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Parkinson's review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106066/the-psychosis-spectrum-in-parkinson-disease
#1
REVIEW
Dominic H Ffytche, Byron Creese, Marios Politis, K Ray Chaudhuri, Daniel Weintraub, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland
In 2007, the clinical and research profile of illusions, hallucinations, delusions and related symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) was raised with the publication of a consensus definition of PD psychosis. Symptoms that were previously deemed benign and clinically insignificant were incorporated into a continuum of severity, leading to the rapid expansion of literature focusing on clinical aspects, mechanisms and treatment. Here, we review this literature and the evolving view of PD psychosis. Key topics include the prospective risk of dementia in individuals with PD psychosis, and the causal and modifying effects of PD medication...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105331/opioid-system-in-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#2
REVIEW
Jing Pan, Huaibin Cai
L-3, 4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a major clinical complication in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). This debilitating side effect likely reflects aberrant compensatory responses for a combination of dopaminergic neuron denervation and repeated L-DOPA administration. Abnormal endogenous opioid signal transduction pathways in basal ganglia have been well documented in LID. Opioid receptors have been targeted to alleviate the dyskinesia. However, the exact role of this altered opioid activity is remains under active investigation...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104909/selective-neuronal-vulnerability-in-parkinson-disease
#3
D James Surmeier, José A Obeso, Glenda M Halliday
Intracellular α-synuclein (α-syn)-rich protein aggregates called Lewy pathology (LP) and neuronal death are commonly found in the brains of patients with clinical Parkinson disease (cPD). It is widely believed that LP appears early in the disease and spreads in synaptically coupled brain networks, driving neuronal dysfunction and death. However, post-mortem analysis of human brains and connectome-mapping studies show that the pattern of LP in cPD is not consistent with this simple model, arguing that, if LP propagates in cPD, it must be gated by cell- or region-autonomous mechanisms...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104232/dopamine-agonist-withdrawal-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review
#4
REVIEW
Xin Xin Yu, Hubert H Fernandez
Dopamine agonists are effective and widely used treatments for Parkinson disease (PD). However, patients on dopamine agonists may experience significant side effects which necessitate dose tapering or discontinuation. Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (DAWS) is a complication that affects up to 19% of PD patients who undergo a dopamine agonist taper. It was initially described in 2010 as a severe stereotypical cluster of psychiatric and physical symptoms occurring with dopamine agonist withdrawal. Identified risk factors for DAWS include impulse control behavior disorders (ICD) and higher dopamine agonist dosage...
January 2, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#5
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102483/integrating-patient-concerns-into-parkinson-s-disease-management
#6
REVIEW
Shen-Yang Lim, Ai Huey Tan, Susan H Fox, Andrew H Evans, Soon Chai Low
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex motor and non-motor disorder and management is often challenging. In this review, we explore emerging approaches to improve the care of patients, drawing from the literature regarding patient-centred care, patient and caregiver perspectives and priorities, gaps in knowledge among patients and caregivers and the need for accurate information, individual variability in disease manifestations, prognostication of disease course, new developments in health technologies and personalized medicine, specialty care, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, financial burden, lifestyle and work-related issues, support groups and palliative care...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101650/speech-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-early-diagnostics-and-effects-of-medication-and-brain-stimulation
#7
REVIEW
L Brabenec, J Mekyska, Z Galaz, Irena Rektorova
Hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) occurs in 90% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It manifests specifically in the areas of articulation, phonation, prosody, speech fluency, and faciokinesis. We aimed to systematically review papers on HD in PD with a special focus on (1) early PD diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression using acoustic voice and speech analysis, and (2) functional imaging studies exploring neural correlates of HD in PD, and (3) clinical studies using acoustic analysis to evaluate effects of dopaminergic medication and brain stimulation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101620/-home-based-telerehabilitation-after-stroke
#8
M Keidel, F Vauth, J Richter, B Hoffmann, H Soda, B Griewing, M Scibor
The use of modern information and telecommunication technologies enables telerehabilitation of neurological deficits in the domestic environment. The current state of studies on rehabilitative teletherapy for improvement of motor function and mobility deficits due to stroke is reviewed. Two neurolinguistic proof of concept studies investigating the efficacy of online interactive telespeech therapy are reported, which compared virtual screen to screen interactive telerehabilitation of aphasia after stroke and dysarthrophonia in Parkinson's disease to conventional face to face rehabilitation...
