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Parkinson's review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346104/bioengineered-3d-glial-cell-culture-systems-and-applications-for-neurodegeneration-and-neuroinflammation
#1
P Marc D Watson, Edel Kavanagh, Gary Allenby, Matthew Vassey
Neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are key features in a range of chronic central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as acute conditions like stroke and traumatic brain injury, for which there remains significant unmet clinical need. It is now well recognized that current cell culture methodologies are limited in their ability to recapitulate the cellular environment that is present in vivo, and there is a growing body of evidence to show that three-dimensional (3D) culture systems represent a more physiologically accurate model than traditional two-dimensional (2D) cultures...
February 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344656/levodopa-carbidopa-enteral-suspension-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-evidence-and-experience
#2
REVIEW
Johan Virhammar, Dag Nyholm
The duration of action of oral levodopa becomes shorter as Parkinson's disease (PD) progresses. Patients with advanced PD may develop potentially disabling motor fluctuations and abnormal involuntary movement (dyskinesia), which cannot be managed with optimized oral or transdermal PD medications. The progressively worsening symptoms can have a substantial impact on the patient quality of life (QoL). Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is delivered continuously via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with a jejunal extension (PEG-J)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343366/motor-learning-in-animal-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-motor-cortex
#3
REVIEW
Tonghui Xu, Shaofang Wang, Rupa R Lalchandani, Jun B Ding
In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine depletion causes major changes in the brain, resulting in the typical cardinal motor features of the disease. PD neuropathology has been restricted to postmortem examinations, which are limited to only a single time of PD progression. Models of PD in which dopamine tone in the brain is chemically or physically disrupted are valuable tools in understanding the mechanisms of the disease. The basal ganglia have been well studied in the context of PD, and circuit changes in response to dopamine loss have been linked to the motor dysfunctions in PD...
March 25, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343166/development-and-validation-of-a-yoga-module-for-parkinson-disease
#4
Noopur Kakde, Kashinath G Metri, Shivarama Varambally, Raghuram Nagaratna, H R Nagendra
Background Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, affects motor and nonmotor functions, leading to severe debility and poor quality of life. Studies have reported the beneficial role of yoga in alleviating the symptoms of PD; however, a validated yoga module for PD is unavailable. This study developed and validated an integrated yoga module(IYM) for PD. Methods The IYM was prepared after a thorough review of classical yoga texts and previous findings. Twenty experienced yoga experts, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were selected validating the content of the IYM...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343095/ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-and-orthogonal-gas-phase-techniques-to-study-amyloid-formation-and-inhibition
#5
REVIEW
Waldemar Hoffmann, Gert von Helden, Kevin Pagel
Amyloidogenic peptide oligomers are responsible for a variety of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Due to their dynamic, polydisperse, and polymorphic nature, these oligomers are very challenging to characterize using traditional condensed-phase methods. In the last decade, ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and related gas-phase techniques have emerged as a powerful alternative to disentangle the structure and assembly characteristics of amyloid forming systems. This review highlights recent advances in which IM-MS was used to characterize amyloid oligomers and their underlying assembly pathway...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342757/role-of-enzymatic-free-radical-scavengers-in-management-of-oxidative-stress-and-autoimmune-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Shikha Srivastava, Deependra Singh, Satish Patel, Manju R Singh
Autoimmune disorders are distinct with over production and accumulation of free radicals due to its undisclosed genesis. The cause of numerous disorders as cancer, arthritis, psoriasis, diabetes, alzheimer's, cardiovascular disease, Parkinson's, respiratory distress syndrome, colitis, crohn's, pulmonary fibrosis, obesity and ageing have been associated with immune dysfunction and oxidative stress. In an oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species generally provoke the series of oxidation at cellular level. The buildup of free radicals in turn triggers various inflammatory cells causing release of various inflammatory interleukins, cytokines, chemokines, and tumor necrosis factors which mediate signal transduction and transcription pathways as nuclear factor- kappa B (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341600/metabolic-disorder-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-bioenergetics-redox-homeostasis-and-central-carbon-metabolism
#7
Annadurai Anandhan, Maria S Jacome, Shulei Lei, Pablo Hernandez-Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Robert Powers, Rodrigo Franco
The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of protein inclusions (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is triggered by genetic alterations, environmental/occupational exposures and aging. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking these PD risk factors to neuronal dysfunction are still unclear. Alterations in redox homeostasis and bioenergetics (energy failure) are thought to be central components of neurodegeneration that contribute to the impairment of important homeostatic process in dopaminergic cells such as protein quality control mechanisms, neurotransmitter release/metabolism, axonal transport of vesicles and cell survival...
