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Influenza A Virus

Adam Meijer, Corien M Swaan, Martin Voerknecht, Edin Jusic, Sharon van den Brink, Lisa A Wijsman, Bettie Cg Voordouw, Gé A Donker, Jacqueline Sleven, Wendelien W Dorigo-Zetsma, Sanela Svraka, Michiel van Boven, Manon R Haverkate, Aura Timen, Jaap T van Dissel, Marion Pg Koopmans, Theo M Bestebroer, Ron Am Fouchier
A seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus harbouring genome segments from seasonal influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 (HA and NS) and A(H3N2) (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, NA and M) was identified in March 2018 in a 19-months-old patient with influenza-like illness (ILI) who presented to a general practitioner participating in the routine sentinel surveillance of ILI in the Netherlands. The patient recovered fully. Further epidemiological and virological investigation did not reveal additional cases.
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Alicia B Mitchell, Benjamin Tang, Maryam Shojaei, Lachlan S Barnes, Marek Nalos, Brian G Oliver, Anthony S McLean
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses circulate constantly in the ambient air. The risk of opportunistic infection from these viruses can be increased in mechanically ventilated patients. The present study evaluates the feasibility of detecting airborne respiratory viruses in mechanically ventilated patients using a novel sample collection method involving ventilator filters. METHODS: We collected inspiratory and expiratory filters from the ventilator circuits of mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care unit over a 14-month period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Anthony Le Bras, Maia Proisy, Mathieu Kuchenbuch, Constantin Gomes, Catherine Tréguier, Sylvia Napuri, Emmanuel Quehen, Bertrand Bruneau
BACKGROUND: Reversible lesions of the corpus callosum with initial restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are rare and mainly described in the south Asiatic population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, imaging findings, prognosis and etiology of transient restricted diffusion lesions of the corpus callosum in a series of Caucasian children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven children presenting with a transient restricted DWI lesion of the corpus callosum were included...
April 17, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Xian Lin, Shiman Yu, Kelei Guo, Xin Sun, Haiming Yi, Meilin Jin
Reassortment is a key driving force of the evolution and host adaptation of the influenza virus. A(H1N1)pdm2009 (pdm09), a novel H1N1 influenza viral subtype, caused a pandemic in 2009. The strain was established in pig herds and cocirculated with the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. The coexistence of pdm09 with H5N1 raises concerns that reassortment may cause the development of novel viral strains with unpredictable virulence. Given that the viral polymerase subunit PB2 is a determinant of host range and pathogenicity, and that the substantial amino acid differences in PB2 between pdm09 and H5N1, including positions 590/591 and 271, which are shown to play key roles in enhanced polymerase activity in mammalian host cells, we generated a reassortant virus containing PB2 derived from a pdm09 (A/Liaoning/1/2009, LN/09) to investigate if pdm09-derived PB2 can function in a heterologous avian virus isolate as an adaptive strategy, with H5N1 (A/duck/Hubei/hangmei01/2006, HM/06) as the backbone...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Adrian J Reber, Nedzad Music, Jin Hyang Kim, Shane Gansebom, Jufu Chen, Ian York
Influenza virus causes widespread, yearly epidemics by accumulating surface protein mutations to escape neutralizing antibodies established from prior exposure. In contrast to antibody epitopes, T cell mediated immunity targets influenza epitopes that are more highly conserved and have potential for cross-protection. The extent of T cell cross-reactivity between a diverse array of contemporary and historical influenza strains was investigated in ferrets challenged with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza or the seasonal H3N2 strain, A/Perth/16/2009...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nadine Sobotzki, Michael A Schafroth, Alina Rudnicka, Anika Koetemann, Florian Marty, Sandra Goetze, Yohei Yamauchi, Erick M Carreira, Bernd Wollscheid
Cellular responses depend on the interactions of extracellular ligands, such as nutrients, growth factors, or drugs, with specific cell-surface receptors. The sensitivity of these interactions to non-physiological conditions, however, makes them challenging to study using in vitro assays. Here we present HATRIC-based ligand receptor capture (HATRIC-LRC), a chemoproteomic technology that successfully identifies target receptors for orphan ligands on living cells ranging from small molecules to intact viruses...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Akinobu Hibino, Elie Massaad, Hiroki Kondo, Reiko Saito, Takashi Odagiri, Nobuhiro Takemae, Ryota Tsunekuni, Takehiko Saito, Yadanar Kyaw, Nay Lin, Yi Yi Myint, Htay Htay Tin, Nguyen Le Khanh Hang, Le Quynh Mai, Ren Yagami, Yugo Shobugawa, Tommy Lam, Hassan Zaraket
Influenza B viruses of both the Yamagata and the Victoria lineages are implicated in a large proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza outbreaks. In this study, we characterized the full genomes of 53 influenza B viruses isolated during 2012-2015 in three Asian countries: Japan, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) genes revealed co-circulation of both the Yamagata and Victoria lineages within the same season in these countries. Our analysis revealed, that a large proportion of viruses circulating during 2013-2014 in Japan and Vietnam were mismatched to the vaccine supporting the rationale for using quadrivalent vaccines...
