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Influenza A Virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329354/clinical-significance-of-human-coronavirus-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-samples-from-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-recipients-and-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#1
Chikara Ogimi, Alpana A Waghmare, Jane M Kuypers, Hu Xie, Cecilia C Yeung, Wendy M Leisenring, Sachiko Seo, Su-Mi Choi, Keith R Jerome, Janet A Englund, Michael Boeckh
Background: The possible role of human coronaviruses (HCoV) in lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients and patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) has not been well studied. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of HCT/HM patients with HCoV detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). HCoV strains were identified in BAL samples using strain-specific PCR. Mortality rates were compared among HCT recipients with LRTD caused by HCoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza or parainfluenza virus (PIV) by multivariable Cox regression analysis...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329311/comparative-effectiveness-of-high-dose-versus-standard-dose-influenza-vaccines-among-us-medicare-beneficiaries-in-preventing-postinfluenza-deaths-during-2012-2013-and-2013-2014
#2
David K Shay, Yoganand Chillarige, Jeffrey Kelman, Richard A Forshee, Ivo M Foppa, Michael Wernecke, Yun Lu, Jill M Ferdinands, Arjun Iyengar, Alicia M Fry, Chris Worrall, Hector S Izurieta
Background.: Recipients of high-dose vs standard-dose influenza vaccines have fewer influenza illnesses. We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of high-dose vaccine in preventing postinfluenza deaths during 2012-2013 and 2013-2014, when influenza viruses and vaccines were similar. Methods.: We identified Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years who received high-dose or standard-dose vaccines in community-located pharmacies offering both vaccines. The primary outcome was death in the 30 days following an inpatient or emergency department encounter listing an influenza International of Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329304/cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-exacerbations-attributable-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-a-population-based-study
#3
Ranjani Somayaji, Christopher H Goss, Umer Khan, Moni Neradilek, Kathleen M Neuzil, Justin R Ortiz
Background: Characterization of the role of respiratory viral pathogens on cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary disease is needed. We aimed to determine the association of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity with risk of pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) in persons with CF in the United States. Methods: We conducted a cohort study from January 2003 - March 2009 using the CF Foundation Patient Registry merged with CDC respiratory virus surveillance data...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328962/the-blood-dna-virome-in-8-000-humans
#4
Ahmed Moustafa, Chao Xie, Ewen Kirkness, William Biggs, Emily Wong, Yaron Turpaz, Kenneth Bloom, Eric Delwart, Karen E Nelson, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti
The characterization of the blood virome is important for the safety of blood-derived transfusion products, and for the identification of emerging pathogens. We explored non-human sequence data from whole-genome sequencing of blood from 8,240 individuals, none of whom were ascertained for any infectious disease. Viral sequences were extracted from the pool of sequence reads that did not map to the human reference genome. Analyses sifted through close to 1 Petabyte of sequence data and performed 0.5 trillion similarity searches...
March 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328944/respiratory-viruses-in-patients-with-influenza-like-illness-in-senegal-focus-on-human-respiratory-adenoviruses
#5
Mbayame Ndiaye Niang, Ndeye Sokhna Diop, Amary Fall, Davy E Kiori, Fatoumata Diene Sarr, Sara Sy, Déborah Goudiaby, Mamadou Aliou Barry, Malick Fall, Ndongo Dia
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens that are associated with a wide spectrum of human illnesses involving the respiratory tract. In the present study, we investigate the epidemiologic and viral molecular features of HAdVs circulating in Senegal after 4 consecutive years of sentinel surveillance of influenza-like Illness cases. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: From January 2012 to December 2015 swabs were collected from consenting ILI outpatients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327617/the-cell-surface-mucin-muc1-limits-the-severity-of-influenza-a-virus-infection
#6
J L McAuley, L Corcilius, H-X Tan, R J Payne, M A McGuckin, L E Brown
Cell surface mucin (cs-mucin) glycoproteins are constitutively expressed at the surface of respiratory epithelia where pathogens such as influenza A virus (IAV) gain entry into cells. Different members of the cs-mucin family each express a large and heavily glycosylated extracellular domain that towers above other receptors on the epithelial cell surface, a transmembrane domain that enables shedding of the extracellular domain, and a cytoplasmic tail capable of triggering signaling cascades. We hypothesized that IAV can interact with the terminal sialic acids presented on the extracellular domain of cs-mucins, resulting in modulation of infection efficiency...
