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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933288/diagnostic-criteria-and-treatment-algorithm-for-susac-syndrome
#1
Robert A Egan
BACKGROUND: Susac syndrome (SS) classically presents with the clinical triad of retinal artery occlusion, sensorineural hearing loss, and encephalopathy and the neuroimaging triad of white matter lesions, deep gray matter lesions, and leptomeningeal disease. However, patients can present with an incomplete clinical or neuroimaging triads making diagnosis difficult in certain situations. A standard treatment paradigm also is lacking in this illness. It is important for neuro-ophthalmologists to recognize clinical and radiographic findings that are pathognomonic for this syndrome and have a basic understanding of the available treatment options...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933207/multi-targeting-effects-of-a-new-synthetic-molecule-jm-20-in-experimental-models-of-cerebral-ischemia
#2
REVIEW
Yanier Nuñez-Figueredo, Jeney Ramírez-Sánchez, Gilberto L Pardo Andreu, Estael Ochoa-Rodríguez, Yamila Verdecia-Reyes, Diogo O Souza
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Thrombolysis by tissue plasminogen activator is the only pharmacological treatment approved for clinical practice, but has a narrow therapeutic window and poor efficacy when the cell death cascade is activated. Numerous drugs that are thought to protect neurons against injury have previously failed in human trials despite showing efficacy in experimental models of stroke. Herein, we reviewed the main pre-clinical results of the neuroprotective effects of JM-20, a new hybrid molecule, against brain ischemia...
February 12, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932772/oxygen-availability-and-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-capacity-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease-implications-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-assessments
#3
Corey R Hart, Gwenael Layec, Joel D Trinity, Yann Le Fur, Jayson R Gifford, Heather L Clifton, Russell S Richardson
Evidence suggests that peak skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate (Vmax ) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) may be attenuated due to disease-related impairments in oxygen (O2 ) supply. However, in vitro assessments suggest intrinsic deficits in mitochondrial respiration despite ample O2 availability. To address this conundrum, Doppler ultrasound, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31 P-MRS), and high-resolution respirometry were combined to assess convective O2 delivery, tissue oxygenation, Vmax , and skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity (Complex I+II, State 3 respiration), respectively, in the gastrocnemius muscle of 10 patients with early-stage PAD and 11 physical activity-matched healthy controls (HC)...
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923434/fractional-flow-reserve-ffr-as-a-guide-to-treat-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Fabio Mangiacapra, Edoardo Bressi, Alessandro Sticchi, Carmine Morisco, Emanuele Barbato
The presence and extent of myocardial ischemia are the major determinants of prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Unlike coronary angiography alone, fractional flow reserve (FFR) has enabled interventional cardiologists to accurately determine whether coronary atherosclerotic plaques are responsible for myocardial ischemia, and therefore deserve to be revascularized. Areas covered: An overview on the role of FFR in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease, as well as the potential related controversies is provided...
June 20, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922535/exploring-the-difference-in-post-procedural-stroke-rates-between-patients-with-aortic-stenosis-who-undergo-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-versus-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement
#5
REVIEW
Heather Burke, Agnieszka Boron, Jung-Hyun Lee, Kudrit Riana Kahlon
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a newer alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for patients with severe aortic stenosis. Clinical trials have investigated TAVR's safety and effectiveness. Cerebral embolization is a common complication leading to stroke after TAVR and SAVR; different cerebral protection methods have been studied to prevent this. This paper evaluates the rate of post-procedural stroke rates between TAVR and SAVR and investigates the effect of cerebral protective methods on the stroke risk post-TAVR...
April 17, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916094/il-35-is-a-protective-immunomodulator-in-brain-ischemic-injury-in-mice
#6
Chen Xu, Hao Zhu, Rong Shen, Qian Feng, Hua Zhou, Zhong Zhao
IL-35 has been identified as a novel anti-inflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-12 cytokine family and has been verified to play a protective role in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of IL-35 on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We determined that the expression of IL-35 was initially decreased and subsequently increased in I/R injury. Moreover, IL-35 (i.c.v.) pre- and posttreatment significantly reduced the infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 45 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion...
