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Galina Shapiro, Raphael Lieber, Dan Gazit, Gadi Pelled
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances in gene therapy as a treatment for bone regeneration. While most fractures heal spontaneously, patients who present with fracture nonunion suffer from prolonged pain, disability, and often require additional operations to regain musculoskeletal function. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last few years, BMP gene delivery by means of electroporation and sonoporation resulted in repair of nonunion bone defects in mice, rats, and minipigs...
June 16, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Min Gong, Cheng Chi, Jingjing Ye, Meihong Liao, Wenqi Xie, Chengai Wu, Rui Shi, Liqun Zhang
Due to the significant role of the periosteum in bone regeneration, we hypothesised that using a specially engineered artificial periosteum could lead to an enhancement in osteogenesis in bone grafts. Herein, we describe our work aimed at fabricating an electrospun fibrous membrane as an artificial periosteum that exhibits flexibility, permeability and osteoinduction. This membrane was designed to cover the complex surface of bone grafts to facilitate and accelerate bone regeneration. The traditional Chinese medicine icariin (ICA) was subsequently introduced into poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) /gelatin nanofibers to fabricate an artificial periosteum for the first time...
June 14, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Nora Bloise, Loredana Petecchia, Gabriele Ceccarelli, Lorenzo Fassina, Cesare Usai, Federico Bertoglio, Martina Balli, Massimo Vassalli, Maria Gabriella Cusella De Angelis, Paola Gavazzo, Marcello Imbriani, Livia Visai
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) are considered a great promise in the repair and regeneration of bone. Considerable efforts have been oriented towards uncovering the best strategy to promote stem cells osteogenic differentiation. In previous studies, hBM-MSCs exposed to physical stimuli such as pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) or directly seeded on nanostructured titanium surfaces (TiO2) were shown to improve their differentiation to osteoblasts in osteogenic condition. In the present study, the effect of a daily PEMF-exposure on osteogenic differentiation of hBM-MSCs seeded onto nanostructured TiO2 (with clusters under 100 nm of dimension) was investigated...
2018: PloS One
Y Moritani, M Usui, K Sano, K Nakazawa, T Hanatani, M Nakatomi, T Iwata, T Sato, W Ariyoshi, T Nishihara, K Nakashima
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (hPDLMSCs) are reported to be responsible for homeostasis and regeneration of periodontal tissue. Although hPDLMSCs are commonly cultured in monolayers, monolayer cultures have been reported as inferior to 3-dimensional cultures such as spheroids, which are spherical clusters of cells formed by self-assembly. The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic phenotype of spheroids of hPDLMSCs, compared with monolayer cultures of hPDLMSC, in vitro and in vivo...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Jakob Voelkl, Trang Td Luong, Rashad Tuffaha, Katharina Musculus, Tilman Auer, Xiaoming Lian, Christoph Daniel, Daniel Zickler, Beate Boehme, Michael Sacherer, Bernhard Metzler, Dietmar Kuhl, Maik Gollasch, Kerstin Amann, Dominik N Müller, Burkert Pieske, Florian Lang, Ioana Alesutan
Medial vascular calcification, associated with enhanced mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), is fostered by osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we describe that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) was upregulated in VSMCs under calcifying conditions. In primary human aortic VSMCs, overexpression of constitutively active SGK1S422D, but not inactive SGK1K127N, upregulated osteo-/chondrogenic marker expression and activity, effects pointing to increased osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Qian Chen, Lu Cao, Jielin Wang, Libo Jiang, Hang Zhao, Mumingjiang Yishake, Yiqun Ma, Hao Zhou, Hong Lin, Jian Dong, Zhongyong Fan
Compared to pure poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), PLLA/nano-sized β-tricalcium phosphate (PLLA/nβ-TCP) composites show both superior interfacial compatibility and osteoinductive, and consequently hold great potential for bone defect repair applications. However, their dismal osteointegration limits their further development in bone regeneration, adding the need for tailored modification. In this study, a bioinspired modification approach was proposed to construct gelatinhydroxyapatite (GEL/HAP) coating onto PLLA/nβ-TCP composites by combining chemical grafting with in situ reaction methods...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Bruno Reible, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Arash Moghaddam, Fabian Westhauser
Growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) support consolidation of bone defects. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 (BMP-7) has been used clinically and experimentally, but the outcomes remain controversial. Increased systemic expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) significantly correlates with successful regeneration of bone healing disorders, making IGF-1 a promising alternative to BMP-7. There is no experimental data comparing the osteoinductive potential of IGF-1 and BMP-7. Therefore, in this study, the influence of IGF-1 and BMP-7 in different concentrations on the osteogenic differentiation of two human MSC-subtypes, isolated from reaming debris (RMSC) and iliac crest bone marrow (BMSC) has been assessed...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mark K Magnus, Kelli L Iceman, Thomas S Roukis
Hindfoot arthrodesis is a frequently performed procedure by foot and ankle surgeons. The relatively high nonunion rate associated with these procedures has led surgeons to use adjunctive bone graft to help augment osseous union. Cellular bone allografts are a specific type of graft that incorporates osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic properties while also eliminating the common disadvantages of autografts and traditional allografts. This article discusses the role of cellular bone allografts in hindfoot arthrodesis procedures, a review of current literature, and a comparison of available products...
