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Parkinson's review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456521/mathematical-modeling-of-protein-misfolding-mechanisms-in-neurological-diseases-a-historical-overview
#1
REVIEW
Felix Carbonell, Yasser Iturria-Medina, Alan C Evans
Protein misfolding refers to a process where proteins become structurally abnormal and lose their specific 3-dimensional spatial configuration. The histopathological presence of misfolded protein (MP) aggregates has been associated as the primary evidence of multiple neurological diseases, including Prion diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. However, the exact mechanisms of MP aggregation and propagation, as well as their impact in the long-term patient's clinical condition are still not well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456504/a-review-on-central-nervous-system-effects-of-gastrodin
#2
REVIEW
Yuan Liu, Jialiang Gao, Min Peng, Hongyan Meng, Hongbo Ma, Pingping Cai, Yuan Xu, Qiong Zhao, Guomin Si
Rhizoma Gastrodiae (also known as Tian ma ), the dried rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume, is a famous Chinese herb that has been traditionally used for the treatment of headache, dizziness, spasm, epilepsy, stoke, amnesia and other disorders for centuries. Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the main bioactive constituent of Rhizoma Gastrodiae . Since identified in 1978, gastrodin has been extensively investigated on its pharmacological properties. In this article, we reviewed the central nervous system (CNS) effects of gastrodin in preclinical models of CNS disorders including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, affective disorders, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, cognitive impairment as well as the underlying mechanisms involved and, where possible, clinical data that support the pharmacological activities...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456046/the-spectrum-of-off-in-parkinson-s-disease-what-have-we-learned-over-40-years
#3
REVIEW
Kelvin L Chou, Mark Stacy, Tanya Simuni, Janis Miyasaki, Wolfgang H Oertel, Kapil Sethi, Hubert H Fernandez, Fabrizio Stocchi
The terms "on" and "off" were used by Marsden and his contemporaries over 40 years ago to describe times when Parkinson's disease patients experienced good motor function ("on") and immobility ("off"). Yet there remains no published consensus definition of "off", leading clinicians and patients to develop individualized impressions of "off" determinations. In this paper, we first discuss the evolution of the terminology and understanding of "off" states since Marsden's time, which now include non-motor as well as motor symptoms...
February 2, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455271/progressive-supranuclear-palsy-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Melissa J Armstrong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a 4R tau neuropathologic entity. While historically defined by the presence of a vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and falls in the first symptomatic year, clinicopathologic studies identify alternate presenting phenotypes. This article reviews the new PSP diagnostic criteria, diagnostic approaches, and treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PSP criteria outline 14 core clinical features and 4 clinical clues that combine to diagnose one of eight PSP phenotypes with probable, possible, or suggestive certainty...
February 17, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454746/phosphodiesterase-inhibition-and-modulation-of-corticostriatal-and-hippocampal-circuits-clinical-overview-and-translational-considerations
#5
REVIEW
P R A Heckman, A Blokland, E P P Bollen, J Prickaerts
The corticostriatal and hippocampal circuits contribute to the neurobiological underpinnings of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Based on biological function, these circuits can be clustered into motor circuits, associative/cognitive circuits and limbic circuits. Together, dysfunctions in these circuits produce the wide range of symptoms observed in related neuropsychiatric disorders. Intracellular signaling in these circuits is largely mediated through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway with an additional role for the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/ protein kinase G (PKG) pathway, both of which can be regulated by phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE inhibitors)...
February 15, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454631/update-on-visual-function-and-choroidal-retinal-thickness-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
J Obis, M Satue, R Alarcia, L E Pablo, E Garcia-Martin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative process that affects 7.5 million people around the world. Since 2004, several studies have demonstrated changes in various retinal layers in PD using optical coherence tomography (OCT). However, there are some discrepancies in the results of those studies. Some of them have correlated retinal thickness with the severity or duration of the disease, demonstrating that OCT measurements may be an innocuous and easy biomarker for PD progression. Other studies have demonstrated visual dysfunctions since early phases of the disease...