January 18, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100850/molecular-characteristic-and-physiological-role-of-dopa-decarboxylase
#9
Joanna Guenter, Robert Lenartowski
The enzyme DOPA decarboxylase (aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, DDC) plays an important role in the dopaminergic system and participates in the uptake and decarboxylation of amine precursors in the peripheral tissues. Apart from catecholamines, DDC catalyses the biosynthesis of serotonin and trace amines. It has been shown that the DDC amino acid sequence is highly evolutionarily conserved across many species. The activity of holoenzyme is regulated by stimulation/blockade of membrane receptors, phosphorylation of serine residues, and DDC interaction with regulatory proteins...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099340/clinical-effectiveness-of-acupuncture-on-parkinson-disease-a-prisma-compliant-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Sook-Hyun Lee, Sabina Lim
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second-most-common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease. The long-term use of levodopa leads to a loss of efficacy and to complications. Therefore, many patients with PD have turned to complementary therapies to help relieve their symptoms. Acupuncture is most commonly used as a complementary therapy in patients with PD. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acupuncture for patients with PD...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096242/developing-therapeutics-for-prp-prion-diseases
#11
Kurt Giles, Steven H Olson, Stanley B Prusiner
The prototypical PrP prion diseases are invariably fatal, and the search for agents to treat them spans more than 30 years, with limited success. However, in the last few years, the application of high-throughput screening, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacokinetic optimization has led to important advances. The PrP prion inoculation paradigm provides a robust assay for testing therapeutic efficacy, and a dozen compounds have been reported that lead to meaningful extension in survival of prion-infected mice...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095923/nadph-oxidase-in-brain-injury-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Merry W Ma, Jing Wang, Quanguang Zhang, Ruimin Wang, Krishnan M Dhandapani, Ratna K Vadlamudi, Darrell W Brann
Oxidative stress is a common denominator in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis, as well as in ischemic and traumatic brain injury. The brain is highly vulnerable to oxidative damage due to its high metabolic demand. However, therapies attempting to scavenge free radicals have shown little success. By shifting the focus to inhibit the generation of damaging free radicals, recent studies have identified NADPH oxidase as a major contributor to disease pathology...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093982/pde7-selective-and-dual-inhibitors-advances-in-chemical-and-biological-research
#13
Agnieszka Jankowska, Artur Świerczek, Grażyna Chłoń-Rzepa, Maciej Pawłowski, Elżbieta Wyska
Phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) is an intracellular enzyme that specifically hydrolyses the second messenger, cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), into inactive non-cyclic nucleotide, 5'-AMP. To date, many structurally diverse compounds with PDE7 inhibitory properties have been described, including selective PDE7 inhibitors, dual PDE4/PDE7, PDE7/PDE8, and PDE7/GSK-3 inhibitors, and non-selective PDE inhibitors with high affinity for PDE7. Inhibitors of PDE7 provided beneficial effects in animal models of inflammatory and neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and many others...
16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092807/application-of-the-dreadd-technique-in-biomedical-brain-research
#14
REVIEW
Grzegorz Dobrzanski, Małgorzata Kossut
The DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) technique is a new chemogenetic approach allowing for selective and remote control of neural activity with a high degree of spatial resolution. Since its discovery in 2007 the DREADD technique was successfully employed into basic research, and together with the optogenetic method provided so far the best tool to influence the activity of the brain circuits and cell populations. The first aim of this review was to concisely describe the technique with regard to such issues like the history of its development, biochemistry as well as modes of the designer receptors delivery and expression...
