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Influenza A Virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922126/viral-and-bacterial-co-infection-in-severe-pneumonia-triggers-innate-immune-responses-and-specifically-enhances-ip-10-a-translational-study
#1
Jonathan Hoffmann, Daniela Machado, Olivier Terrier, Stephane Pouzol, Mélina Messaoudi, Wilma Basualdo, Emilio E Espínola, Rosa M Guillen, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Valentina Picot, Thomas Bénet, Hubert Endtz, Graciela Russomando, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Mixed viral and bacterial infections are widely described in community-acquired pneumonia; however, the clinical implications of co-infection on the associated immunopathology remain poorly studied. In this study, microRNA, mRNA and cytokine/chemokine secretion profiling were investigated for human monocyte-derived macrophages infected in-vitro with Influenza virus A/H1N1 and/or Streptococcus pneumoniae. We observed that the in-vitro co-infection synergistically increased interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (CXCL10, IP-10) expression compared to the singly-infected cells conditions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922116/risk-assessment-of-recent-egyptian-h5n1-influenza-viruses
#2
A-S Arafa, S Yamada, M Imai, T Watanabe, S Yamayoshi, K Iwatsuki-Horimoto, M Kiso, Y Sakai-Tagawa, M Ito, T Imamura, N Nakajima, K Takahashi, D Zhao, K Oishi, A Yasuhara, C A Macken, G Zhong, A P Hanson, S Fan, J Ping, M Hatta, T J S Lopes, Y Suzuki, M El-Husseiny, A Selim, N Hagag, M Soliman, G Neumann, H Hasegawa, Y Kawaoka
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are enzootic in poultry populations in different parts of the world, and have caused numerous human infections in recent years, particularly in Egypt. However, no sustained human-to-human transmission of these viruses has yet been reported. We tested nine naturally occurring Egyptian H5N1 viruses (isolated in 2014-2015) in ferrets and found that three of them transmitted via respiratory droplets, causing a fatal infection in one of the exposed animals...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920759/immune-responses-to-influenza-virus-and-its-correlation-to-age-and-inherited-factors
#3
REVIEW
Azadeh Bahadoran, Sau H Lee, Seok M Wang, Rishya Manikam, Jayakumar Rajarajeswaran, Chandramathi S Raju, Shamala D Sekaran
Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae of enveloped viruses and are an important cause of respiratory infections worldwide. The influenza virus is able to infect a wide variety species as diverse as poultry, marine, pigs, horses, and humans. Upon infection with influenza virus the innate immunity plays a critical role in efficient and rapid control of viral infections as well as in adaptive immunity initiation. The humoral immune system produces antibodies against different influenza antigens, of which the HA-specific antibody is the most important for neutralization of the virus and thus prevention of illness...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919631/effect-of-seasonal-vaccination-on-the-selection-of-influenza-a-h3n2-epidemic-variants
#4
Yong Chong, Hideyuki Ikematsu
The effect of vaccination on the dynamics of influenza virus variants remains largely unknown in humans, unlike in poultry. In this study, we compared influenza hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences isolated from vaccinated and unvaccinated populations with the yearly vaccine strains. In total, 181 influenza A/H3N2 virus samples isolated from 82 vaccinated and 99 unvaccinated patients (2011-15, four Japanese influenza seasons) were genetically analyzed using a next-generation sequencer. Amino acid (AA) differences from corresponding vaccine strains were found in 74 of 329 HA1 sites...
December 2, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919225/comparison-of-the-first-three-waves-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-circulation-in-the-mainland-of-the-people-s-republic-of-china
#5
Nijuan Xiang, A Danielle Iuliano, Yanping Zhang, Ruiqi Ren, Xingyi Geng, Bili Ye, Wenxiao Tu, Ch Ao Li, Yong Lv, Ming Yang, Jian Zhao, Yali Wang, Fuqiang Yang, Lei Zhou, Bo Liu, Yuelong Shu, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng, Qun Li
BACKGROUND: H7N9 human cases were first detected in mainland China in March 2013. Circulation of this virus has continued each year shifting to typical winter months. We compared the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics for the first three waves of virus circulation. METHODS: The first wave was defined as reported cases with onset dates between March 31-September 30, 2013, the second wave was defined as October 1, 2013-September 30, 2014 and the third wave was defined as October 1, 2014-September 30, 2015...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918958/drivers-of-airborne-human-to-human-pathogen-transmission
#6
REVIEW
Sander Herfst, Michael Böhringer, Basel Karo, Philip Lawrence, Nicola S Lewis, Michael J Mina, Charles J Russell, John Steel, Rik L de Swart, Christian Menge
Airborne pathogens - either transmitted via aerosol or droplets - include a wide variety of highly infectious and dangerous microbes such as variola virus, measles virus, influenza A viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Emerging zoonotic pathogens, for example, MERS coronavirus, avian influenza viruses, Coxiella, and Francisella, would have pandemic potential were they to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Here, we synthesize insights from microbiological, medical, social, and economic sciences to provide known mechanisms of aerosolized transmissibility and identify knowledge gaps that limit emergency preparedness plans...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918640/label-free-virus-capture-and-release-by-a-microfluidic-device-integrated-with-porous-silicon-nanowire-forest
#7
Yiqiu Xia, Yi Tang, Xu Yu, Yuan Wan, Yizhu Chen, Huaguang Lu, Si-Yang Zheng
Viral diseases are perpetual threats to human and animal health. Detection and characterization of viral pathogens require accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnostic assays. For field and clinical samples, the sample preparation procedures limit the ultimate performance and utility of the overall virus diagnostic protocols. This study presents the development of a microfluidic device embedded with porous silicon nanowire (pSiNW) forest for label-free size-based point-of-care virus capture in a continuous curved flow design...
