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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753742/changes-in-gait-over-a-30-min-walking-session-in-obese-females
#1
Bhupinder Singh, Huy Vo, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, John H Yack
PURPOSE: This study assessed the biomechanical gait changes in obese and normal weight female adult subjects following a commonly recommended 30-minute walking session. Hip and knee adduction and extensor moments, which are the primary modulators of frontal and sagittal plane load distribution were hypothesized to increase in obese females following a 30-minute walking period, resulting in more stress across the hip and knee joint. METHODS: Ten obese (37.7 ± 4...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740488/an-emg-to-force-processing-approach-for-estimating-in-vivo-hip-muscle-forces-in-normal-human-walking
#2
Ross A Bogey, Lee A Barnes
The force of a single muscle is not directly measurable without invasive methods. Yet invasive techniques are not appropriate for clinical use, thus a non-invasive technique that combined the electromyographic (EMG) signal and a neuromuscular model was developed to determine in vivo active muscle forces at the hip. The EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model included active and passive moment components, and the net EFP moment was compared with the hip moment obtained with standard inverse dynamics techniques ("gold standard")...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637091/do-fitness-and-fatigue-affect-gait-biomechanics-in-overweight-and-obese-children
#3
Bhupinder Singh, Megan G Negatu, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, H John Yack
: The purpose of this study was to determine how an overweight or obese child's cardiorespiratory fitness level and a state of fatigue affect gait biomechanics. METHODS: Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, twenty-nine (female and male) overweight and obese children aged 8-11 years walked on force plates before and after being fatigued from the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) protocol. Joint moments were calculated for the knee and hip in the frontal and sagittal planes...
September 8, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292352/whole-body-frontal-plane-mechanics-across-walking-running-and-sprinting-in-young-and-older-adults
#4
J-P Kulmala, M T Korhonen, S Kuitunen, H Suominen, A Heinonen, A Mikkola, J Avela
This study investigated the whole body frontal plane mechanics among young (26 ± 6 years), early old (61 ± 5 years), and old (78 ± 4 years) adults during walking, running, and sprinting. The age-groups had similar walking (1.6 m/s) and running (4.0 m/s) speeds, but different maximal sprinting speed (young 9.3 m/s, early old 7.9 m/s, and old 6.6 m/s). Surprisingly, although the old group exerted much lower vertical ground reaction force during running and sprinting, the hip frontal plane moment did not differ between the age-groups...
June 12, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266887/treatment-of-progressive-first-metatarsophalangeal-hallux-valgus-deformity-a-biomechanically-based-muscle-strengthening-approach
#5
Ward M Glasoe
Synopsis Hallux valgus is a progressive deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that changes the anatomy and biomechanics of the foot. To date, surgery is the only treatment to correct this deformity, though the recurrence rate is as high as 15%. This clinical commentary provides instruction in a strengthening approach for treatment of hallux valgus deformity, by addressing the moment actions of 5 muscles identified as having the ability to counter the hallux valgus process. Unlike surgery, muscle strengthening does not correct the deformity, but, instead, reduces the pain and associated gait impairments that affect the mobility of people who live with the disorder...
July 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240279/frontal-plane-comparison-between-drop-jump-and-vertical-jump-implications-for-the-assessment-of-acl-risk-of-injury
#6
Guilherme M Cesar, Curtis L Tomasevicz, Judith M Burnfield
The potential to use the vertical jump (VJ) to assess both athletic performance and risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury could have widespread clinical implications since VJ is broadly used in high school, university, and professional sport settings. Although drop jump (DJ) and VJ observationally exhibit similar lower extremity mechanics, the extent to which VJ can also be used as screening tool for ACL injury risk has not been assessed. This study evaluated whether individuals exhibit similar knee joint frontal plane kinematic and kinetic patterns when performing VJs compared with DJs...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27143729/medium-and-long-term-results-of-high-tibial-osteotomy-using-garches-external-fixator-and-gait-analysis-for-dynamic-correction-in-varus-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee
#7
D McClelland, D Barlow, T S Moores, C Wynn-Jones, D Griffiths, P J Ogrodnik, P B M Thomas
In arthritis of the varus knee, a high tibial osteotomy (HTO) redistributes load from the diseased medial compartment to the unaffected lateral compartment. We report the outcome of 36 patients (33 men and three women) with 42 varus, arthritic knees who underwent HTO and dynamic correction using a Garches external fixator until they felt that normal alignment had been restored. The mean age of the patients was 54.11 years (34 to 68). Normal alignment was achieved at a mean 5.5 weeks (3 to 10) post-operatively...
