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Knee adductor moment

Bhupinder Singh, Huy Vo, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, John H Yack
PURPOSE: This study assessed the biomechanical gait changes in obese and normal weight female adult subjects following a commonly recommended 30-minute walking session. Hip and knee adduction and extensor moments, which are the primary modulators of frontal and sagittal plane load distribution were hypothesized to increase in obese females following a 30-minute walking period, resulting in more stress across the hip and knee joint. METHODS: Ten obese (37.7 ± 4...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ross A Bogey, Lee A Barnes
The force of a single muscle is not directly measurable without invasive methods. Yet invasive techniques are not appropriate for clinical use, thus a non-invasive technique that combined the electromyographic (EMG) signal and a neuromuscular model was developed to determine in vivo active muscle forces at the hip. The EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model included active and passive moment components, and the net EFP moment was compared with the hip moment obtained with standard inverse dynamics techniques ("gold standard")...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Bhupinder Singh, Megan G Negatu, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, H John Yack
: The purpose of this study was to determine how an overweight or obese child's cardiorespiratory fitness level and a state of fatigue affect gait biomechanics. METHODS: Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, twenty-nine (female and male) overweight and obese children aged 8-11 years walked on force plates before and after being fatigued from the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) protocol. Joint moments were calculated for the knee and hip in the frontal and sagittal planes...
September 8, 2016: Gait & Posture
Guilherme M Cesar, Curtis L Tomasevicz, Judith M Burnfield
The potential to use the vertical jump (VJ) to assess both athletic performance and risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury could have widespread clinical implications since VJ is broadly used in high school, university, and professional sport settings. Although drop jump (DJ) and VJ observationally exhibit similar lower extremity mechanics, the extent to which VJ can also be used as screening tool for ACL injury risk has not been assessed. This study evaluated whether individuals exhibit similar knee joint frontal plane kinematic and kinetic patterns when performing VJs compared with DJs...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
D McClelland, D Barlow, T S Moores, C Wynn-Jones, D Griffiths, P J Ogrodnik, P B M Thomas
In arthritis of the varus knee, a high tibial osteotomy (HTO) redistributes load from the diseased medial compartment to the unaffected lateral compartment. We report the outcome of 36 patients (33 men and three women) with 42 varus, arthritic knees who underwent HTO and dynamic correction using a Garches external fixator until they felt that normal alignment had been restored. The mean age of the patients was 54.11 years (34 to 68). Normal alignment was achieved at a mean 5.5 weeks (3 to 10) post-operatively...
May 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
Anne Khuu, Eric Foch, Cara L Lewis
BACKGROUND: The single leg squat (SLS) is a functional task used by practitioners to evaluate and treat multiple pathologies of the lower extremity. Variations of the SLS may have different neuromuscular and biomechanical demands. The effect of altering the non-stance leg position during the SLS on trunk, pelvic, and lower extremity mechanics has not been reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare trunk, pelvic, hip, knee, and ankle kinematics and hip, knee, and ankle kinetics of three variations of the SLS using different non-stance leg positions: SLS-Front, SLS-Middle, and SLS-Back...
April 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Monica R Maly, Stacey M Acker, Saara Totterman, José Tamez-Peña, Paul W Stratford, Jack P Callaghan, Jonathan D Adachi, Karen A Beattie
The objective was to determine the extent to which the external peak knee adduction moment (KAM) and cumulative knee adductor load explained variation in medial cartilage morphology of the tibia and femur in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Sixty-two adults with clinical knee OA participated (61.5 ± 6.2 years). To determine KAM, inverse dynamics was applied to motion and force data of walking. Cumulative knee adductor load reflected KAM impulse and loading frequency. Loading frequency was captured from an accelerometer...
September 18, 2015: Journal of Biomechanics
K Manal, E Gardinier, T S Buchanan, L Snyder-Mackler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the peak knee flexor moment (pKFM) provides unique and meaningful information about peak medial compartment loading above and beyond what is obtained from the peak knee adduction moment. METHODS: Standard video-based motion capture and EMG recordings were collected for 10 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed subjects walking at a self-selected speed. Knee joint moments were obtained using inverse dynamics and medial contact force was computed using an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model...
July 2015: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
E Klum, H Streicher, H Böhm, P Wagner, L Döderlein
BACKGROUND: Adolescents with cerebral palsy often complain about a Duchenne gait, which increases the load on the spine, the energy consumption and therefore decreases gait efficiency. However the underlying causes of a Duchenne gait in patients with CP are not clearly researched yet. Nevertheless there is an assumption that excessive trunk lean might assist foot clearance to compensate for muscle weakness or contractures of the legs. In particular weakness, secondary to surgical soft tissue muscle tendon lengthening in childhood, might predispose patients to greater compensatory movements of the trunk...
February 2015: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Paul Pei-Hsi Chou, Yen-Po Huang, Yi-Hsuan Gu, Chiang Liu, Shen-Kai Chen, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Rong-Tyai Wang, Ming-Jer Huang, Hwai-Ting Lin
Repetitive overhead throwing may result in overuse injuries and a change in the pitching mechanics of a baseball pitcher. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in the muscle strength and pitching motion kinematics in the late-innings stage of a baseball game. Sixteen healthy baseball pitchers (16.77 ± 0.73 years) recruited from a high school, which won the National High School Baseball Championship in Taiwan in 2011; each performed 100 pitches in a bullpen throwing session. Isometric muscle strength measurements and joint kinematic data were obtained before and after the throwing session...