July 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915123/efficacy-and-safety-of-ticagrelor-in-relation-to-aspirin-use-within-the-week-before-randomization-in-the-socrates-trial
#7
K S Lawrence Wong, Pierre Amarenco, Gregory W Albers, Hans Denison, J Donald Easton, Scott R Evans, Peter Held, Anders Himmelmann, Scott E Kasner, Mikael Knutsson, Per Ladenvall, Kazuo Minematsu, Carlos A Molina, Yongjun Wang, S Claiborne Johnston
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SOCRATES (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes), comparing ticagrelor with aspirin in patients with acute cerebral ischemia, found a nonsignificant 11% relative risk reduction for stroke, myocardial infarction, or death ( P =0.07). Aspirin intake before randomization could enhance the effect of ticagrelor by conferring dual antiplatelet effect during a high-risk period for subsequent stroke. Therefore, we explored the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor versus aspirin in the patients who received any aspirin the week before randomization...
June 18, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912782/a-randomized-triple-blind-trial-of-cardiac-shock-wave-therapy-on-exercise-tolerance-and-symptoms-in-patients-with-stable-angina-pectoris
#8
Evgeny Shkolnik, Greta Burneikaite, Gabrielius Jakutis, Mikhail Scherbak, Gitana Zuoziene, Birute Petrauskiene, Ekaterina Trush, Yury Vasyuk, Aleksandras Laucevicius, Jelena Celutkiene
BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in managing coronary artery disease and continuous research on alternative techniques to enhance myocardial perfusion and reduce symptoms, coronary artery disease is still one of the leading causes of adult disability worldwide. Cardiac shock-wave therapy (CSWT) has shown promising results in the amelioration of myocardial ischemia in experimental studies; however, clinical results are limited to single-center, mostly uncontrolled and underpowered trials...
June 16, 2018: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911480/safety-and-feasibility-of-intravascular-lithotripsy-for-treatment-of-below-the-knee-arterial-stenoses
#9
Marianne Brodmann, Andrew Holden, Thomas Zeller
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of treating calcified infrapopliteal stenoses using an intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) system. METHODS: The Disrupt BTK study was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter, feasibility, and safety trial that enrolled 20 patients (mean age 79.0±9.6 years; 14 men) at 3 participating sites ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02911623). Fifteen patients had Rutherford category 5 ischemia, and all patients had moderate to severe below-the-knee arterial calcification...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910807/the-lectin-pathway-of-complement-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-review-of-its-significance-and-the-potential-impact-of-therapeutic-interference-by-c1-esterase-inhibitor
#10
REVIEW
Anneza Panagiotou, Marten Trendelenburg, Michael Osthoff
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern medicine. Early reperfusion accomplished by primary percutaneous coronary intervention is pivotal for reducing myocardial damage in ST elevation AMI. However, restoration of coronary blood flow may paradoxically trigger cardiomyocyte death secondary to a reperfusion-induced inflammatory process, which may account for a significant proportion of the final infarct size. Unfortunately, recent human trials targeting myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have yielded disappointing results...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909774/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-assessment-of-acute-cardiovascular-effects-of-voluntary-apnoea-in-elite-divers
#11
L Eichhorn, J Doerner, J A Luetkens, J M Lunkenheimer, R C Dolscheid-Pommerich, F Erdfelder, R Fimmers, J Nadal, B Stoffel-Wagner, H H Schild, A Hoeft, B Zur, C P Naehle
BACKGROUND: Prolonged breath holding results in hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Compensatory mechanisms help maintain adequate oxygen supply to hypoxia sensitive organs, but burden the cardiovascular system. The aim was to investigate human compensatory mechanisms and their effects on the cardiovascular system with regard to cardiac function and morphology, blood flow redistribution, serum biomarkers of the adrenergic system and myocardial injury markers following prolonged apnoea. METHODS: Seventeen elite apnoea divers performed maximal breath-hold during cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909460/modulation-of-brain-ace-and-ace2-may-be-a-promising-protective-strategy-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-an-experimental-trial-in-rats
#12
Maha Mohammed Abdel-Fattah, Basim Anwar Shehata Messiha, Ahmed Mohamed Mansour
The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is considered a crucial regulator for physiological homeostasis and disease progression. We evaluated the protective effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) telmisartan and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activator xanthenone on experimental cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats were divided into a sham control, a cerebral I/R control, a standard treatment (nimodipine, 10 mg/kg/day, 15 days, p.o.), three telmisartan treatments (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/day, 15 days, p...