February 14, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454121/complications-of-impulse-generator-exchange-surgery-for-deep-brain-stimulation-a-single-centre-retrospective-study
#7
Ann-Kristin Helmers, Isabel Lübbing, Falk Birkenfeld, Karsten Witt, Michael Synowitz, Hubertus Maximilian Mehdorn, Daniela Falk
OBJECTIVE: Non-rechargeable deep brain stimulation (DBS) impulse generators (IG) with a low or empty battery status require surgical IG exchange several years after initial implantation. Complication rates in patients undergoing DBS surgery range from 7.6% to 25.3%. The aim of this study was to investigate the complication rates after IG exchange surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed complications following IG exchange surgery from 2008 to 2015 in a single-centre university hospital setting...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453901/shedding-light-on-aberrant-interactions-a-review-of-modern-tools-for-studying-protein-aggregates
#8
REVIEW
Franziska Kundel, Laura Tosatto, Daniel R Whiten, David C Wirthensohn, Mathew H Horrocks, David Klenerman
The link between protein aggregation and neurodegenerative disease is well established. However, given the heterogeneity of species formed during the aggregation process, it is difficult to delineate details of the molecular events involved in generating pathological aggregates from those producing soluble monomers. As aberrant aggregates are possible pharmacological targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, the need to observe and characterise soluble oligomers has pushed traditional biophysical techniques to their limits, leading to the development of a plethora of new tools capable of detecting soluble oligomers with high precision and specificity...
February 17, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452613/the-role-of-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpases-pmcas-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Parvana Hajieva, Marius W Baeken, Bernd Moosmann
Selective degeneration of differentiated neurons in the brain is the unifying feature of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). A broad spectrum of evidence indicates that initially subtle, but temporally early calcium dysregulation may be central to the selective neuronal vulnerability observed in these slowly progressing, chronic disorders. Moreover, it has long been evident that excitotoxicity and its major toxic effector mechanism, neuronal calcium overload, play a decisive role in the propagation of secondary neuronal death after acute brain injury from trauma or ischemia...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452610/the-plasma-membrane-calcium-pumps-the-old-and-the-new
#10
REVIEW
Asma Zaidi, Mercy Adewale, Lauren McLean, Paul Ramlow
The plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA) pumps play a critical role in the maintenance of calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis, crucial for optimal neuronal function and cell survival. Loss of Ca 2+ homeostasis is a key precursor in neuronal dysfunction associated with brain aging and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, we review evidence showing age-related changes in the PMCAs in synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) and lipid raft microdomains isolated from rat brain. Both PMCA activity and protein levels decline progressively with increasing age...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450650/access-to-the-cns-biomarker-strategies-for-dopaminergic-treatments
#11
REVIEW
Willem Johan van den Brink, Semra Palic, Isabelle Köhler, Elizabeth Cunera Maria de Lange
Despite substantial research carried out over the last decades, it remains difficult to understand the wide range of pharmacological effects of dopaminergic agents. The dopaminergic system is involved in several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. This complex system features multiple pathways implicated in emotion and cognition, psychomotor functions and endocrine control through activation of G protein-coupled dopamine receptors. This review focuses on the system-wide effects of dopaminergic agents on the multiple biochemical and endocrine pathways, in particular the biomarkers (i...
February 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450391/citicoline-a-neuroprotector-with-proven-effects-on-glaucomatous-disease
#12
REVIEW
Chitu Iulia, Tudosescu Ruxandra, Leasu-Branet Costin, Voinea Liliana-Mary
Citicoline is the generic name of cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline), an endogenous compound that is able to increase the levels of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system by interacting with the synthesis of cellular membranes phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine. Exogenous Citicoline, administered by ingestion or injection, is hydrolyzed and dephosphorylated in order to form cytidine and choline, which resynthesize CDP-choline inside brain cells. It has proven neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer disease, stroke, and Parkinson's disease, as well as in glaucoma and amblyopia...
July 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449121/sleep-disorders-and-parkinson-disease-lessons-from-genetics
#13
REVIEW
Ziv Gan-Or, Roy N Alcalay, Guy A Rouleau, Ronald B Postuma
Parkinson disease is a common, age-related neurodegenerative disorder, projected to afflict millions of individuals in the near future. Understanding its etiology and identifying clinical, genetic or biological markers for Parkinson disease onset and progression is therefore of major importance. Various sleep-related disorders are the most common group of non-motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson disease, but they can also occur during its prodromal phase. However, with the exception of REM sleep behavior disorder, it is unclear whether they are part of the early pathological process of Parkinson disease, or if they develop as Parkinson disease advances because of treatments and neurodegeneration progression...
