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Influenza A Virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238698/nasopharyngeal-protein-biomarkers-of-acute-respiratory-virus-infection
#1
Thomas W Burke, Ricardo Henao, Erik Soderblom, Ephraim L Tsalik, J Will Thompson, Micah T McClain, Marshall Nichols, Bradly P Nicholson, Timothy Veldman, Joseph E Lucas, M Arthur Moseley, Ronald B Turner, Robert Lambkin-Williams, Alfred O Hero, Christopher W Woods, Geoffrey S Ginsburg
Infection of respiratory mucosa with viral pathogens triggers complex immunologic events in the affected host. We sought to characterize this response through proteomic analysis of nasopharyngeal lavage in human subjects experimentally challenged with influenza A/H3N2 or human rhinovirus, and to develop targeted assays measuring peptides involved in this host response allowing classification of acute respiratory virus infection. Unbiased proteomic discovery analysis identified 3285 peptides corresponding to 438 unique proteins, and revealed that infection with H3N2 induces significant alterations in protein expression...
February 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237555/syntheses-and-mucosal-adjuvant-activity-of-simplified-oleanolic-acid-saponins-possessing-cinnamoyl-ester
#2
Tatsuya Shirahata, Takayuki Nagai, Nozomu Hirata, Masaki Yokoyama, Tatsuya Katsumi, Naruki Konishi, Takashi Nishino, Kazuishi Makino, Haruki Yamada, Eisuke Kaji, Hiroaki Kiyohara, Yoshinori Kobayashi
A series of new simplified oleanolic acid saponins with a glycosyl ester moiety at C28, were efficiently prepared. Furthermore, the effect of nasal administration of the synthetic oleanolic acid saponins on the nasal anti-influenza virus antibody titer against secondary nasal inoculation of the influenza split vaccine was examined. The result revealed cinnamoyl saponin as a suitable candidate vaccine adjuvant.
September 22, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237484/viral-co-infections-among-children-with-confirmed-measles-at-hospitals-in-hanoi-vietnam-2014
#3
Le Khanh Nguyen Hang, Loan Phuong Do, Thanh Thi Trieu Van, Son Vu Nguyen, Phuong Vu Mai Hoang, Hien Thi Pham, Thanh Thi Le, Huong Thi Thu Tran, Cuong Duc Vuong, Thi Quynh Le Mai
OBJECTIVE: To characterize viral co-infections among representative hospitalized measles cases during the 2014 Hanoi outbreak. METHODS: Throat swabs were collected from 54 pediatric patients with confirmed measles, and molecular diagnostics performed for 10 additional viral respiratory pathogens (Influenza A/H1N1pdm09; A/H3N2 and influenza B; Parainfluenza 1, 2, 3; Respiratory Synctial Virus, RSV; human Metapneumovirus, hMPV; Adenovirus and Picornavirus). RESULTS: Twenty-one cases (38...
February 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237252/effect-of-ebola-virus-disease-on-maternal-and-child-health-services-in-guinea-a-retrospective-observational-cohort-study
#4
Alexandre Delamou, Alison M El Ayadi, Sidikiba Sidibe, Therese Delvaux, Bienvenu S Camara, Sah D Sandouno, Abdoul H Beavogui, Georges W Rutherford, Junko Okumura, Wei-Hong Zhang, Vincent De Brouwere
BACKGROUND: The 2014 west African epidemic of Ebola virus disease posed a major threat to the health systems of the countries affected. We sought to quantify the consequences of Ebola virus disease on maternal and child health services in the highly-affected Forest region of Guinea. METHODS: We did a retrospective, observational cohort study of women and children attending public health facilities for antenatal care, institutional delivery, and immunisation services in six of seven health districts in the Forest region (Beyla, Guéckédou, Kissidougou, Lola, Macenta, and N'Zérékoré)...
