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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209276/the-aahks-clinical-research-award-what-are-the-costs-of-knee-osteoarthritis-in-the-year-prior-to-total-knee-arthroplasty
#1
Nicholas A Bedard, Spencer B Dowdle, Christopher A Anthony, David E DeMik, Michael A McHugh, Kevin J Bozic, John J Callaghan
BACKGROUND: Despite American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) related to the non-arthroplasty management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, non-recommended treatments remain in common use. We sought to determine the costs associated with non-arthroplasty management of knee OA in the year prior to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and stratify them by CPG recommendation status. METHODS: The Humana database was reviewed from 2007 to 2015 for primary TKA patients...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192522/body-size-and-lower-limb-posture-during-walking-in-humans
#2
Martin Hora, Libor Soumar, Herman Pontzer, Vladimír Sládek
We test whether locomotor posture is associated with body mass and lower limb length in humans and explore how body size and posture affect net joint moments during walking. We acquired gait data for 24 females and 25 males using a three-dimensional motion capture system and pressure-measuring insoles. We employed the general linear model and commonality analysis to assess the independent effect of body mass and lower limb length on flexion angles at the hip, knee, and ankle while controlling for sex and velocity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188327/tactile-stimuli-affect-long-range-correlations-of-stride-interval-and-stride-length-differently-during-walking
#3
Jung Hung Chien, V N Pradeep Ambati, Chun-Kai Huang, Mukul Mukherjee
Sensory feedback below the sole of the foot using sub-threshold mechanical noise significantly reduced postural sway in patients with diabetes and stroke. However, the effects of tactile parameters on walking are still elusive. Specifically, the effects of such parameters on human gait variability need to be studied because of possible rehabilitation outcomes in terms of bringing improvement in temporal and spatial gait parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether different frequency and amplitude combinations of vibro-tactile stimulation of feet would affect stride-to-stride variability in healthy young adults...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176842/clay-mineralogical-and-geochemical-proxies-of-the-east-asian-summer-monsoon-evolution-in-the-south-china-sea-during-late-quaternary
#4
Quan Chen, Zhifei Liu, Catherine Kissel
The East Asian summer monsoon controls the climatic regime of an extended region through temperature and precipitation changes. As the East Asian summer monsoon is primarily driven by the northern hemisphere summer insolation, such meteorological variables are expected to significantly change on the orbital timescale, influencing the composition of terrestrial sediments in terms of both mineralogy and geochemistry. Here we present clay mineralogy and major element composition of Core MD12-3432 retrieved from the northern South China Sea, and we investigate their relationship with the East Asian summer monsoon evolution over the last 400 ka...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168959/the-bending-stiffness-of-shoes-is-beneficial-to-running-energetics-if-it-does-not-disturb-the-natural-mtp-joint-flexion
#5
Keonyoung Oh, Sukyung Park
A local minimum for running energetics has been reported for a specific bending stiffness, implying that shoe stiffness assists in running propulsion. However, the determinant of the metabolic optimum remains unknown. Highly stiff shoes significantly increase the moment arm of the ground reaction force (GRF) and reduce the leverage effect of joint torque at ground push-off. Inspired by previous findings, we hypothesized that the restriction of the natural metatarsophalangeal (MTP) flexion caused by stiffened shoes and the corresponding joint torque changes may reduce the benefit of shoe bending stiffness to running energetics...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154442/how-do-physical-therapists-treat-people-with-knee-osteoarthritis-and-what-drives-their-clinical-decisions-a-population-based-cross-sectional-survey
#6
Bruno R da Costa, Edgar Ramos Vieira, Inae Caroline Gadotti, Conner Colosi, James Rylak, Travis Wylie, Susan Armijo-Olivo
Purpose: It is unclear how physical therapists in Florida currently treat people with knee osteoarthritis and whether current best evidence is used in clinical decision making. Methods: We conducted a survey of physical therapists in Florida. We assessed the perceived effectiveness and actual use of physical therapy (PT) interventions and quantified the association between the actual use of interventions and different characteristics of physical therapists. Results: A total of 413 physical therapists completed the survey...
2017: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149661/biomechanical-podiatric-evaluation-in-an-italian-cohort-of-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis-a-pilot-study
#7
Susanna Maddali Bongi, Giovanni Ravenni, Benedetta Ciampi, Angela Del Rosso, Khadija El Aoufy
OBJECTIVE: Foot problems are often present in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) patients, however studies regarding podiatric problems related to SSc are lacking and there are no data evaluating the foot biomechanical changes. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate podiatric problems in an Italian cohort of SSc patients by assessing received podiatric services, foot pain and disability and biomechanical foot deformity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 25 consecutive SSc patients were enrolled from the Division of Rheumatology, University of Florence...