October 29, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090684/predict-pd-an-online-approach-to-prospectively-identify-risk-indicators-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Alastair J Noyce, Lea R'Bibo, Luisa Peress, Jonathan P Bestwick, Kerala L Adams-Carr, Niccolo E Mencacci, Christopher H Hawkes, Joseph M Masters, Nicholas Wood, John Hardy, Gavin Giovannoni, Andrew J Lees, Anette Schrag
BACKGROUND: A number of early features can precede the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To test an online, evidence-based algorithm to identify risk indicators of PD in the UK population. METHODS: Participants aged 60 to 80 years without PD completed an online survey and keyboard-tapping task annually over 3 years, and underwent smell tests and genotyping for glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations...
January 16, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090678/the-epileptic-and-nonepileptic-spectrum-of-paroxysmal-dyskinesias-channelopathies-synaptopathies-and-transportopathies
#16
REVIEW
Roberto Erro, Kailash P Bhatia, Alberto J Espay, Pasquale Striano
Historically, the syndrome of primary paroxysmal dyskinesias was considered a group of disorders as a result of ion channel dysfunction. This proposition was primarily based on the discovery of mutations in ion channels, which caused other episodic neurological disorders such as epilepsy and migraine and also supported by the frequent association between paroxysmal dyskinesias and epilepsy. However, the discovery of the genes responsible for the 3 classic forms of paroxysmal dyskinesias disproved this ion channel theory...
January 16, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089265/gender-differences-in-parkinson-s-disease-depression
#17
Andrew J Perrin, Ekaterina Nosova, Kim Co, Adam Book, Oscar Iu, Vanessa Silva, Christina Thompson, Martin J McKeown, A Jon Stoessl, Matthew J Farrer, Silke Appel-Cresswell
INTRODUCTION: 30-40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience depression during their illness; identifying subtypes of depression and groups at risk remains a challenge in routine clinical care. One avenue that remains underexplored is the gender-specific profiles manifested in PD depression. We sought to explore this in a large sample of clinical PD patients. METHODS: 307 patient records at a tertiary referral centre were reviewed for clinical and demographic factors...
December 29, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088536/targeting-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-neurological-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Sita Sharan Patel, Sunil Tomar, Diksha Sharma, Neeraj Mahindroo, Malairaman Udayabanu
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling influences neurogenesis and neural patterning during the development of central nervous system. Dysregulation of Shh signaling in brain leads to neurological disorders like autism spectrum disorder, depression, dementia, stroke, Parkinson's diseases, Huntington's disease, locomotor deficit, epilepsy, demyelinating disease, neuropathies as well as brain tumors. The synthesis, processing and transport of Shh ligand as well as the localization of its receptors and signal transduction in the central nervous system has been carefully reviewed...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088377/intracapsular-hip-fractures-in-the-elderly-do-we-know-what-is-important
#19
Diana Crego-Vita, Coral Sanchez-Perez, Jose Adolfo Orellana Gomez-Rico, Celia Clemente de Arriba
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures in the elderly are a common reason for admission to the department of orthopaedic surgery, this condition asks an important part of health resources and is associated with high levels of co-morbidity and mortality. Many improvements have been introduced in the treatment of these patients, preoperative regional analgesia, intensive physical therapy, interdisciplinary care program; but still remain unresolved gaps. The aim of this study is to document the natural history of early versus delayed surgical intervention in elderly patients with hip fractures and to establish the prognostic factors of mortality and walking ability after discharge...
January 9, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087443/an-update-on-the-physiological-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-gpcr-oligomers
#20
REVIEW
Batoul Farran
The traditional view on GPCRs held that they function as single monomeric units composed of identical subunits. This notion was overturned by the discovery that GPCRs can form homo- and hetero-oligomers, some of which are obligatory, and can further assemble into receptor mosaics consisting of three or more protomers. Oligomerisation exerts significant impacts on receptor function and physiology, offering a platform for the diversification of receptor signalling, pharmacology, regulation, crosstalk, internalization and trafficking...
January 11, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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