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neurologic examination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550954/first-trimester-influenza-vaccination-and-risks-for-major-structural-birth-defects-in-offspring
#1
Elyse Olshen Kharbanda, Gabriela Vazquez-Benitez, Paul A Romitti, Allison L Naleway, T Craig Cheetham, Heather S Lipkind, Nicola P Klein, Grace Lee, Michael L Jackson, Simon J Hambidge, Natalie McCarthy, Frank DeStefano, James D Nordin
OBJECTIVE: To examine risks for major structural birth defects in infants after first trimester inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) exposures. STUDY DESIGN: In this observational study, we used electronic health data from 7 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites to examine risks for selected major structural defects in infants after maternal IIV exposure. Vaccine exposures for women with continuous insurance enrollment through pregnancy who delivered singleton live births between 2004 and 2013 were identified from standardized files...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549578/pediatric-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-caused-by-left-coronary-artery-agenesis-with-primary-shockable-rhythm-a-brief-report
#2
Moritz Weigeldt, Sabine Lahmann, Konstantin Krieger, Sebastian Buttenberg, Volker Stephan, Brigitte Stiller, Dirk Stengel
BACKGROUND: To illustrate a rare cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children, its differential diagnoses, emergency and subsequent treatment at various steps in the rescue chain, and potential outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year-old boy with unknown agenesis of the left coronary ostium sustained out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Bystander cardio-pulmonary resuscitation was initiated and defibrillation was performed via an automated external defibrillator (AED) shortly after paramedics arrived at the scene, restoring sinus rhythm and spontaneous circulation...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549560/sensorimotor-adaptation-of-whole-body-postural-control
#3
Douglas M Shiller, Louis-Nicolas Veilleux, Mikaël Marois, Laurent Ballaz, Martin Lemay
The aim of the present study was to examine the modification of postural symmetry during quiet standing using a sensorimotor adaptation paradigm. A group of neurologically typical adult participants performed a visually-guided mediolateral (left-right) weight shifting task requiring precise adjustments in body orientation. During one phase of the task, the visual feedback of center of pressure (COP) was systematically biased toward the left or the right, requiring an adjustment in posture to compensate. COP during quiet standing without visual feedback was examined prior to and immediately following the sensorimotor adaptation procedure, in order to observe whether compensatory adjustments in postural control resulting from the visual-feedback manipulation would transfer to the control of whole-body COP during quiet standing...
May 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548612/multiple-sclerosis-serum-anti-cns-autoantibodies
#4
John W Prineas, John D E Parratt
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether there are autoantibodies detectable by indirect immunofluorescence in the serum of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are anti-central nervous system (CNS) autoantibodies detectable by indirect immunofluorescence in the serum of MS patients. METHODS: Sera and in some cases cerebrospinal fluid from 106 patients with multiple sclerosis, 156 patients with other neurological diseases, and 70 healthy control subjects were examined by indirect immunofluorescence using cryostat sections of rat cerebrum fixed by perfusion with paraformaldehyde...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548250/evolution-of-deep-gray-matter-volume-across-the-human-lifespan
#5
Karl Narvacan, Sarah Treit, Richard Camicioli, Wayne Martin, Christian Beaulieu
Magnetic resonance imaging of subcortical gray matter structures, which mediate behavior, cognition and the pathophysiology of several diseases, is crucial for establishing typical maturation patterns across the human lifespan. This single site study examines T1-weighted MPRAGE images of 3 healthy cohorts: (i) a cross-sectional cohort of 406 subjects aged 5-83 years; (ii) a longitudinal neurodevelopment cohort of 84 subjects scanned twice approximately 4 years apart, aged 5-27 years at first scan; and (iii) a longitudinal aging cohort of 55 subjects scanned twice approximately 3 years apart, aged 46-83 years at first scan...
May 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548107/current-controversies-in-brain-death-determination
#6
REVIEW
Ariane Lewis, David Greer
Although the concept of brain death is accepted by the majority of physicians, lawyers, ethicists and society at large, controversies about determination of death by neurological criteria persist, and often reach the public eye. In this article, we examine four prominent controversial brain death cases from 2013-2016. We review current controversies, including protocol variability, recognition of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria for brain death as an accepted medical standard, and management of objections to discontinuation of organ support after determination of brain death...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547853/the-efficacy-of-high-density-spinal-cord-stimulation-among-trial-implant-and-conversion-patients-a-retrospective-case-series
#7
David A Provenzano, Jared Rebman, Cody Kuhel, Hilary Trenz, Jason Kilgore
OBJECTIVES: Methods of energy delivery for traditional spinal cord stimulation (SCS) systems consist of adjusting programming parameters to affect the total charge delivered per unit time. One high electrical charge delivery method being considered is subthreshold high density (HD) programming. To date, there is limited clinical evidence for the efficacy and safety of paresthesia-free HD programming. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of HD programming. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on HD-programmed SCS patients with a minimum of one year follow-up...