June 17, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908420/ticagrelor-versus-clopidogrel-after-fibrinolytic-therapy-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-rationale-and-design-of-the-ticagrelor-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-treated-with-thrombolysis-treat-trial
#13
Otavio Berwanger, Jose C Nicolau, Antonio C Carvalho, Lixin Jiang, Shaun Goodman, Stephen J Nicholls, Alexander Parkhomenko, Oleg Averkov, Carlos Tajer, Germán Malaga, Jose F Kerr Saraiva, Francisco Fonseca, Helio P Guimaraes, Pedro G M de Barros E Silva, Lucas P Damiani, Denise M Paisani, Camila M R Lasagno, Carolina T Candido, Nanci Valeis, Diogo D F Moia, Leopoldo S Piegas, Christopher B Granger, Harvey White, Renato D Lopes
BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of ticagrelor in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with fibrinolytic therapy remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the TicagRElor in pAtients with ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with Thrombolysis (TREAT) trial is to evaluate the short-term safety of ticagrelor when compared with clopidogrel in STEMI patients treated with fibrinolytic therapy. Key secondary objectives are to assess the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel at 12-months...
March 3, 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904350/unique-contribution-of-haptoglobin-and-haptoglobin-genotype-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#14
REVIEW
Spiros L Blackburn, Peeyush T Kumar, Devin McBride, Hussein A Zeineddine, Jenna Leclerc, H Alex Choi, Pramod K Dash, James Grotta, Jaroslaw Aronowski, Jessica C Cardenas, Sylvain Doré
Survivors of cerebral aneurysm rupture are at risk for significant morbidity and neurological deficits. Much of this is related to the effects of blood in the subarachnoid space which induces an inflammatory cascade with numerous downstream consequences. Recent clinical trials have not been able to reduce the toxic effects of free hemoglobin or improve clinical outcome. One reason for this may be the inability to identify patients at high risk for neurologic decline. Recently, haptoglobin genotype has been identified as a pertinent factor in diabetes, sickle cell, and cardiovascular disease, with the Hp 2-2 genotype contributing to increased complications...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896154/basis-and-design-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-levosulpiride-on-retinal-alterations-in-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy-and-diabetic-macular-edema
#15
Ma Ludivina Robles-Osorio, Renata García-Franco, Carlos D Núñez-Amaro, Ximena Mira-Lorenzo, Paulina Ramírez-Neria, Wendy Hernández, Ellery López-Star, Thomas Bertsch, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Jakob Triebel, Carmen Clapp
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are potentially blinding, microvascular retinal diseases in people with diabetes mellitus. Preclinical studies support a protective role of the hormone prolactin (PRL) due to its ocular incorporation and conversion to vasoinhibins, a family of PRL fragments that inhibit ischemia-induced retinal angiogenesis and diabetes-derived retinal vasopermeability. Here, we describe the protocol of an ongoing clinical trial investigating a new therapy for DR and DME based on elevating the circulating levels of PRL with the prokinetic, dopamine D2 receptor blocker, levosulpiride...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893677/prospective-randomized-un-blinded-three-arm-controlled-study-in-coronary-artery-revascularization-with-minimal-invasive-extracorporeal-circulation-systems-miecc-surrogate-parameter-analysis-of-biocompatibility
#16
Arndt H Kiessling, Harald Keller, Anton Moritz
OBJECTIVES: Minimal extracorporeal circulation techniques and systems (MiECC) may reduce the negative side effects of conventional extracorporeal circulation (ECC). However, it is still unclear as to what this is caused by, the reduced priming volume and hemodilution, or the avoidance of blood-air contact and dispersion of mediastinal debris into the systemic circulation. The aim of the trial was the comparison of MiECC to an open ECC setup (openECC) or a system with reduced blood air and debris interaction (closeECC)...