February 22, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237236/influenza-a-virus-in-swine-breeding-herds-combination-of-vaccination-and-biosecurity-practices-can-reduce-likelihood-of-endemic-piglet-reservoir
#5
L A White, M Torremorell, M E Craft
Recent modelling and empirical work on influenza A virus (IAV) suggests that piglets play an important role as an endemic reservoir. The objective of this study is to test intervention strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of IAV in piglets and ideally, preventing piglets from becoming exposed in the first place. These interventions include biosecurity measures, vaccination, and management options that swine producers may employ individually or jointly to control IAV in their herds. We have developed a stochastic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Vaccinated (SEIRV) model that reflects the spatial organization of a standard breeding herd and accounts for the different production classes of pigs therein...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237230/estimation-of-the-transmission-parameters-for-swine-influenza-and-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-viruses-in-pigs-from-weaning-to-slaughter-under-natural-conditions
#6
Emanuela Pileri, Gerard E Martín-Valls, Ivan Díaz, Alberto Allepuz, Meritxell Simon-Grifé, Ariadna García-Saenz, Jordi Casal, Enric Mateu
In the present study, the transmission parameters of swine influenza virus (SIV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) have been calculated using the basic reproductive rate (R) parameter in two commercial pig farms (F1 and F2). In order to do this, a serological (PRRSV genotype 1 and SIV) and virological (SIV) follow-up of a batch of animals was carried out weekly from 3 weeks of age until the age of slaughter on each farm. Results of the analysis for SIV and PRRSV showed different transmission profiles depending on the farm, the pathogen, and time of transmission...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236410/screening-and-evaluation-of-commonly-used-anti-influenza-chinese-herbal-medicines-based-on-anti-neuraminidase-activity
#7
Xue Han, Ding-Kun Zhang, Yu-Ming Guo, Wu-Wen Feng, Qin Dong, Cong-En Zhang, Yong-Feng Zhou, Yan Liu, Jia-Bo Wang, Yan-Ling Zhao, Xiao-He Xiao, Ming Yang
Anti-influenza Chinese herbal medicines (anti-flu CHMs) have advantages in preventing and treating influenza virus infection. Despite various data on antiviral activities of some anti-flu CHMs have been reported, most of them could not be compared using the standard evaluation methods for antiviral activity. This situation poses an obstacle to a wide application of anti-flu CHMs. Thus, it was necessary to develop an evaluation method to estimate antiviral activities of anti-flu CHMs. In the present study, we searched for anti-flu CHMs, based on clinic usage, to select study objects from commonly-used patented anti-flu Chinese medicines...
October 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235408/the-chinese-prescription-lianhuaqingwen-capsule-exerts-anti-influenza-activity-through-the-inhibition-of-viral-propagation-and-impacts-immune-function
#8
Yuewen Ding, Lijuan Zeng, Runfeng Li, Qiaoyan Chen, Beixian Zhou, Qiaolian Chen, Pui Leng Cheng, Wang Yutao, Jingping Zheng, Zifeng Yang, Fengxue Zhang
BACKGROUND: Lianhuaqingwen Capsule (LH-C) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used to treat respiratory tract infectious diseases in Chinese. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral activity of LH-C and its immunomodulatory effects on viral infection. METHOD: The in vitro cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of LH-C was determined by MTT and Plaque reduction assays. Time course study under single-cycle virus growth conditions were used to determine which stage of viral replication was blocked...
February 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231295/the-pathogens-profile-in-children-with-otitis-media-with-effusion-and-adenoid-hypertrophy
#9
G P Buzatto, E Tamashiro, J L Proenca-Modena, T H Saturno, M C Prates, T B Gagliardi, L R Carenzi, E T Massuda, M A Hyppolito, F C P Valera, E Arruda, W T Anselmo-Lima
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of viruses and bacteria in middle ear and adenoids of patients with and without otitis media with effusion (OME). METHODS: Adenoid samples and middle ear washes (MEW) were obtained from children with OME associated with adenoid hypertrophy undergoing adenoidectomy and tympanostomy, and compared to those obtained from patients undergoing cochlear implant surgery, as a control group. Specific DNA or RNA of 9 respiratory viruses (rhinovirus, influenza virus, picornavirus, syncytial respiratory virus, metapneumovirus, coronavirus, enterovirus, adenovirus and bocavirus) and 5 bacteria (S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231239/surveillance-for-health-care-access-and-health-services-use-adults-aged-18-64-years-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-united-states-2014
#10
Catherine A Okoro, Guixiang Zhao, Jared B Fox, Paul I Eke, Kurt J Greenlund, Machell Town
PROBLEM/CONDITION: As a result of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, millions of U.S. adults attained health insurance coverage. However, millions of adults remain uninsured or underinsured. Compared with adults without barriers to health care, adults who lack health insurance coverage, have coverage gaps, or skip or delay care because of limited personal finances might face increased risk for poor physical and mental health and premature mortality. PERIOD COVERED: 2014...