March 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341224/palliative-care-and-its-emerging-role-in-multiple-system-atrophy-and-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#8
REVIEW
Louise Wiblin, Mark Lee, David Burn
Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) are sporadic, neurodegenerative conditions and belong to a group known as the atypical Parkinsonian disorders. The atypical Parkinsonian (AP) disorders have some features of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) but often with poor or transient levodopa response [1], distinct symptom profiles, more rapid progression and reduced survival. They have significant symptom burden [2]. It is beginning to be appreciated that AP disorders not only carry a heavy symptom burden equivalent to that of patients with advanced cancer but that AP patients experience significant morbidity for an extended period of time...
January 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341222/the-science-and-ethics-of-cell-based-therapies-for-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
C R Towns
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is an age-related, disabling neurodegenerative disorder. Although sufferers usually respond to dopamine agonists for extended periods, the disease remains progressive and adverse drug effects can compromise effective long term treatment. Cell-based therapies have been the subject of much hype and optimism with regard to PD. Proof of principle was provided in the 1980s with fetal tissue transplantation trials demonstrating successful graft survival. Embryonic stem cells and reprogrammed or transdifferentiated somatic cells may provide alternative sources of tissue with the potential to overcome the material shortages and technical difficulties that have hindered fetal neural transplants...
January 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341166/-identification-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-in-administrative-databases-in-france-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
A Gallini, F Moisan, G Maura, L Carcaillon-Bentata, E Leray, J Haesebaert, A Bruandet, E Moutengou, L Luciano, A Weill, B Marin, V Gardette
BACKGROUND: Given the health, social and economic burden of neurodegenerative diseases (ND), the development of epidemiologic studies is required. Administrative databases, such as the French national health insurance database (SNIIRAM) could represent an opportunity for researchers. ND could be presumed from drug reimbursement data, hospital stays or registration of a chronic condition. The aim of this study was to describe, in French administrative databases, algorithms used to identify Alzheimer's disease and associated disorders (ADAD), Parkinson's disease and associated disorders (PDAD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
March 21, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339400/a-systematic-review-of-the-huntington-disease-like-2-phenotype
#11
David G Anderson, Ruth H Walker, Myles Connor, Jonathan Carr, Russell L Margolis, Amanda Krause
BACKGROUND: Huntington Disease-like 2 (HDL2) is a neurodegenerative disorder similar to Huntington Disease (HD) in its clinical phenotype, genetic characteristics, neuropathology and longitudinal progression. Proposed specific differences include an exclusive African ancestry, lack of eye movement abnormalities, increased Parkinsonism, and acanthocytes in HDL2. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the similarities and differences between HD and HDL2 by establishing the clinical phenotype of HDL2 with the published cases...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339068/iron-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Giovanni Mostile, Calogero Edoardo Cicero, Loretta Giuliano, Mario Zappia, Alessandra Nicoletti
A possible association between iron serum levels and Parkinson's disease (PD) using a meta‑analytic approach was evaluated. A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify published observational, case‑control studies dealing with the association between iron blood levels and PD. In both groups, iron blood levels were extracted as means and standard deviations to calculate the standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity of selected studies was investigated...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337125/neuronal-mitophagy-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Marta Martinez-Vicente
Neuronal homeostasis depends on the proper functioning of different quality control systems. All intracellular components are subjected to continuous turnover through the coordinated synthesis, degradation and recycling of their constituent elements. Autophagy is the catabolic mechanism by which intracellular cytosolic components, including proteins, organelles, aggregates and any other intracellular materials, are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Among the different types of selective autophagy described to date, the process of mitophagy involves the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335015/the-synaptic-function-of-parkin
#14
Jenny Sassone, GiuliaMaia Serratto, Flavia Valtorta, Vincenzo Silani, Maria Passafaro, Andrea Ciammola
Loss of function mutations in the gene PARK2, which encodes the protein parkin, cause autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons localized in the substantia nigra pars compacta. No therapy is effective in slowing disease progression mostly because the pathogenesis of the disease is yet to be understood. From accruing evidence suggesting that the protein parkin directly regulates synapses it can be hypothesized that PARK2 gene mutations lead to early synaptic damage that results in dopaminergic neuron loss over time...