April 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Shima Mahmoudi, Maryam Banar, Babak Pourakbari, Hediyeh Sadat Alavi, Hamid Eshaghi, Alireza Aziz Ahari, Setareh Mamishi
The aim of this study was to recognize the identity and frequency of etiologic agents of the pertussis-like syndrome in children < 2 years of age. A cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted from August 2014 to August 2015. All children < 2 years of age (n=100) who were suspected as pertussis infected were enrolled in this study and tested for Bordetella pertussis, adenovirus (Adv), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and influenza virus A (INF-A) by real-time PCR technique...
2018: Prague Medical Report
Julien Marlet, Catherine Gaudy-Graffin, Daniel Marc, Ronan Boennec, Alain Goudeau
Current influenza vaccination strategy is based on limited analyses of circulating strains and has some drawbacks, as illustrated during the 2014-2015 season with the circulation of A(H3N2) viruses belonging to divergent genetic subgroups. We reasoned that these strains, poorly neutralized in vitro, may have been associated with vaccination failure and more severe diseases. We conducted a study on a continuous series of 249 confirmed influenza infections. Incidence was three fold greater than in the previous three years...
2018: PloS One
Takeshi Inoue, Imogen Moran, Ryo Shinnakasu, Tri Giang Phan, Tomohiro Kurosaki
The successful establishment of humoral memory response depends on at least two layers of defense. Pre-existing protective antibodies secreted by long-lived plasma cells act as a first line of defense against reinfection ("constitutive humoral memory"). Previously, a second line of defense in which pathogen-experienced memory B cells are rapidly reactivated to produce antibodies ("reactive humoral memory"), was considered as simply a back-up system for the first line (particularly for re-infection with homologous viruses)...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
Cédric Dananché, Valentina Sánchez Picot, Thomas Bénet, Mélina Messaoudi, Monidarin Chou, Jianwei Wang, Jean-William Pape, Shally Awasthi, Ashish Bavdekar, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mariam Sylla, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Graciela Russomando, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà, Philippe Vanhems, On Behalf Of The Pneumonia Gabriel Network
This descriptive 4-year study reports the proportion of detection of influenza viruses in less than 5-year-old children hospitalized for pneumonia in eight developing and emerging countries and describes clinical and microbiological characteristics of influenza-related pneumonia cases. Hospitalized children presenting radiologically confirmed pneumonia aged 2-60 months were prospectively enrolled in this observational standardized study. Mean proportion of isolated influenza virus was 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 7...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Eun Been Cho, Seong-Ho Choi, Jin-Won Chung, Mi-Kyung Lee
The Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) provides weekly respiratory virus (RV) surveillance reports on its website (the KCDC data). Clinicians in clinical settings wherein the use of PCR for RVs is not a routine laboratory test for adult patients with acute respiratory illness (ARI) may question the clinical utility of such a national RV surveillance dataset in predicting RV outbreaks among their adult patients. We compared the KCDC data to the RV PCR data of adult patients who visited a tertiary care center...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Yinghua Li, Zhengfang Lin, Min Guo, Mingqi Zhao, Yu Xia, Changbing Wang, Tiantian Xu, Bing Zhu
Introduction: As a therapeutic antiviral agent, the clinical application of amantadine (AM) is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. To overcome the drug-resistant viruses and meet the growing demand of clinical diagnosis, the use of biological nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in order to develop novel anti-influenza drugs. The antiviral activity of selenium NPs with low toxicity and excellent activities has attracted increasing attention for biomedical intervention in recent years...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Brian M Davis, Betsy Foxman, Arnold S Monto, Ralph S Baric, Emily T Martin, Amra Uzicanin, Jeanette J Rainey, Allison E Aiello
BACKGROUND: The prevalence, symptom course, and shedding in persons infected with the four most common human coronaviruses (HCoV) -229E, HKU1, NL63 and OC43 are poorly described OBJECTIVES: We estimate their prevalence and associated symptoms among college students identified via a social network study design. PATIENTS/METHODS: We collected 1-3 samples (n=250 specimens) from 176 participants between October 2012 and January 17, 2013: participants with acute respiratory infection (ARI) (cough and body aches or chills or fever/feverishness) and their social contacts...