December 2016: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129378/intensity-of-african-humid-periods-estimated-from-saharan-dust-fluxes
#8
Werner Ehrmann, Gerhard Schmiedl, Sarah Beuscher, Stefan Krüger
North Africa experienced dramatic changes in hydrology and vegetation during the late Quaternary driven by insolation-induced shifts of the tropical rain belt and further modulated by millennial-scale droughts and vegetation-climate feedbacks. While most past proxy and modelling studies concentrated on the temporal and spatial dynamics of the last African humid period, little is known about the intensities and characteristics of pre-Holocene humid periods. Here we present a high-resolution record of fine-grained eastern Saharan dust from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea spanning the last 180 kyr, which is based on the clay mineral composition of the marine sediments, especially the kaolinite/chlorite ratio...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109624/metatarsalgia
#9
REVIEW
J-L Besse
The causes of metatarsalgia are classified as primary, secondary, and iatrogenic. Anatomical and biomechanical considerations separate "static" from "propulsive" forms of metatarsalgia. The physical examination should be combined with an assessment of weight-bearing radiographs and, if needed, of ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging scans. The first-line treatment is conservative (stretching exercises, footwear modification, insoles, and lesion debridement). Soft-tissue surgical procedures (gastrocnemius muscle recession, tendon transfer, and plantar plate repair) should also be considered...
January 18, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104887/regional-and-global-sea-surface-temperatures-during-the-last-interglaciation
#10
Jeremy S Hoffman, Peter U Clark, Andrew C Parnell, Feng He
The last interglaciation (LIG, 129 to 116 thousand years ago) was the most recent time in Earth's history when global mean sea level was substantially higher than it is at present. However, reconstructions of LIG global temperature remain uncertain, with estimates ranging from no significant difference to nearly 2°C warmer than present-day temperatures. Here we use a network of sea-surface temperature (SST) records to reconstruct spatiotemporal variability in regional and global SSTs during the LIG. Our results indicate that peak LIG global mean annual SSTs were 0...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091595/geological-support-for-the-umbrella-effect-as-a-link-between-geomagnetic-field-and-climate
#11
Ikuko Kitaba, Masayuki Hyodo, Takeshi Nakagawa, Shigehiro Katoh, David L Dettman, Hiroshi Sato
The weakening of the geomagnetic field causes an increase in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. Some researchers argue that enhanced GCR flux might lead to a climatic cooling by increasing low cloud formation, which enhances albedo (umbrella effect). Recent studies have reported geological evidence for a link between weakened geomagnetic field and climatic cooling. However, more work is needed on the mechanism of this link, including whether the umbrella effect is playing a central role. In this research, we present new geological evidence that GCR flux change had a greater impact on continental climate than on oceanic climate...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073539/physical-processes-leading-to-the-development-of-an-anomalously-large-cochlodinium-polykrikoides-bloom-in-the-east-sea-japan-sea
#12
Dae-Won Kim, Young-Heon Jo, Jong-Kuk Choi, Jang-Geun Choi, Hongsheng Bi
An anomalously large Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) was observed in the southwest coast of the East/Japan Sea (hereafter the East Sea) during the summer of 2013. During this time period, the presence of Cochlodinium polykrikoides (C. polykrikoides) was detected by the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and validated by in-situ observations. GOCI observations have been available since 2011, thus allowingto examine various stages of the physical condition of the developing C. polykrikoides bloom, thereby other multi-satellite and buoy measurements obtained between 2011 and 2013...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066125/raman-spectroscopic-analysis-of-the-effect-of-the-lichenicolous-fungus-xanthoriicola-physciae-on-its-lichen-host
#13
Howell G M Edwards, Mark R D Seaward, Tom F Preece, Susana E Jorge-Villar, David L Hawksworth
Lichenicolous (lichen-dwelling) fungi have been extensively researched taxonomically over many years, and phylogenetically in recent years, but the biology of the relationship between the invading fungus and the lichen host has received limited attention, as has the effects on the chemistry of the host, being difficult to examine in situ. Raman spectroscopy is an established method for the characterization of chemicals in situ, and this technique is applied to a lichenicolous fungus here for the first time...