February 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333077/an-overview-of-the-protective-effects-of-chitosan-and-acetylated-chitosan-oligosaccharides-against-neuronal-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Cui Hao, Wei Wang, Shuyao Wang, Lijuan Zhang, Yunliang Guo
Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth and is mainly comprised of a marine invertebrate, consisting of repeating β-1,4 linked N-acetylated glucosamine units, whereas its N-deacetylated product, chitosan, has broad medical applications. Interestingly, chitosan oligosaccharides have therapeutic effects on different types of neuronal disorders, including, but not limited to, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and nerve crush injury. A common link among neuronal disorders is observed at a sub-cellular level, such as atypical protein assemblies and induced neuronal death...
March 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331352/skin-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-potential-biomarkers-and-risk-factors
#16
REVIEW
Astrid-Helene Ravn, Jacob P Thyssen, Alexander Egeberg
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by a symptom triad comprising resting tremor, rigidity, and akinesia. In addition, non-motor symptoms of PD are well recognized and often precede the overt motor manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations as markers of PD have long been discussed, and cumulative evidence shows an increased prevalence of certain dermatological disorders in PD. Seborrheic dermatitis is considered to occur as a premotor feature of PD referable to dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331324/update-on-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis-role-of-pimavanserin
#17
REVIEW
Brianna L Combs, Arthur G Cox
Parkinson's disease (PD) has a prevalence of nearly 1 million people in the USA, with increasing incidence in the elderly population. Generally, the age of presentation is between 55 and 65 years, with the likelihood of diagnosis increasing as patients reach the age of 80 years or above. Some of the common treatments for PD increase dopamine levels in the brain. Dopaminergic therapy helps to improve motor and non-motor symptoms, but it is not without risks. Dopaminergic therapy can cause confusion, delirium, and psychotic-like behavior...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331322/the-role-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-overview-and-update-on-new-developments
#18
REVIEW
John Y Fang, Christopher Tolleson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of neuronal dopamine production in the brain. Oral therapies primarily augment the dopaminergic pathway. As the disease progresses, more continuous delivery of therapy is commonly needed. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an effective therapy option for several different neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including PD. It currently has US Food and Drug Administration approval for PD and essential tremor, as well as a humanitarian device exception for dystonia and obsessive-compulsive disorder...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328536/neurotransmission-systems-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Ameneh Zare-Shahabadi, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Parkinson's disease (PD) is histologically characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein particles, known as Lewy bodies. The second most common neurodegenerative disorder, PD is widely known because of the typical motor manifestations of active tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, while several prodromal non-motor symptoms including REM sleep behavior disorders, depression, autonomic disturbances, and cognitive decline are being more extensively recognized. Motor symptoms most commonly arise from synucleinopathy of nigrostriatal pathway...
March 22, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327916/multilayer-modeling-and-analysis-of-human-brain-networks
#20
Manlio De Domenico
Understanding how the human brain is structured, and how its architecture is related to the function, is of paramount importance for a variety of applications, including, but not limited to, new ways to prevent, deal with and cure brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, and psychiatric disorders, such as Schizophrenia. The recent advances in structural and functional neuroimaging, together with the increasing attitude to interdisciplinary approaches involving computer science, mathematics and physics, are fostering interesting results from computational neuroscience, that are quite often based on the analysis of complex network representation of human brain...
February 6, 2017: GigaScience
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