April 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Carolien E van de Sandt, Kyung A Sagong, Mark R Pronk, Theo M Bestebroer, Monique I Spronken, Marion P G Koopmans, Ron A M Fouchier, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Extra-epitopic amino acid residues affect recognition of human influenza A viruses (IAVs) by CD8+ T-lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for the highly conserved HLA-A*0201 restricted M158-66 epitope located in the matrix 1 (M1) protein. These residues are absent in the M1 protein of the 2009-pandemic IAV (H1N1pdm09). Consequently, stimulation with M1 protein of H1N1pdm09 IAV resulted in stronger activation and lytic activity of M158-66-specific CTLs than stimulation with seasonal H3N2 IAVs. During more than six years of circulation in the human population, descendants of the H1N1pdm09 virus had accumulated four other amino acid substitutions...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Isabel A Lüthy, Viviana Ritacco, Isabel N Kantor
The "Spanish" flu pandemic, which occurred a century ago, is considered the most devastating in human history. An estimated one third of world population fell ill with flu and more than 2.5% of them died. The course of the epidemic had two main waves (1918 and 1919) and showed an unusual W-shaped morbidity/mortality distribution. Death was not a direct outcome of flu itself but rather a consequence of secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia, for which antibiotics had not yet been discovered. Pre-existing pulmonary tuberculosis was also accountable for increased flu death rates during the pandemic...
2018: Medicina
Anne Iten, Chantal Bonfillon, Claire-Anne Siegrist, Laurent Kaiser, Didier Pittet
Preventing an influenza outbreak in an acute care requires a multimodal intervention, taking into account the actors involved (influenza virus, staff, patients, visitors), and the stage of the epidemic. Different means are used for this purpose : immunization, use of alcohol-based hand rub, identification of influenza cases, wearing of medical masks, social distance, and antiviral treatment. In addition, an epidemiological surveillance of influenza cases, in the general population and within the health facilities, must be associated...
April 11, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
John A Stafford, Charles A Moore, Jonathan R Mark
The influenza A virus has accounted for the majority of influenza infections in the 2017 to 2018 flu season, with the typical clinical presentation including fever, myalgias, malaise, and nonproductive cough. Notably this season, we have recognized a cluster of influenza A cases presenting as severe neck and facial swelling, with the subsequent diagnosis of sialadenitis. Whereas previous authors have demonstrated isolated case reports of sialadenitis associated with influenza A infection, herein we describe the clinical history, laboratory values, and radiographic findings of four patients presenting to our institution in January 2018 with acute sialadenitis and influenza A infection...
April 15, 2018: Laryngoscope
E A Fedorova, T A Smolonogina, I N Isakova-Sivak, D A Koren'kov, T S Kotomina, G F Leont'eva, A N Suvorov, L G Rudenko
A project of an experimental recombinant vector vaccine for prevention of diseases caused by pathogenic streptococci based on ScaAB lipoprotein of Streptococcus agalactiae and a coldadapted strain of live influenza vaccine as a vector was developed. The sequence of ScaAB lipoprotein was analyzed and fragments forming immunodominant epitopes were determined. Chimeric molecules of influenza virus hemagglutinin H7 carrying insertions of bacterial origin were constructed. Based on the results of simulation, the most promising variants were selected; they represented fragments of lipoprotein ScaAB lacking N-terminal domain bound to hemagglutinin via a flexible linker...
April 16, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
I N Suartha, G A A Suartini, I W Wirata, N M A R K Dewi, G N N Putra, G A Y Kencana, G N Mahardika
Aim: The need for non-parenteral administration of inactivated avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (AIV-H5N1) vaccine is paramount. Here, we provide preliminary data on the immune response of chicken and mice after intranasal administration of AIV-H5N1-inactivated vaccine with ISCOMS, Inmunair (INM), and combined ISCOMS and INM as an adjuvant. Materials and Methods: The AIV isolate of A/Chicken/Denpasar/01/2004 (H5N1) was cultivated in specific pathogen-free chicken eggs and inactivated with formaldehyde...
February 2018: Veterinary World
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