2017: Symbiosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054493/epilithic-and-endolithic-microorganisms-and-deterioration-on-stone-church-facades-subject-to-urban-pollution-in-a-sub-tropical-climate
#14
Christine Gaylarde, Jose Antônio Baptista-Neto, Akiko Ogawa, Matthew Kowalski, Sukriye Celikkol-Aydin, Iwona Beech
Weathering of two church facades in Rio de Janeiro was caused substantially by salts, mainly halite and gypsum, detected by SEM and chemical analyses, which cause physical stresses by deposition within the rock. Biofilm populations, determined by SEM and as operational taxonomic units (OTUs), degraded stone by penetration, solubilization and redeposition of minerals on their surfaces. Endolithic cyanobacteria were associated with gypsum deposits. Microbiomes were typical for high-stress environments, high salt, intense insolation, low water and low nutrients (eg halophilic Rubrobacter, Salinicola, Sterigmatomyces)...
January 5, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035940/three-dimensional-experimental-investigation-pertaining-to-effects-of-insoles-on-leg-kinematics
#15
Anupam Das, Arindita Saha, Abhirup Chakraborty
This paper deals with the investigation of external joint movement with respect to leg kinematics. The overall leg kinematics were investigated by means of a rigid, three-segment, 3D leg model. A 3D kinematics and ground reaction forces was being restructured. The images were then authenticated with the help of a cadaveric investigation and analysis. This was eventually used for prediction of the overall leg kinematics. Thereafter FEM based simulations were undertaken, and muscle forces were investigated based on the data available...
December 23, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033056/effects-of-lateral-and-medial-wedged-insoles-on-knee-and-ankle-internal-joint-moments-during-walking-in-healthy-men
#16
Claudiane A Fukuchi, Ryan T Lewinson, Jay T Worobets, Darren J Stefanyshyn
BACKGROUND: Wedged insoles have been used to treat knee pathologies and to prevent injuries. Although they have received much attention for the study of knee injury, the effects of wedges on ankle joint biomechanics are not well understood. This study sought to evaluate the immediate effects of lateral and medial wedges on knee and ankle internal joint loading and center of pressure (CoP) in men during walking. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy men walked at 1.4 m/sec in five footwear conditions: neutral, 6° (LW6) and 9° (LW9) lateral wedges, and 6° (MW6) and 9° (MW9) medial wedges...
November 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033053/the-effect-of-walking-speed-on-foot-kinematics-is-modified-when-increased-pronation-is-induced
#17
Joana F Hornestam, Thales R Souza, Paula Arantes, Juliana Ocarino, Paula L Silva
BACKGROUND: The relation between walking speed and foot kinematics during gait is not well established, and neither is it clear whether this relation is modified in the presence of factors expected to increase pronation (eg, abnormal foot alignment). Understanding how foot kinematics is affected by walking speed under varying conditions could contribute to our understanding of stresses to the musculoskeletal system during walking. We evaluated the effect of walking speed on foot kinematics in the frontal plane during gait and determined whether this effect is modified by using medially inclined insoles that force the foot into increased pronation...
November 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012341/walking-cadence-affects-rate-of-plantar-foot-temperature-change-but-not-final-temperature-in-younger-and-older-adults
#18
Prabhav Nadipi Reddy, Glen Cooper, Andrew Weightman, Emma Hodson-Tole, Neil D Reeves
This study examined the relationship between (1) foot temperature in healthy individuals and walking cadence, (2) temperature change at different locations of the foot, and (3) temperature change and its relationship with vertical pressures exerted on the foot. Eighteen healthy adult volunteers (10 between 30 and 40 years - Age: 33.4±2.4years; 8 above 40 years - Age: 54.1±7.7years) were recruited. A custom-made insole with temperature sensors was placed directly onto the plantar surface of the foot and held in position using a sock...
December 6, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009675/effects-of-foot-and-ankle-devices-on-balance-gait-and-falls-in-adults-with-sensory-perception-loss-a-systematic-review
#19
Joanne Paton, Anna L Hatton, Keith Rome, Bridie Kent
BACKGROUND: Foot and ankle devices are being developed as a method of preventing people with sensory perception loss sustaining a fall. Such devices are believed to work by reducing the likelihood of a fall by improving the balance and gait of the user. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot and ankle devices for the prevention of falls and the improvement of balance and gait in adults with sensory perception loss. INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: Participants were community-dwelling adults with bilateral pathological sensory perception loss...
December 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003995/gait-training-in-chronic-stroke-using-walk-even-feedback-device-a-pilot-study
#20
V Krishnan, I Khoo, P Marayong, K DeMars, J Cormack
Asymmetrical gait and a reduction in weight bearing on the affected side are a common finding in chronic stroke survivors. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of a shoe insole device that we developed, called Walk-Even, in correcting asymmetric gait in chronic stroke survivors. Six individuals with chronic (>6 months) stroke underwent 8 weeks of intervention with 2 sessions/week, each consisting of 20 minutes of gait training and 20 minutes of lower-extremity strength training...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
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