May 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27104053/not-all-single-leg-squats-are-equal-a-biomechanical-comparison-of-three-variations
#8
Anne Khuu, Eric Foch, Cara L Lewis
BACKGROUND: The single leg squat (SLS) is a functional task used by practitioners to evaluate and treat multiple pathologies of the lower extremity. Variations of the SLS may have different neuromuscular and biomechanical demands. The effect of altering the non-stance leg position during the SLS on trunk, pelvic, and lower extremity mechanics has not been reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare trunk, pelvic, hip, knee, and ankle kinematics and hip, knee, and ankle kinetics of three variations of the SLS using different non-stance leg positions: SLS-Front, SLS-Middle, and SLS-Back...
April 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26847560/diet-induced-phenotypic-plasticity-in-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla
#9
Jens De Meyer, Joachim Christiaens, Dominique Adriaens
Two phenotypes are present within the European eel population: broad-heads and narrow-heads. The expression of these phenotypes has been linked to several factors, such as diet and differential growth. The exact factors causing this dimorphism, however, are still unknown. In this study, we performed a feeding experiment on glass eels from the moment they start to feed. Eels were either fed a hard diet, which required biting and spinning behavior, or a soft diet, which required suction feeding. We found that the hard feeders develop a broader head and a larger adductor mandibulae region than eels that were fed a soft diet, implying that the hard feeders are capable of larger bite forces...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692539/evolutionary-trends-in-the-jaw-adductor-mechanics-of-ornithischian-dinosaurs
#10
Ali Nabavizadeh
Jaw mechanics in ornithischian dinosaurs have been widely studied for well over a century. Most of these studies, however, use only one or few taxa within a given ornithischian clade as a model for feeding mechanics across the entire clade. In this study, mandibular mechanical advantages among 52 ornithischian genera spanning all subclades are calculated using 2D lever arm methods. These lever arm calculations estimate the effect of jaw shape and difference in adductor muscle line of action on relative bite forces along the jaw...
March 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26689696/relationship-between-hand-contact-angle-and-shoulder-loading-during-manual-wheelchair-propulsion-by-individuals-with-paraplegia
#11
Philip Santos Requejo, Sara J Mulroy, Puja Ruparel, Patricia E Hatchett, Lisa Lighthall Haubert, Valerie J Eberly, JoAnne K Gronley
BACKGROUND: Shoulder loading during manual wheelchair propulsion (WCP) contributes to the development of shoulder pain in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE: To use regression analysis to investigate the relationships between the hand contact angle (location of the hand on the pushrim at initial contact and release during the push phase of the WCP cycle) with propulsion characteristics, pushrim forces, and shoulder kinetics during WCP in individuals with paraplegia...
2015: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26155870/upper-limb-strength-and-muscle-volume-in-healthy-middle-aged-adults
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Katherine R Saul, Meghan E Vidt, Garry E Gold, Wendy M Murray
Our purpose was to characterize shoulder muscle volume and isometric moment, as well as their relationship, for healthy middle- aged adults. Muscle volume and maximum isometric joint moment were assessed for 6 functional muscle groups of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in 10 middle-aged adults (46–60 y, 5M, 5F). Compared with young adults, shoulder abductors composed a smaller percentage of total muscle volume (P = .0009) and there was a reduction in shoulder adductor strength relative to elbow flexors (P = ...
December 2015: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26141161/knee-adduction-moment-relates-to-medial-femoral-and-tibial-cartilage-morphology-in-clinical-knee-osteoarthritis
#13
Monica R Maly, Stacey M Acker, Saara Totterman, José Tamez-Peña, Paul W Stratford, Jack P Callaghan, Jonathan D Adachi, Karen A Beattie
The objective was to determine the extent to which the external peak knee adduction moment (KAM) and cumulative knee adductor load explained variation in medial cartilage morphology of the tibia and femur in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Sixty-two adults with clinical knee OA participated (61.5 ± 6.2 years). To determine KAM, inverse dynamics was applied to motion and force data of walking. Cumulative knee adductor load reflected KAM impulse and loading frequency. Loading frequency was captured from an accelerometer...