July 2018: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
Meda-Romana Simu, Emoke Pall, Teodora Radu, Maria Miclaus, Bogdan Culic, Anca-Stefania Mesaros, Alexandrina Muntean, Gabriela Adriana Filip
In this study we designed a composite biomaterial based on a high viscosity soft propolis extract (70% propolis) and shell clam, with antiseptic and osteoinductive qualities, that can be used in dentistry, orthopedics and other areas where hard tissue regeneration is needed. We assessed it in interaction with stabilized human cells isolated from dental papilla of wisdom teeth (D1MSCs). We performed detailed characterization of the obtained material by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques...
June 2018: Tissue & Cell
Elisa Boanini, Maria Cristina Cassani, Katia Rubini, Carla Boga, Adriana Bigi
Functionalization of calcium phosphates for biomedical applications has been proposed as a strategy to enrich the good osteoinductive properties of these materials with specific therapeutic characteristics. Herein, we prepared and characterized hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with an anticancer agent, ( 9R )-9-hydroxystearate (HSA), and loaded with an antimicrobial agent, namely silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Nanocrystals at two different contents of HSA, about 4 and 9 wt %, were prepared via direct synthesis in aqueous solution...
May 31, 2018: Nanomaterials
Long Wei Lv, Yun Song Liu, Ping Zhang, Ming Gu, Xiang Song Bai, Chun Yang Xiong, Yong Sheng Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To explore graphene's effects on the gene expression profile of mesenchymal stem cells, and to reveal the mechanisms of graphene-guided osteogenic differentiation. METHODS: Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) were cultured on single-layer graphene-coated titanium disks or titanium disks in proliferation medium (control) or osteoinduction medium for 7 days before RNA extraction. After library construction and RNA sequencing, identification of differentially expressed genes was performed through Limma package of R platform, with a cut-off value of log fold change (logFC) > = |1|...
2018: Chinese Journal of Dental Research
Song Wang, Han Yang, Jian Yang, Jianping Kang, Qing Wang, Yueming Song
Objective: To investigate the effect of a porous calcium phosphate/bone matrix gelatin (BMG) composite cement (hereinafter referred to as the "porous composite cement") for repairing lumbar vertebral bone defect in a rabbit model. Methods: BMG was extracted from adult New Zealand rabbits according to the Urist's method. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microsphere was prepared by W/O/W double emulsion method. The porous composite cement was developed by using calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composited with BMG and PLGA microsphere...
December 1, 2017: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Ming Gu, Longwei Lv, Feng Du, Tianxiao Niu, Tong Chen, Dandan Xia, Siyi Wang, Xiao Zhao, Jianzhang Liu, Yunsong Liu, Chunyang Xiong, Yongsheng Zhou
In recent years, dental implants have become the preferred approach for the restoration of missing teeth. At present, most dental implants are made of pure titanium, and are affected by peri-implantitis and bone resorption, which usually start from the implant neck, due to the complex environment in this region. To address these issues, in this study we modified the surface of titanium (Ti) implants to exploit the antibacterial and osteoinductive effects of single-layer graphene sheets. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown single-layer graphene sheets were transferred to titanium discs, and a method for improving the adhesion strength of graphene on Ti was developed due to compromised adhesion strength between graphene and titanium surface...