May 25, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547320/real-time-noninvasive-monitoring-of-intracranial-fluid-shifts-during-dialysis-using-volumetric-integral-phase-shift-spectroscopy-vips-a-proof-of-concept-study
#8
Chethan P Venkatasubba Rao, Eric M Bershad, Eusebia Calvillo, Nelson Maldonado, Rahul Damani, Sreedhar Mandayam, Jose I Suarez
BACKGROUND: Cerebral edema, which is associated with increased intracranial fluid, is often a complication of many acute neurological conditions. There is currently no accepted method for real-time monitoring of intracranial fluid volume at the bedside. We evaluated a novel noninvasive technique called "Volumetric Integral Phase-shift Spectroscopy (VIPS)" for detecting intracranial fluid shifts during hemodialysis. METHODS: Subjects receiving scheduled hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease and without a history of major neurological conditions were enrolled...
May 25, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547318/a-systematic-review-of-alpha-2-agonists-for-sedation-in-mechanically-ventilated-neurocritical-care-patients
#9
Alexandre Tran, Henrietta Blinder, Brian Hutton, Shane W English
The use of sedative medications is commonplace in intensive care units (ICUs) and an invaluable clinical tool for the intensive care physician. Sedation for critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients provides an opportunity to reduce anxiety, discomfort as well as ventilator intolerance and dyssynchrony. Alpha-2 agonists in particular have become increasingly popular for use in the neurocritical care population due to their proposed effectiveness in facilitating examinations and procedures as well as reducing the need for adjunctive agents...
May 25, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546875/spinal-cord-infarct-caused-from-suspected-fibrocartilaginous-embolism
#10
Ayham M Alkhachroum, Danielle Weiss, Alan Lerner, Michael A De Georgia
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of spinal cord infarct as a result of suspected fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE). CASE PRESENTATION: A 23-year-old man presented with sudden onset cervical and upper back pain followed by progressive weakness in his extremities after throwing a baseball. History, neurologic examination and spinal cord imaging were consistent with spinal cord infarct. We believe the cause was from FCE. DISCUSSION: Though rare, physicians should be familiar with this diagnosis and the proposed mechanisms...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546872/cervical-osteochondroma-with-neurological-symptoms-literature-review-and-a-case-report
#11
Iraj Lotfinia, Amir Vahedi, Kamkar Aeinfar, Richard S Tubbs, Payman Vahedi
INTRODUCTION: Osteochondromas are common benign tumors of bone and spinal involvement is uncommon. Solitary spinal osteochondromas may produce a wide variety of symptoms depending on their location and relationship to adjacent neural structures. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we present a case of solitary osteochondroma arising from the posterior arch of C1, causing left-sided ascending numbness and paresthesia and difficulty walking. The lesion was totally resected through a posterior approach...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546328/microrna-15a-16-1-antagomir-ameliorates-ischemic-brain-injury-in-experimental-stroke
#12
Xinxin Yang, Xuelian Tang, Ping Sun, Yejie Shi, Kai Liu, Sulaiman H Hassan, R Anne Stetler, Jun Chen, Ke-Jie Yin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dysregulation of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster in plasma has been reported in patients with stroke as a potential biomarker for diagnostic and prognostic use. However, the essential role and therapeutic potential of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster in ischemic stroke are poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the regulatory role of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster in ischemic brain injury and insight mechanisms. METHODS: Adult male miR-15a/16-1 knockout and wild-type mice, or adult male C57 BL/6J mice injected via tail vein with the miR-15a/16-1-specific inhibitor (antagomir, 30 pmol/g), were subjected to 1 hour of middle cerebral artery occlusion and 72 hours of reperfusion...
May 25, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546087/region-specific-oligodendrocyte-transcription-factor-expression-in-a-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-injury
#13
Bethann M Affeldt, Andre Obenaus, Jonathan Chan, Andrea C Pardo
White matter injury (WMI) of prematurity is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders ranging from mild cognitive and behavioral deficits to cerebral palsy. Translational studies have implicated impaired oligodendrocyte development after hypoxia as the primary cause of WMI, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify alterations in the expression of oligodendrocyte precursor cell transcription factors in a mouse model of transient mild global hypoxia...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545786/the-associations-between-insomnia-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-rehabilitation-units-at-1month-after-stroke
#14
Won-Hyoung Kim, Han-Young Jung, Ha-Yoon Choi, Chan-Hyuk Park, Eun-Suk Kim, Sook-Joung Lee, Sung-Hwa Ko, Soo-Yeon Kim, Kyung-Lim Joa
OBJECTIVE: The principal objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between insomnia and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) during the early stage of stroke rehabilitation. METHODS: The subjects were 214 first-time stroke patients admitted to a rehabilitation unit at one of three Korean hospitals. Within 7days after stroke, functions were evaluated using; the Berg Balance Scale, the Modified Barthel Index, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Frontal Assessment Battery, Screening Tests for Aphasia and Neurologic-Communication Disorders, and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale...