March 22, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327506/efficacy-and-safety-evaluation-of-a-chlorine-dioxide-solution
#7
Jui-Wen Ma, Bin-Syuan Huang, Chu-Wei Hsu, Chun-Wei Peng, Ming-Long Cheng, Jung-Yie Kao, Tzong-Der Way, Hao-Chang Yin, Shan-Shue Wang
In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327168/identification-of-two-novel-reassortant-avian-influenza-a-h5n6-viruses-in-whooper-swans-in-korea-2016
#8
Jipseol Jeong, Chanjin Woo, Hon S Ip, Injung An, Youngsik Kim, Kwanghee Lee, Seong-Deok Jo, Kidong Son, Saemi Lee, Jae-Ku Oem, Seung-Jun Wang, Yongkwan Kim, Jeonghwa Shin, Jonathan Sleeman, Weonhwa Jheong
BACKGROUND: On November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identification of HPAIVs in wild birds is significant as there is a potential risk of transmission of these viruses to poultry and humans. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Gangjin H5N6 viruses classified into Asian H5 clade 2.3.4.4 lineage and were distinguishable from H5N8 and H5N1 HPAIVs previously isolated in Korea...
March 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327126/characterization-and-mechanisms-of-anti-influenza-virus-metabolites-isolated-from-the-vietnamese-medicinal-plant-polygonum-chinense
#9
Thu Thi Tran, Meehyein Kim, Yejin Jang, Hye Won Lee, Hoa Thi Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc Nguyen, Hae Woong Park, Quang Le Dang, Jin-Cheol Kim
BACKGROUND: Polygonum chinense Linn. is a common medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and has been used in traditional medicine in Vietnam. The plant contains phytochemicals with various biological properties; however, its antiviral effect has not yet been demonstrated. This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-influenza virus activity of crude extracts of P. chinense, to characterize antiviral metabolites therefrom and to investigate their mechanisms of antiviral action. METHODS: The methanol (MeOH) extract and organic solvent layers of P...
March 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325922/variability-in-h9n2-haemagglutinin-receptor-binding-preference-and-the-ph-of-fusion
#10
Thomas P Peacock, Donald J Benton, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Pengxiang Chang, Joshua E Sealy, Juliet E Bryant, Stephen R Martin, Holly Shelton, John W McCauley, Wendy S Barclay, Munir Iqbal
H9N2 avian influenza viruses are primarily a disease of poultry; however, they occasionally infect humans and are considered a potential pandemic threat. Little work has been performed to assess the intrinsic biochemical properties related to zoonotic potential of H9N2 viruses. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate H9N2 haemagglutinins (HAs) using two well-known correlates for human adaption: receptor-binding avidity and pH of fusion. Receptor binding was characterized using bio-layer interferometry to measure virus binding to human and avian-like receptor analogues and the pH of fusion was assayed by syncytium formation in virus-infected cells at different pHs...
March 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325769/analysis-of-anti-influenza-virus-neuraminidase-antibodies-in-children-adults-and-the-elderly-by-elisa-and-enzyme-inhibition-evidence-for-original-antigenic-sin
#11
Madhusudan Rajendran, Raffael Nachbagauer, Megan E Ermler, Paul Bunduc, Fatima Amanat, Ruvim Izikson, Manon Cox, Peter Palese, Maryna Eichelberger, Florian Krammer
Antibody responses to influenza virus hemagglutinin provide protection against infection and are well studied. Less is known about the human antibody responses to the second surface glycoprotein, neuraminidase. Here, we assessed human antibody reactivity to a panel of N1, N2, and influenza B virus neuraminidases in different age groups, including children, adults, and the elderly. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we determined the breadth, magnitude, and isotype distribution of neuraminidase antibody responses to historic, current, and avian strains, as well as to recent isolates to which these individuals have not been exposed...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325625/-serological-detection-of-brucella-suis-influenza-virus-and-aujeszky-s-disease-virus-in-backyard-and-small-swine-holders-in-argentina
#12
Marina Dibarbora, Javier A Cappuccio, María N Aznar, Fernando A Bessone, Hernán Piscitelli, Ariel J Pereda, Daniel R Pérez
Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina...