September 18, 2015: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25862486/a-more-informed-evaluation-of-medial-compartment-loading-the-combined-use-of-the-knee-adduction-and-flexor-moments
#14
K Manal, E Gardinier, T S Buchanan, L Snyder-Mackler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the peak knee flexor moment (pKFM) provides unique and meaningful information about peak medial compartment loading above and beyond what is obtained from the peak knee adduction moment. METHODS: Standard video-based motion capture and EMG recordings were collected for 10 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed subjects walking at a self-selected speed. Knee joint moments were obtained using inverse dynamics and medial contact force was computed using an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model...
July 2015: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25723586/-causes-and-calculated-predictors-of-a-duchenne-gait-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cerebral-palsy
#15
E Klum, H Streicher, H Böhm, P Wagner, L Döderlein
BACKGROUND: Adolescents with cerebral palsy often complain about a Duchenne gait, which increases the load on the spine, the energy consumption and therefore decreases gait efficiency. However the underlying causes of a Duchenne gait in patients with CP are not clearly researched yet. Nevertheless there is an assumption that excessive trunk lean might assist foot clearance to compensate for muscle weakness or contractures of the legs. In particular weakness, secondary to surgical soft tissue muscle tendon lengthening in childhood, might predispose patients to greater compensatory movements of the trunk...
February 2015: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25474340/change-in-pitching-biomechanics-in-the-late-inning-in-taiwanese-high-school-baseball-pitchers
#16
Paul Pei-Hsi Chou, Yen-Po Huang, Yi-Hsuan Gu, Chiang Liu, Shen-Kai Chen, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Rong-Tyai Wang, Ming-Jer Huang, Hwai-Ting Lin
Repetitive overhead throwing may result in overuse injuries and a change in the pitching mechanics of a baseball pitcher. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in the muscle strength and pitching motion kinematics in the late-innings stage of a baseball game. Sixteen healthy baseball pitchers (16.77 ± 0.73 years) recruited from a high school, which won the National High School Baseball Championship in Taiwan in 2011; each performed 100 pitches in a bullpen throwing session. Isometric muscle strength measurements and joint kinematic data were obtained before and after the throwing session...
June 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25440576/biomechanical-risk-factors-for-knee-osteoarthritis-when-using-passive-and-powered-ankle-foot-prostheses
#17
Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Jason M Wilken
BACKGROUND: Gait compensations following transtibial amputation negatively affect sound limb loading and increase the risk of knee osteoarthritis. Push-off assistance provided by new powered prostheses may decrease the demands on the sound limb. However, their effects in a young population in the early stages of prosthetic use are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare limb loading between 1. passive and powered ankle-foot prostheses, 2. sound and amputated limbs, and 3...
December 2014: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25102291/cutting-mechanics-relation-to-performance-and-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-risk
#18
Kathryn L Havens, Susan M Sigward
PURPOSE: Quick changes of direction during running (cutting) are necessary for successful performance of many sports but are associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Currently, it is not known how biomechanics associated with fast performance of cutting tasks relate to the mechanics associated with increased risk for injury. Without this knowledge, the technique emphasized in injury prevention programs may be at odds with the demands of cutting tasks. The purposes of this study were to 1) identify whole body and/or joint mechanics that are related to completion times of 45° and 90° cuts and, from these variables, 2) determine which variables are predictors of performance (i...
April 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25010630/the-effects-of-a-lateral-in-flight-perturbation-on-lower-extremity-biomechanics-during-drop-landings
#19
Jae P Yom, Kathy J Simpson, Scott W Arnett, Cathleen N Brown
One potential ACL injury situation is due to contact with another person or object during the flight phase, thereby causing the person to land improperly. Conversely, athletes often have flight-phase collisions but do land safely. Therefore, to better understand ACL injury causation and methods by which people typically land safely, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an in-flight perturbation on the lower extremity biomechanics displayed by females during typical drop landings. Seventeen collegiate female recreational athletes performed baseline landings, followed by either unexpected laterally-directed perturbation or sham (nonperturbation) drop landings...
October 2014: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25001917/functional-morphology-and-comparative-anatomy-of-appendicular-musculature-in-cuban-anolis-lizards-with-different-locomotor-habits
#20
Wataru Anzai, Ayano Omura, Antonio Cadiz Diaz, Masakado Kawata, Hideki Endo
We examined the diversity of the musculoskeletal morphology in the limbs of Anolis lizards with different habitats and identified variations in functional and morphological adaptations to different ecologies or behaviors. Dissection and isolation of 40 muscles from the fore- and hindlimbs of five species of Anolis were performed, and the muscle mass and length of the moment arm were compared after body size effects were removed. Ecologically and behaviorally characteristic morphological differences were observed in several muscles...
July 2014: Zoological Science
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