June 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Jason M Wilken
BACKGROUND: Gait compensations following transtibial amputation negatively affect sound limb loading and increase the risk of knee osteoarthritis. Push-off assistance provided by new powered prostheses may decrease the demands on the sound limb. However, their effects in a young population in the early stages of prosthetic use are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare limb loading between 1. passive and powered ankle-foot prostheses, 2. sound and amputated limbs, and 3...
December 2014: Clinical Biomechanics
Kathryn L Havens, Susan M Sigward
PURPOSE: Quick changes of direction during running (cutting) are necessary for successful performance of many sports but are associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Currently, it is not known how biomechanics associated with fast performance of cutting tasks relate to the mechanics associated with increased risk for injury. Without this knowledge, the technique emphasized in injury prevention programs may be at odds with the demands of cutting tasks. The purposes of this study were to 1) identify whole body and/or joint mechanics that are related to completion times of 45° and 90° cuts and, from these variables, 2) determine which variables are predictors of performance (i...
April 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jae P Yom, Kathy J Simpson, Scott W Arnett, Cathleen N Brown
One potential ACL injury situation is due to contact with another person or object during the flight phase, thereby causing the person to land improperly. Conversely, athletes often have flight-phase collisions but do land safely. Therefore, to better understand ACL injury causation and methods by which people typically land safely, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an in-flight perturbation on the lower extremity biomechanics displayed by females during typical drop landings. Seventeen collegiate female recreational athletes performed baseline landings, followed by either unexpected laterally-directed perturbation or sham (nonperturbation) drop landings...
October 2014: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Raghav K Varma, Lynsey D Duffell, Dinesh Nathwani, Alison H McGregor
OBJECTIVES: Prior injury to the knee, particularly anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, is known to predispose one to premature osteoarthritis (OA). The study sought to explore if there was a biomechanical rationale for this process by investigating changes in external knee moments between people with a history of ACL injury and uninjured participants during walking: (1) on different surface inclines and (2) at different speeds. In addition we assessed functional differences between the groups...
2014: BMJ Open
Abeer M Eldeeb, Amr S Khodair
BACKGROUND: There's lack in the literature respecting changes in the trunk and hip angles, and power profile of the lower extremities in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Therefore, this study aimed to examine gait characteristics of that population, and find out which characteristics may be predictors to BMD. This may provide suitable interventions for subjects with osteoporosis. METHODS: Seventeen healthy postmenopausal women and seventeen with low BMD engaged in this study...
2014: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Rami Hashish, Sachithra D Samarawickrame, George J Salem
The primary method to model ankle motion during inverse dynamic calculations of the lower limb is through the use of skin-mounted markers, with the foot modeled as a rigid segment. Motion of the foot is often tracked via the use of a marker cluster triad on either the dorsum, or heel, of the foot/shoe. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate differences in calculated lower extremity dynamics during the stance phase of gait between these two tracking techniques. In an analysis of 7 subjects, it was found that sagittal ankle angles and sagittal ankle, hip and knee moments were strongly correlated between the two conditions, however, there was a significant difference in peak ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion angles...
March 21, 2014: Journal of Biomechanics
Kristen M Stearns, Christopher M Powers
BACKGROUND: Impaired hip muscle performance has been implicated as a contributing factor to the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in women. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of a hip-focused training program on lower extremity biomechanics during a drop-jump task. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: Twenty-one recreationally active women (18-25 years of age) participated in a 4-week training program consisting of hip-focused plyometric and balance perturbation exercises (3 times/wk, 30 min/session)...
March 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Kate Button, Paulien E Roos, Robert W M van Deursen
BACKGROUND: Functional exercises are important in the rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament deficient and reconstructed individuals but movement compensations and incomplete recovery persist. This study aimed to identify how tasks pose different challenges; and evaluate if different activities challenge patient groups differently compared to controls. METHODS: Motion and force data were collected during distance hop, squatting and gait for 20 anterior cruciate ligament deficient, 21 reconstructed and 21 controls...
February 2014: Clinical Biomechanics
Jeremiah J Tate, Clare E Milner, Jeffrey T Fairbrother, Songning Zhang
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of instruction to improve frontal plane knee biomechanics during a jump-landing task. BACKGROUND: Technique training is a common component of knee injury-prevention programs. In developing programs that minimize time commitment and increase the likelihood of adoption by target groups, there is a need to evaluate individual program components. METHODS: A total of 26 female recreational athletes (average age, 21...
2013: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Kristen M Stearns, Christine D Pollard
BACKGROUND: Athletes who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) have a high risk of reinjury upon the return to sports participation. While the mechanisms behind this increased risk of reinjury are unknown, it has been suggested that altered knee biomechanics during sports-specific activities may be a contributing factor. Purpose/ HYPOTHESIS: To compare frontal plane knee joint angles and moments during a sidestep cutting maneuver in female soccer athletes who have undergone ACLR with those in athletes with no history of knee injury...
April 2013: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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