February 24, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228559/targeting-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-to-xcr1-dendritic-cells-in-the-absence-of-receptor-mediated-endocytosis-enhances-protective-antibody-responses
#11
Arnar Gudjonsson, Anna Lysén, Sreekumar Balan, Vibeke Sundvold-Gjerstad, Catharina Arnold-Schrauf, Lisa Richter, Espen S Bækkevold, Marc Dalod, Bjarne Bogen, Even Fossum
Targeting Ags to conventional dendritic cells can enhance Ag-specific immune responses. Although most studies have focused on the induction of T cell responses, the mechanisms by which targeting improves Ab responses are poorly understood. In this study we present data on the use of human XCL1 (hXCL1) and hXCL2 fusion vaccines in a murine model. We show that the human chemokines bound type 1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1), and that immunization with influenza virus hemagglutinin fused to hXCL1 or hXCL2 induced full protection against influenza challenge...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224774/comparison-of-luminex-nxtag-respiratory-pathogen-panel-and-xtag-respiratory-viral-panel-fast-version-2-for-the-detection-of-respiratory-viruses
#12
Chun Kiat Lee, Hong Kai Lee, Christopher Wei Siong Ng, Lily Chiu, Julian Wei Tze Tang, Tze Ping Loh, Evelyn Siew Chuan Koay
Owing to advancements in molecular diagnostics, recent years have seen an increasing number of laboratories adopting respiratory viral panels to detect respiratory pathogens. In December 2015, the NxTAG respiratory pathogen panel (NxTAG RPP) was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. We compared the clinical performance of this new assay with that of the xTAG respiratory viral panel (xTAG RVP) FAST v2 using 142 clinical samples and 12 external quality assessment samples. Discordant results were resolved by using a laboratory-developed respiratory viral panel...
May 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224114/ha-triggers-the-switch-from-mek1-sumoylation-to-phosphorylation-of-the-erk-pathway-in-influenza-a-virus-infected-cells-and-facilitates-its-infection
#13
Chengmin Wang, Huimin Liu, Jing Luo, Lin Chen, Meng Li, Wen Su, Na Zhao, Shelan Liu, Li Xie, Yaxiong Jia, Hua Ding, Xiufeng Wan, Hongxuan He
Several post-translational modifications in host cells are hijacked by pathogens to facilitate their propagation. A number of components of the influenza virus have been reported to be modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins during infection. We hypothesized that the MAPK/ERK pathway could be modified by SUMO1 because the SUMOylation of MEK1 was quickly eliminated after influenza A virus infection. We identified host cell MEK1 as a target of SUMO1 through LC/MS/MS, and enhanced MEK1 SUMOylation inhibited the infection of the virus, while inhibition of host cell MEK1 SUMOylation facilitated virus propagation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223682/environmental-surfaces-used-in-entry-day-corralling-likely-contribute-to-the-spread-of-influenza-a-virus-in-swine-at-agricultural-fairs
#14
Sarah E Lauterbach, Michele M Zentkovich, Sarah W Nelson, Jacqueline M Nolting, Andrew S Bowman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223680/uncomplicated-cystitis-in-an-adult-male-following-influenza-b-virus-infection
#15
Robert J Allen, Marios Koutsakos, Aeron C Hurt, Katherine Kedzierska
BACKGROUND Influenza B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness, circulating concurrently with influenza A viruses. However, virological and clinical knowledge of influenza B viruses is less well advanced than for influenza A, and in particular, complications associated with influenza B infection are not as commonly reported. Complications of influenza B infection predominantly include neurological and musculoskeletal pathologies, while a review of the literature shows that bacterial infections associated with influenza B viruses often involve Gram-positive organisms, with a smaller subset featuring Gram-negative species...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222765/new-h6-influenza-virus-reassortment-strains-isolated-from-anser-fabalis-in-anhui-province-china
#16
Ye Ge, Hongliang Chai, Zhiqiang Fan, Xianfu Wang, Qiucheng Yao, Jian Ma, Si Chen, Yuping Hua, Guohua Deng, Hualan Chen
BACKGROUND: H6 subtype avian influenza viruses are globally distributed and, in recent years, have been isolated with increasing frequency from both domestic and wild bird species as well as infected humans. Many reports have examined the viruses in the context of poultry or several wild bird species, but there is less information regarding their presence in migratory birds. METHODS: Hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests were used to measure HA activity for different HA subtypes...
