at low (SB-L), middle (SB-M), high (SB-H) doses, and pure PLGA/β-TCP as blank control (Con)...
April 4, 2018: Biomaterials
Rahel D May, Daniela A Frauchiger, Christoph E Albers, Lorin M Benneker, Sandro Kohl, Benjamin Gantenbein
Spinal fusion is a common surgical procedure to address a range of spinal pathologies, like damaged or degenerated discs. After the removal of the intervertebral disc (IVD), a structural spacer is positioned followed by internal fixation, and fusion of the degenerated segment by natural bone growth. Due to their osteoinductive properties, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are applied to promote spinal fusion. Although spinal fusion is successful in most patients, the rates of non-unions after lumbar spine fusion range from 5% to 35%...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marc Coughlan, Mark Davies, Adriaan K Mostert, Dharmin Nanda, Paul C Willems, Geoffrey Rosenberg, Richard Ferch
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, Phase IV, multicenter, randomized study. OBJECTIVE: To compare vertebral fusion success rates following posterolateral fusion ((PLF)/posterolateral intertransverse fusion (PITF)) surgery. The surgical procedure combined posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and PLF with internal fixation over one or two levels using silicated calcium phosphate (SiCaP) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 as graft material in patients with a degenerative disorder of the lumbar spine...
April 12, 2018: Spine
Guang Bin Zheng, Jae Hyup Lee, Yuan-Zhe Jin
This study compared osteoinductivity and osteogenic capacity between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using hMSCs in vitro and a beagle's posterolateral spinal fusion model. Cultured hMSCs were treated with AB204 or rhBMP-2 with low to high doses. Three male beagles were performed posterolateral spinal fusion with biphasic calcium phosphate (2 ml) + AB204 or rhBMP-2 (20, 50 or 200 µg). They were euthanized after 8 weeks. The fusion rate and bone formation of spine samples were examined. AB204 had higher alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and osteogenic-related gene expression than rhBMP-2...
April 13, 2018: Growth Factors
Xia Chen, Jian Wang, Li Yu, Jia Zhou, Danning Zheng, Bo Zhang
The therapeutic method traditionally used in bone defect reconstruction is autologous bone grafting. The most common problems affecting this type of repair approach are bone absorption and donor trauma. The approach taken in this study overcomes these problems. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) provided the crucial seed cells. Fibrin biological scaffolds were formed by combining the BMSCs with concentrated growth factor (CGF). BMSCs were isolated from Wistar rat femurs; CGF was prepared from rat heart blood...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Simon Spalthoff, Rüdiger Zimmerer, Jan Dittmann, Horst Kokemüller, Marco Tiede, Laura Flohr, Philippe Korn, Nils-Claudius Gellrich, Philipp Jehn
Osseous reconstruction of large bone defects remains a challenge in oral and maxillofacial surgery. In addition to autogenous bone grafts, which despite potential donor-site mobility still represent the gold standard in reconstructive surgery, many studies have investigated less invasive alternatives such as in vitro cultivation techniques. This study compared different types of seeding techniques on pure β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds in terms of bone formation and ceramic resorption in vivo . Cylindrical scaffolds loaded with autologous cancellous bone, venous blood, bone marrow aspirate concentrate or extracorporeal in vitro cultivated bone marrow stromal cells were cultured in sheep on a perforator vessel of the musculus latissimus dorsi over a 6-month period...
March 2018: Regenerative Biomaterials
Luyuan Chen, Satoshi Komasa, Yoshiya Hashimoto, Shigeki Hontsu, Joji Okazaki
To enhance biocompatibility, osteogenesis, and osseointegration, we coated titanium implants, by krypton fluoride (KrF) pulsed laser deposition, with a thin film of fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA). Coating was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), while physicochemical properties were evaluated by attenuated reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Calcium deposition, osteocalcin production, and expression of osteoblast genes were significantly higher in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells seeded on FHA-coated titanium than in cells seeded on uncoated titanium...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dorsa Mohammadrezaei, Hossein Golzar, Maryam Rezai Rad, Meisam Omidi, Hamid Rashedi, Fatemeh Yazdian, Arash Khojasteh, Lobat Tayebi
Graphene and its derivatives have been well-known as influential factors in differentiating stem/progenitor cells towards the osteoblastic lineage. However, there have been many controversies in the literature regarding the parameters effect on bone regeneration, including graphene concentration, size, type, dimension, hydrophilicity, functionalization, and composition. This study attempts to produce a comprehensive review regarding the given parameters and their effects on stimulating cell behaviors such as proliferation, viability, attachment and osteogenic differentiation...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Ahmad Oryan, Soodeh Alidadi, Amin Bigham-Sadegh, Ali Moshiri
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used filler material that lacks biological properties and osteoconductivity or osteoinductivity. Platelet gel (PG) is a typical source of growth factors, cytokines and molecules efficient for bone formation and remodeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone healing and regeneration of bone defect in rat model by combining PMMA with PG. A total of 50 defects were created in the diaphysis of the radii of 25 male Sprague-Dawley rats. These defects were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10 defects for each group) and treated by autograft, plain PMMA, PG and PMMA-PG or left untreated...