December 5, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918527/induction-and-suppression-of-antiviral-rna-interference-by-influenza-a-virus-in-mammalian-cells
#8
Yang Li, Megha Basavappa, Jinfeng Lu, Shuwei Dong, D Alexander Cronkite, John T Prior, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Paul Hertzog, Yanhong Han, Wan-Xiang Li, Sihem Cheloufi, Fedor V Karginov, Shou-Wei Ding, Kate L Jeffrey
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, and is one of the best-characterized human RNA viral pathogens(1). However, a physiologically relevant role for the RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor activity of the IAV non-structural protein 1 (NS1), reported over a decade ago(2), remains unknown(3). Plant and insect viruses have evolved diverse virulence proteins to suppress RNAi as their hosts produce virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct specific antiviral defence(4-7) by an RNAi mechanism dependent on the slicing activity of Argonaute proteins (AGOs)(8,9)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918208/investigational-hemagglutinin-targeted-influenza-virus-inhibitors
#9
Li-Yan Zeng, Jie Yang, Shuwen Liu
Seasonal influenza and pandemic outbreaks typically result in high mortality and morbidity associated with severe economic burdens. Vaccines and anti-influenza drugs have made great contributions to control the infection. However, antigenic drifts and shifts allow influenza viruses to easily escape immune neutralization and antiviral drug activity. Hemagglutinin (HA)is an important envelope protein for the entry of influenza viruses into host cells, thus, HA-targeted agents may be potential anti-influenza drugs...
December 5, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918148/influenza-a-virus-surveillance-in-the-invasive-american-mink-neovison-vison-from-freshwater-ecosystems-northern-spain
#10
H Gholipour, N Busquets, X Fernández-Aguilar, A Sánchez, M P Ribas, G De Pedro, P Lizarraga, O Alarcia-Alejos, C Temiño, O Cabezón
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. Susceptibility of several species within the family Mustelidae to IAVs has been reported as a result of natural or experimental infections. The objectives of this study were to assess whether free-ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV...
December 5, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917412/zbp1-dai-is-an-innate-sensor-of-influenza-virus-triggering-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-programmed-cell-death-pathways
#11
Teneema Kuriakose, Si Ming Man, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Rajendra Karki, Sannula Kesavardhana, David E Place, Geoffrey Neale, Peter Vogel, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
The interferon-inducible protein Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1, also known as DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) and DLM-1) was identified as a dsDNA sensor, which instigates innate immune responses. However, this classification has been disputed and whether ZBP1 functions as a pathogen sensor during an infection has remained unknown. Herein, we demonstrated ZBP1-mediated sensing of the influenza A virus (IAV) proteins NP and PB1, triggering cell death and inflammatory responses via the RIPK1-RIPK3-Caspase-8 axis...
August 5, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917091/vaccinating-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Jason Reich, Sharmeel Wasan, Francis A Farraye
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not vaccinated at the same rate as general medical patients. IBD places patients at increased risk for developing vaccine-preventable illnesses, and this risk is further exacerbated by immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, gastroenterologists should familiarize themselves with health maintenance measures pertaining to patients with IBD. This article highlights the vaccinations required for patients with IBD, especially those who are immunosuppressed: influenza; pneumococcal pneumonia; hepatitis A and B viruses; human papilloma virus; meningococcal disease; tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis; measles, mumps, and rubella; varicella zoster; and herpes zoster...
September 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916934/immune-related-gene-expression-patterns-in-gpv-or-h9n2-infected-goose-spleens
#13
Shun Chen, Anqi Wang, Lipei Sun, Fei Liu, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Kunfeng Sun, Xiaoyue Chen, Anchun Cheng
Goose parvovirus (GPV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, respectively, both of which can spread in goslings and cause a significant economic loss. To explore the comprehensive transcriptome of GPV- or H9N2-infected goose spleens and to understand the immune responses induced by a DNA virus (GPV) or a RNA virus (H9N2), RNA-seq was performed on the spleens of goslings at the fifth day post infection. In the present study, 2604 and 2409 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the GPV- and H9N2-infected groups, respectively...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916476/genesis-evolution-and-prevalence-of-h5n6-avian-influenza-viruses-in-china
#14
Yuhai Bi, Quanjiao Chen, Qianli Wang, Jianjun Chen, Tao Jin, Gary Wong, Chuansong Quan, Jun Liu, Jun Wu, Renfu Yin, Lihua Zhao, Mingxin Li, Zhuang Ding, Rongrong Zou, Wen Xu, Hong Li, Huijun Wang, Kegong Tian, Guanghua Fu, Yu Huang, Alexander Shestopalov, Shoujun Li, Bing Xu, Hongjie Yu, Tingrong Luo, Lin Lu, Xun Xu, Yang Luo, Yingxia Liu, Weifeng Shi, Di Liu, George Fu Gao
Constant surveillance of live poultry markets (LPMs) is currently the best way to predict and identify emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) that pose a potential threat to public health. Through surveillance of LPMs from 16 provinces and municipalities in China during 2014-2016, we identified 3,174 AIV-positive samples and isolated and sequenced 1,135 AIVs covering 31 subtypes. Our analysis shows that H5N6 has replaced H5N1 as one of the dominant AIV subtypes in southern China, especially in ducks. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N6 arose from reassortments of H5 and H6N6 viruses, with the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations being strongly lineage specific...