May 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elnaz Sistanipour, Azadeh Meshkini, Hamid Oveisi
Hydroxyapatite is the main component of mineral phase of bone which is widely employed for coating metal implants and scaffold materials in synthetic bone grafts owing to its osteoinductive property. In order to improve the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite, mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (MHAP) were synthesized and chemically functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The amine-functionalized nanoparticles were conjugated with a natural antioxidant, catechin (Cat), through a stable amide linkage...
May 21, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Soheila Ali Akbari Ghavimi, Brittany N Allen, Jessica L Stromsdorfer, Jacob S Kramer, Xiaolei Li, Bret Ulery
Due to the continually increasing clinical need to heal large bone defects, synthetic bone graft substitutes have become ever more necessary with calcium phosphates (CaP) widely used due to their similarity to the mineral component of bone. In this research, different concentrations of calcium ions (Ca2+), phosphate ions (Pi), or their combination were provided to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to evaluate their influence on proliferation and differentiation. The results suggest that 1 - 16 mM Ca2+ and 1 - 8 mM Pi is osteoinductive, but not cytotoxic...
May 24, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Yen-Li Wang, Adrienne Hong, Tzung-Hai Yen, Hsiang-Hsi Hong
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are present in a variety of tissues and can be differentiated into numerous cell types, including osteoblasts. Among the dental sources of MSCs, the periosteum is an easily accessible tissue, which has been identified to contain MSCs in the cambium layer. However, this source has not yet been widely studied. Vitamin D3 and 1,25-(OH)2D3 have been demonstrated to stimulate in vitro differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts. In addition, vitamin C facilitates collagen formation and bone cell growth...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Thomas F Higgins, Lucas S Marchand
Autologous bone graft remains the only clinically available source of graft material with osteogenic, osteoinductive, and osteoconductive properties. Although iliac crest autologous bone graft has long served as the benchmark, reamed autogenous bone graft offers several advantages. Reamed autograft has a biochemical and cellular profile that is at least equivalent, and perhaps superior, to that of iliac crest autograft. In addition, larger volumes of reamed autograft can be obtained via less-invasive techniques, giving surgeons an accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells that can be reliably and repeatedly harvested...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Donghai Li, Huifang Liu, Jinhai Zhao, Zhouyuan Yang, Xiaowei Xie, Zhun Wei, Dongzhe Li, Pengde Kang
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a commonly used biomaterial in bone-tissue engineering, but pure HA is deficient in osteoinduction. In this study, we fabricated scaffolds of lithium-doped HA (Li-HA) and assess the bone generation enhancement of Li-HA scaffolds seeded with hypoxia-preconditioned bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). We found that 1.5%Li-HA obtained optimal cell proliferation activity in vitro. In an in vivo study, Li-HA/BMSCs enhanced new bone formation, reducing the GSK-3β and increasing the β-catenin, but the angiogenic effect was not modified significantly...
May 18, 2018: Biomedical Materials
M Zhang, Y-Q Bian, H-M Tao, X-F Yang, W-D Mu
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether Simvastatin could facilitate osteogenic differentiation of rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by modulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, thus promoting fracture healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow specimens and their purity was identified. The third generation of MSCs was cultured in osteoinduction medium containing simvastatin of gradient concentration, and the highest dose of simvastatin that did not cause cell proliferation was determined by the result of the CCK8 assay...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Patrícia Cincotto Dos Santos Bueno, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Domingos Donizeti Roque, José Sidney Roque, Marcelo Garcia Zilio, Jefferson Augusto Salatin, Natália Kawano, Gabriela Furlanette, Rogério Leone Buchaim
PURPOSE: To investigate if the inorganic bovine bone matrix changes the bone formation in rats submitted to inhalation of cigarette smoke. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Cigarette Clot Group (CCG), which in the inhalation chamber received the smoke of 10 cigarettes, 3 times a day, 10 minutes, for 30 days and had the surgical cavity filled by clot; Cigarette Biomaterial Group (CBG), submitted to the same inhalation technique but with the cavity filled by biomaterial...
April 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
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