2018: PloS One
Toktam Ghassemi, Azadeh Shahroodi, Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh, Alireza Mousavian, Jebraeel Movaffagh, Ali Moradi
Bone disorders are of significant worry due to their increased prevalence in the median age. Scaffold-based bone tissue engineering holds great promise for the future of osseous defects therapies. Porous composite materials and functional coatings for metallic implants have been introduced in next generation of orthopedic medicine for tissue engineering. While osteoconductive materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate ceramics as well as some biodegradable polymers are suggested, much interest has recently focused on the use of osteoinductive materials like demineralized bone matrix or bone derivatives...
March 2018: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Min Ge, Kun Ge, Fei Gao, Weixiao Yan, Huifang Liu, Li Xue, Yi Jin, Haiyun Ma, Jinchao Zhang
Introduction: poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) has been approved for clinical use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); however, their stronger hydrophobicity and relatively fast degradation rate restricted their widespread application. In consideration of the composition of bone, the inorganic-organic composite has a great application prospect in bone tissue engineering. Many inorganic-organic composite scaffolds were prepared by directly mixing the active ingredient, but this method is uncontrolled and will lead to lack of homogeneity in the polymer matrix...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Soyon Kim, Zhong-Kai Cui, Paul Jay Kim, Lawrence Young Jung, Min Lee
Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is known to be the most potent stimulator available for bone formation, a major barrier to widespread clinical use is its inherent instability and absence of an adequate delivery system. Heparin is being widely used in controlled release systems due to its strong binding ability and protective effect for many growth factor proteins. In this work, we developed a hydrogel surface that can mimic heparin to stabilize BMP-2 and to enhance osteogenesis by introducing heparin-mimicking sulfonated molecules such as poly-vinylsulfonic acid (PVSA) or poly-4-styrenesulfonic acid (PSS), into photo-crosslinkable hydrogel...
March 26, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Yang Shengyin, Chen Ping, Bao Jibo, Ding Yixin, Zou Jinyang, Xie Zhigang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the theoretical framework of cells and the forms of osteogenesis in the mechanism by which demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) induces osteogenesis. METHODS: A total of 24 New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. A total of 4 erector spinae bags were created in each animal. A total of 3 erector spinae bags were implanted with DDM by random selection, whereas the remaining one erector spinae bag was not implanted with DDM...
February 1, 2018: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
Eun-Jung Kwak, In-Ho Cha, Woong Nam, Jong In Yook, Young-Bum Park, Hyung Jun Kim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of xenogenic bone and absorbable collagen sponge to function as an rhBMP-2 carrier and the osteoinductivity of bisphosphonate by comparison with rhBMP-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into four groups. Segmental ostectomy of both fibulae was performed, and the defect area was then treated with Rapiderm Pad (absorbable collagen sponge; COL_BMP) or CollaOss (xenogenic bone; XENO_BMP) with application of rhBMP-2...
March 26, 2018: Oral Diseases
N Araújo-Gomes, F Romero-Gavilán, I García-Arnáez, C Martínez-Ramos, A M Sánchez-Pérez, M Azkargorta, F Elortza, J J Martín de Llano, M Gurruchaga, I Goñi, J Suay
The prime objectives in the development of biomaterials for dental applications are to improve the quality of osseointegration and to short the time needed to achieve it. Design of implants nowadays involves changes in the surface characteristics to obtain a good cellular response. Incorporating osteoinductive elements is one way to achieve the best regeneration possible post-implantation. This study examined the osteointegrative potential of two distinct biomaterials: sandblasted acid-etched titanium and a silica sol-gel hybrid coating, 70% MTMOS-30% TEOS...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Yu Wang, Jianwei Pan, Yiqun Zhang, Xiang Li, Zhen Zhang, Peng Wang, Zhifan Qin, Jihua Li
Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics are being increasingly used to repair critical bone defect for biocompatibility, biosafety, porous structure and osteoinduction. Wnt and Notch signaling pathways are conservative and classic signaling pathways regulating osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs). In this study, we evaluated the expression of Wnt, Notch signal pathways and osteogenic related genes of BMSCs with and without Wnt pathway inhibitor DKK1 on CaP ceramics in vitro by real-time RT-PCR...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Yun Hwan Lee, Byung-Woo Lee, Yun Chan Jung, Byung-Il Yoon, Heung-Myong Woo, Byung-Jae Kang
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is commonly used to enhance bone regeneration. The potential of BMP-2 for bone regeneration varies according to the concentration and release kinetics on the implanted site. Therefore, it is important to determine appropriate carriers of BMP-2. However, no optimal delivery vehicles have been identified. In the present study, we used alginate microbeads as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2. Alginate microbeads can be implanted onto the disease site through surgery or injection...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Y-M Weng, C-R Ke, J-Z Kong, H Chen, J-J Hong, D-S Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) on the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of Mc3T3-E1 osteoblast as well as the effects of ATG5 on apoptosis of osteoblasts under the conditions of non-oxidative stress and oxidative stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ATG5 overexpressing and silencing cell lines were established in this experiment with lentiviral vector and transcription activator-like effect or nuclease (Talen) technique, respectively, using Mc3T3-E1 cells...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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