November 25, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916319/recombinant-viral-vectored-vaccines-for-the-control-of-avian-influenza-in-poultry
#15
David L Suarez, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
Vaccination is a commonly used tool for the control of both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) viruses. Traditionally, inactivated adjuvanted vaccines made from a low pathogenic field strain have been used for vaccination, but advances in molecular biology have allowed a number of different viral vectored vaccines, expressing the AI virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene, to be developed and licensed for use for control of AI. This review summarizes the licensed vector vaccines available for use in poultry...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914930/biological-fitness-and-natural-selection-of-amantadine-resistant-variants-of-avian-influenza-h5n1-viruses
#16
E M Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Outbreaks caused by the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) devastated the poultry industry in several countries and posed a significant pandemic threat. In addition to culling of infected poultry and vaccination, amantadine has been applied in poultry in some countries to control the spread of the virus. The prevalence of the amantadine resistance marker at position 31 (Ser31Asn) of the M2 protein increased over time. However, little is known about the biological fitness and selection of H5N1 amantadine resistant strains over their sensitive counterparts...
November 30, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914808/influenza-a-virus-ns1-protein-induced-a20-contributes-to-viral-replication-by-suppressing-interferon-induced-antiviral-response
#17
Wenjing Feng, Xiaoning Sun, Ning Shi, Maolin Zhang, Zhenhong Guan, Ming Duan
The innate immune response provides the first line of defense against viruses and other pathogens by responding to specific microbial molecules. A20 is a cytoplasmic ubiquitin-editing protein that negatively regulates the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-mediated activation of interferon regulatory factors (IRF) 3. Here, we found that influenza A virus (IAV) non-structural protein (NS) 1 dramatically induced the protein level of A20 in A549 cells whose expression levels were positively associated with the viral virulence...
December 1, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914743/sequential-immunization-with-consensus-influenza-hemagglutinins-raises-cross-reactive-neutralizing-antibodies-against-various-heterologous-ha-strains
#18
Hui Zhou, Yang Huang, Songhua Yuan, Yuanyuan Li, Shuyan Wu, Jianqing Xu, Rui Huang
Seasonal and emerging epidemics caused by influenza virus remain as a public health concern and an economic burden. The weak immunogenicity of conserved epitopes on hemagglutinin that induces broad protective immune responses is the main obstacle to the development of universal vaccines. In the present report, we designed the cross-subtypic sequential vaccination strategy and evaluated its neutralizing antibody (nAb) activity by pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The results clearly indicated that compared with traditional vaccines strategy, the cross-subtypic sequential immunization could significantly induce a broad serum cross-reactive nAb response in mice as well as against homologous strains, and provide protection from heterologous virus PR8 (H1N1) challenge...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914742/influenza-virus-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytoxicity-induced-by-vaccination-or-natural-infection
#19
Rory D de Vries, Nella J Nieuwkoop, Mark Pronk, Erwin de Bruin, Geert Leroux-Roels, Elisabeth G W Huijskens, Rob S van Binnendijk, Florian Krammer, Marion P G Koopmans, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Influenza viruses are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality during seasonal epidemics. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent infection, however due to antigenic drift of the viral surface protein hemagglutinin (HA), annual influenza virus vaccination is required. In addition to seasonal viruses, certain (avian) influenza A viruses of other subtypes, like H5N1 or H7N9, cause sporadic zoonotic infections. Therefore, the availability of game-changing novel vaccines that induce "universal" immune responses to a wide variety of influenza A virus subtypes is highly desirable...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914475/an-observational-study-of-febrile-seizures-the-importance-of-viral-infection-and-immunization
#20
Joshua R Francis, Peter Richmond, Christine Robins, Katie Lindsay, Avram Levy, Paul V Effler, Meredith Borland, Christopher C Blyth
BACKGROUND: Febrile seizures are common in young children. Annual peaks in incidence mirror increased respiratory virus activity during winter. Limited virological data are available using modern diagnostic techniques for children with febrile seizures. We aimed to determine the frequency of detection of specific viral pathogens in children with febrile seizures, to describe risk factors including recent vaccination and clinical features associated with specific etiologies. METHODS: An observational study was performed...
December 3, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
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