February 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222368/direct-and-label-free-influenza-virus-detection-based-on-multisite-binding-to-sialic-acid-receptors
#17
Yukichi Horiguchi, Tatsuro Goda, Akira Matsumoto, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Shoji Yamaoka, Yuji Miyahara
A system to discriminate human or avian influenza A remains a highly sought-after tool for prevention of influenza pandemics in humans. Selective binding of the influenza A viral hemagglutinin (HA) to specific sialic acid (SA) receptors (Neu5Acα(2-6)Gal in humans, Neu5Acα(2-3)Gal in birds) is determined by the genotype of the HA and neuraminidase (NA) segments, making it one of the key characteristics that distinguishes human or avian influenza A virus. Here we demonstrate the direct detection of whole H1N1 influenza A virus using 6'-sialyllactose (Neu5Acα(2-6)Galβ(1-4)Glc, 6SL)-immobilized gold electrodes as biosensing surfaces...
February 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222327/diversity-evolution-and-population-dynamics-of-avian-influenza-viruses-circulating-in-the-live-poultry-markets-in-china
#18
Liang-Jun Chen, Xian-Dan Lin, Jun-Hua Tian, Yong Liao, Xu-Hua Ying, Jian-Wei Shao, Bin Yu, Jing-Jing Guo, Miao-Ruo Wang, Ying Peng, Mang Shi, Edward C Holmes, Zhan-Qiu Yang, Yong-Zhen Zhang
Live poultry markets (LPMs) are an important source of novel avian influenza viruses (AIV). During 2015-2016 we surveyed AIV diversity in ten LPMs in Hubei, Zhejiang and Jiangxi provinces, China. A high diversity and prevalence of AIVs (totaling 12 subtypes) was observed in LPMs in these provinces. Strikingly, however, the subtypes discovered during 2015-2016 were markedly different to those reported by us in these same localities one year previously, suggesting a dynamic shift in viral genetic diversity over the course of a single year...
February 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220658/serological-evidence-for-exposure-to-avian-influenza-viruses-within-poultry-workers-in-southern-china
#19
E de Bruin, X Zhang, C Ke, R Sikkema, M Koopmans
The risk of infection with avian influenza viruses for poultry workers is relatively unknown in China, and study results are often biased by the notification of only the severe human cases. Protein microarray was used to detect binding antibodies to 13 different haemagglutinin (HA1-part) antigens of avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N7), A(H7N9) and A(H9N2) viruses, in serum samples from poultry workers and healthy blood donors collected in the course of 3 years in Guangdong Province, China. Significantly higher antibody titre levels were detected in poultry workers when compared to blood donors for the most recent H5 and H9 strains tested...
February 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219161/-advances-on-epidemiological-research-of-human-infections-with-novel-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus
#20
Q M Wang, S L Liu, E F Chen
Human infections with novel avian influenza A(H7N9)virus was an emerging infectious disease discovered in March, 2013. As of June30, 2016, 770 cases of H7N9 were reported in worldwide including 315 deaths with 40.9% of high case fatality rate. Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta were the high-prevalence area. Formerly, the cases of H7N9 were concentrated on the municipalities. However, most of the case-patients were from smaller cities or rural areas nowadays. The H7N9 human infections mainly occurred in winter and spring every waves as similar as seasonal and H5N1 human infections...
February 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
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