March 18, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323816/an-ns-segment-exonic-splicing-enhancer-regulates-influenza-a-virus-replication-in-mammalian-cells
#13
Xiaofeng Huang, Min Zheng, Pui Wang, Bobo Wing-Yee Mok, Siwen Liu, Siu-Ying Lau, Pin Chen, Yen-Chin Liu, Honglian Liu, Yixin Chen, Wenjun Song, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Honglin Chen
Influenza virus utilizes host splicing machinery to process viral mRNAs expressed from both M and NS segments. Through genetic analysis and functional characterization, we here show that the NS segment of H7N9 virus contains a unique G540A substitution, located within a previously undefined exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) motif present in the NEP mRNA of influenza A viruses. G540A supports virus replication in mammalian cells while retaining replication ability in avian cells. Host splicing regulator, SF2, interacts with this ESE to regulate splicing of NEP/NS1 mRNA and G540A substitution affects SF2-ESE interaction...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323565/surveillance-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-wild-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo-of-minnesota-during-2015-outbreaks-in-domestic-poultry
#14
Christopher S Jennelle, Michelle Carstensen, Erik C Hildebrand, Paul C Wolf, Daniel A Grear, Hon S Ip, Louis Cornicelli
An outbreak of a novel reassortant of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N2) virus (HPAIV) decimated domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) from March through mid-June, 2015 in the state of Minnesota, USA. In response, as part of broader surveillance efforts in wild birds, we designed a pilot effort to sample and test hunter-harvested Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) for HPAIV in Minnesota counties with known infected poultry facilities. We also collected opportunistic samples from dead Wild Turkeys or live Wild Turkeys showing neurologic signs (morbidity and mortality samples) reported by the public or state agency personnel...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323563/isolation-of-an-h5n8-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-strain-from-wild-birds-in-seoul-a-highly-urbanized-area-in-south-korea
#15
Jung-Hoon Kwon, Dong-Hun Lee, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Seong-Su Yuk, Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Sol Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Sang-Won Lee, In-Soo Choi, Chang-Seon Song
Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323070/urbanization-and-the-dynamics-of-rna-viruses-in-mallards-anas-platyrhynchos
#16
Michelle Wille, Kristine Lindqvist, Shaman Muradrasoli, Björn Olsen, Josef D Järhult
Urbanization is intensifying worldwide, and affects the epidemiology of infectious diseases. However, the effect of urbanization on natural host-pathogen systems remains poorly understood. Urban ducks occupy an interesting niche in that they directly interact with both humans and wild migratory birds, and either directly or indirectly with food production birds. Here we have collected samples from Mallards residing in a pond in central Uppsala, Sweden, from January 2013 to January 2014. This artificial pond is kept ice-free during the winter months, and is a popular location where the ducks are fed, resulting in a resident population of ducks year-round...
March 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322918/favipiravir-can-evoke-lethal-mutagenesis-and-extinction-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus
#17
Ana Isabel de Avila, Elena Moreno, Celia Perales, Esteban Domingo
Antiviral agents are increasingly considered an option for veterinary medicine. An understanding of their mechanism of activity is important to plan their administration either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. Previous studies have shown that the broad spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (T-705) and its derivatives T-1105 and T-1106 are efficient inhibitors of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in cell culture and in vivo. However, no mechanism for their activity against FMDV has been proposed...
March 17, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322698/reassortment-of%C3%A2-influenza-a-viruses%C3%A2-in-wild-birds-in-alaska%C3%A2-before-h5-clade-2-3-4-4-outbreaks
#18
Nichola J Hill, Islam T M Hussein, Kimberly R Davis, Eric J Ma, Timothy J Spivey, Andrew M Ramey, Wendy Blay Puryear, Suman R Das, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Nadia B Fedorova, David L Suarez, Walter M Boyce, Jonathan A Runstadler
Sampling of mallards in Alaska during September 2014-April 2015 identified low pathogenic avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N2 and H1N1) that shared ancestry with highly pathogenic reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Molecular dating indicated reassortment soon after interhemispheric movement of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4, suggesting genetic exchange in Alaska or surrounds before outbreaks.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322695/characterization-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-a-h5n6-japan-november-2016
#19
Masatoshi Okamatsu, Makoto Ozawa, Kosuke Soda, Hiroki Takakuwa, Atsushi Haga, Takahiro Hiono, Aya Matsuu, Yuko Uchida, Ritsuko Iwata, Keita Matsuno, Masakazu Kuwahara, Toshiyo Yabuta, Tatsufumi Usui, Hiroshi Ito, Manabu Onuma, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Takehiko Saito, Koichi Otsuki, Toshihiro Ito, Hiroshi Kida
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) A(H5N6) were concurrently introduced into several distant regions of Japan in November 2016. These viruses were classified into the genetic clade 2.3.4.4c and were genetically closely related to H5N6 HPAIVs recently isolated in South Korea and China. In addition, these HPAIVs showed further antigenic drift.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322689/neurologic-complications-of-influenza-b-virus-infection-in-adults-romania
#20
Corneliu P Popescu, Simin A Florescu, Emilia Lupulescu, Mihaela Zaharia, Gratiela Tardei, Mihaela Lazar, Emanoil Ceausu, Simona M Ruta
We characterized influenza B virus-related neurologic manifestations in an unusually high number of hospitalized adults at a tertiary care facility in Romania during the 2014-15 influenza epidemic season. Of 32 patients with a confirmed laboratory diagnosis of influenza B virus infection, neurologic complications developed in 7 adults (median age 31 years). These complications were clinically diagnosed as confirmed encephalitis (4 patients), possible encephalitis (2 patients), and cerebellar ataxia (1 patient)...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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