May 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545366/role-of-positron-emission-tomography-for-central-nervous-system-involvement-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases-status-and-perspectives
#15
Daniele Mauro, Gaetano Barbagallo, Salvatore D'Angelo, Sannino Pasqualina, Saverio Naty, Caterina Bruno, Ignazio Olivieri, Rosa Daniela Grembiale, Francesco Ursini
In the last years, an increasing interest in molecular imaging has been raised by the extending potential of positron emission tomography (PET). The role of PET imaging, originally confined to the oncology setting, is continuously extending thanks to the development of novel radiopharmaceutical and to the implementation of hybrid imaging techniques, where PET scans are combined with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in order to improve spatial resolution. Early preclinical studies suggested that 18F-FDG PET can detect neuroinflammation; new developing radiopharmaceuticals targeting more specifically inflammation-related molecules are moving in this direction...
May 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545363/sleep-wake-patterns-and-cognition-of-older-adults-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-amci-a-comparison-with-cognitively-healthy-adults-and-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#16
Emma J Wams, Gordon K Wilcock, Russell G Foster, Katharina Wulff
Age-related cognitive impairment and the prevalence of neurodegenerative disease contribute to decreasing quality of life in affected individuals and their families as well as demand considerable societal responsibility. Sleep supports overall brain activity and contributes to both physical and mental health. As a result sleep is an attractive target for exploring ways to promote health in accelerated cognitive aging. The aims of this study were to characterise cognitive performance and sleep-wake behaviour in older adults with different degrees of cognitive impairment...
May 22, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545161/classic-galactosemia-study-on-the-late-prenatal-development-of-galt-specific-activity-in-a-sheep-model
#17
Ana I Coelho, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Lindhout, Jelle Achten, Boris W Kramer, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo
BACKGROUND: Classic galactosemia results from deficient activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), a key enzyme of galactose metabolism. Despite early diagnosis and early postnatal therapeutic intervention, patients still develop neurologic and fertility impairments. Prenatal developmental toxicity has been hypothesized as a determinant factor of disease. In order to shed light on the importance of prenatal GALT activity, several studies have examined GALT activity throughout development...
May 25, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544918/senior-driving-under-the-influence-a-five-year-retrospective-study-of-alcoholized-road-users-aged-70-and-over
#18
Benjamin Kirsch, Christoph G Birngruber, Reinhard Dettmeyer
The demographic development in Germany shows a steady increase to senior citizens. The driving suitability of older road-users is of large social and political concern, because awareness and reactivity can be influenced by age-related diseases and potential medication, particularly in combination with the consumption of alcohol. This study provides an overview of senior road-users under the influence of alcohol. Therefore, 404 cases of drunken-driving by road-users aged 70 and over within the purview of the Institute of Legal Medicine at Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, from the years 2009-2013 were evaluated in retrospect...
May 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544558/psychiatric-and-physical-comorbidities-and-their-impact-on-the-course-of-bipolar-disorder-a-prospective-naturalistic-4-year-follow-up-study
#19
Benedikt L Amann, Joaquim Radua, Christian Wunsch, Barbara König, Christian Simhandl
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to increase the available evidence on how physical and psychiatric comorbidities influence the long-term outcome in bipolar I and II disorder. METHODS: We examined the prevalence of comorbid physical (metabolic, cardiovascular, thyroid, and neurological) diseases and psychiatric (neurotic, stress-related, somatoform, and personality) disorders and their impact on the risk of relapse in bipolar disorder. A total of 284 consecutively admitted patients with ICD-10 bipolar I (n=161) and II (n=123) disorder were followed up naturalistically over a period of 4 years...
May 22, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543935/neurodegeneration-in-ataxia-telangiectasia-multiple-roles-of-atm-kinase-in-cellular-homeostasis
#20
REVIEW
Kay Rui Choy, Dianne J Watters
Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by neuronal degeneration, cancer, diabetes, immune deficiency and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. A-T is attributed to the deficiency of the protein kinase coded by the ATM (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated) gene. ATM is a sensor of DNA Double Strand Breaks and signals to cell cycle checkpoints and the DNA repair machinery. ATM phosphorylates numerous substrates and activates many cell-signalling pathways. There has been considerable debate about whether a defective DNA damage response is causative of the neurological aspects of the disease...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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