January 31, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448953/clinical-prevalence-of-lewy-body-dementia
#14
Joseph P M Kane, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Allison Bentley, Sally A H Barker, John-Paul Taylor, Alan J Thomas, Louise M Allan, Richard J McNally, Peter W James, Ian G McKeith, David J Burn, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and dementia in Parkinson's disease (PDD) in routine clinical practice is unclear. Prevalence rates observed in clinical and population-based cohorts and neuropathological studies vary greatly. Small sample sizes and methodological factors in these studies limit generalisability to clinical practice. METHODS: We investigated prevalence in a case series across nine secondary care services over an 18-month period, to determine how commonly DLB and PDD cases are diagnosed and reviewed within two regions of the UK...
February 15, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446788/the-potential-role-of-herbal-products-in-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
M S Amro, S L Teoh, A G Norzana, D Srijit
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder of the nervous system in which there is a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. There is a disturbance in the movement in PD and these include resting tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia or akinesia, disturbance, posture and freezing (motor block). The substantia nigra and other parts of the brain are commonly affected. The disorder could be related to oxidative stress and there is an important role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A number of herbal products contain active components which are known to possess antioxidant action...
January 2018: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444783/mortality-and-quality-of-death-certification-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-matched-controls-in-north-wales-uk-at-18-years-a-community-based-cohort-study
#16
Peter Hobson, Jolyon Meara
OBJECTIVE: This investigation reports the cause and the quality of death certification in a community cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls at 18 years. SETTING: Denbighshire North Wales, UK. PARTICIPANTS: The community-based cohorts consisted of 166 patients with PD and 102 matched controls. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: All-cause mortality was ascertained at 18 years by review of hospitals' primary care records and examination of death certificates obtained from the UK General Register Office...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443454/voice-quality-outcomes-of-idiopathic-parkinson-disease-medical-treatment-a-systematic-review
#17
Jerome R Lechien, Serge Blecic, Kathy Huet, Véronique Delvaux, Myriam Piccaluga, Virginie Roland, Bernard Harmegnies, Sven Saussez
INTRODUCTION: To investigate voice quality (VQ) impairments in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and to explore the impact of medical treatments and L-Dopa challenge testing on voice. METHODS: Relevant studies published between January 1980 and June 2017 describing VQ evaluations in IPD were retrieved using PubMed, Scopus, Biological Abstracts, BioMed Central, and Cochrane databases. Issues of clinical relevance, including IPD treatment efficiency and voice quality outcomes, were evaluated for each study...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442380/marketing-medicines-charting-the-rise-of-modern-therapeutics-through-a-systematic-review-of-adverts-in-uk-medical-journals-1950-1980
#18
REVIEW
A Richard Green, Peter M Haddad, Jeffrey K Aronson
AIMS: To examine how pharmaceutical products that were first marketed between 1950 and 1980 were promoted to physicians through advertisements and briefly review advertising regulations and accuracy of the advertisements in the light of modern knowledge. METHODS: We systematically reviewed advertisements promoting drugs for specific therapeutic areas, namely central nervous system disorders (anxiety and sleep disorders, depression, psychoses, and Parkinson's disease), respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, and gastrointestinal disorders...
February 14, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436738/ataxia-telangiectasia-a-review-of-movement-disorders-clinical-features-and-genotype-correlations
#19
REVIEW
Ariel Levy, Anthony E Lang
Ataxia-telangiectasia is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that was initially thought to present exclusively in childhood. With the discovery of the ATM gene, the phenotypic spectrum of the condition has expanded. This review elaborates the expanded phenomenology, including oculomotor apraxia and immunodeficiency, and estimates the presence of each movement disorder feature from previously reported literature. Initial manifestations of Ataxia-telangiectasia include cerebellar symptoms (67%), dystonia (18%), choreoathetosis (10%), and tremor (4%), with parkinsonism and myoclonus not reported as initial features...
February 13, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434537/how-can-a-ketogenic-diet-improve-motor-function
#20
REVIEW
Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio, Rudolf Hergesheimer, Philippe Corcia, Christian R Andres, Hélène Blasco
A ketogenic diet (KD) is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80-90%), low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs) production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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