May 16, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893055/phase-i-safety-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-cipatinib-an-original-dual-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor
#17
Jiayu Wang, Yiqun Han, Xiuqing Shi, Qing Li, Pin Zhang, Peng Yuan, Fei Ma, Yang Luo, Ruigang Cai, Ying Fan, Shanshan Chen, Qiao Li, Binghe Xu
BACKGROUND: Cipatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor against both EGFR and HER2/neu. This phase I trial was conducted to assess the safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and maximum-tolerated dose of cipatinib in HER2-positive patients with advanced breast cancer. METHODS: Eligible adults with advanced breast cancer were administered cipatinib 200 mg/day (n = 3) as an initial dose, with escalating dosages of 400 mg (n = 4), 800 mg (n = 2), 1200 mg (n = 3), 1400 mg (n = 3), 1600 mg (n = 3), and 1800 mg (n = 2) in 21 day cycles...
June 12, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886215/drug-eluting-stent-shows-similar-patency-results-as-prosthetic-bypass-in-patients-with-femoropopliteal-occlusion-in-a-randomized-trial
#18
Patrick Björkman, Tommi Auvinen, Harri Hakovirta, Pekka Romsi, Johanna Turtiainen, Hannu Manninen, Maarit Venermo, Kimmo Lappalainen, Anders Albäck, Antti Korpela, Kimmo Mäkinen, Petri Saari, Jukka Perälä
INTRODUCTION: Claudication and critical limb threatening ischemia (CLTI) are significant causes of mortality in the elderly. The gold standard of superficial femoral artery (SFA) revascularization is thus far considered to be the femoropopliteal bypass. The aim of this study was to compare mid-term patency between drug-eluting stents (DES) and prosthetic bypass grafts (BSX). Studies have reported comparable results for both methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 46 patients with claudication or rest pain due to a 5-25 cm SFA-occlusion were randomized between DES and BSX...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886103/randomized-controlled-trial-of-rivaroxaban-versus-warfarin-in-the-management-of-acute-non-neoplastic-portal-vein-thrombosis
#19
Amr Shaaban Hanafy, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Mohammed M Dawoud
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Anticoagulation therapy is the main line of treatment for acute portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in the absence of cirrhosis. However, the use of this therapy in cirrhotic PVT is still with doubtful evidence. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared to warfarin for the management of acute non-neoplastic PVT in Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related compensated cirrhosis. METHODS: Out of 578 patients with chronic HCV infection, 80 patients with acute PVT who had undergone splenectomy due to hypersplenism and 4 patients with acute PVT due to portal pyemia were selected...
June 7, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885423/intranasal-administration-of-progesterone-a-potential-efficient-route-of-delivery-for-cerebroprotection-after-acute-brain-injuries
#20
REVIEW
Rachida Guennoun, Magalie Fréchou, Pauline Gaignard, Philippe Liere, Abdelhamid Slama, Michael Schumacher, Christian Denier, Claudia Mattern
Progesterone has been shown to be cerebroprotective in different experimental models of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. The preclinical data provided great hope for its use in humans. The failure of Phase 3 clinical trials to demonstrate the cerebroprotective efficiency of progesterone in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients emphasizes that different aspects of the design of both experimental and clinical studies should be reviewed and refined. One important aspect to consider is to test different routes of delivery of therapeutic agents...
June 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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