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Adductor moment

Enda F Whyte, Chris Richter, Siobhan O'Connor, Kieran A Moran
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries frequently occur during side cutting maneuvers when fatigued or reacting to the sporting environment. Trunk and hip biomechanics are proposed to influence ACL loading during these activities. However, the effects of fatigue and unanticipation on the biomechanics of the kinetic chain may be limited by traditional discrete point analysis. We recruited twenty-eight male, varsity, Gaelic footballers (21.7±2.2 years; 178.7±14.6m; 81.8±11.4kg) to perform anticipated and unanticipated side cutting maneuvers pre- and post- a high intensity, intermittent exercise protocol (HIIP)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Hésojy Gley Pereira Vital da Silva, Alessandro Rozim Zorzi, Heglayne Pereira Vital da Silva, João Batista de Miranda
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical gait changes are proposed as adaptations to medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), and little is known about which parameters can be modified early by high tibial osteotomy (HTO) surgery. The aim of this study was to identify early gait changes in a postoperative period of 6 months as compared to a control group, in three different spatial planes. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with OA were submitted to three-dimensional gait analysis preoperatively and 6 months after HTO surgery...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Rudranil Nandi, Shekhar Ranjan Basu, Susanta Sarkar, Rakesh Garg
Background and Aims: Haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation and their hazards are well documented. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of laryngoscopy and intubation on cardiovascular responses when the appropriate moment for intubation was directed by either clinical judgment or train-of-four assessment. Methods: A total of 68 patients, posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomised into two groups. In Group M patients, the trachea was intubated after train of four counts became zero in adductor pollicis muscle, whereas in Group C patients, the trachea was intubated after the clinical judgment of jaw muscle relaxation...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Ross A Bogey, Lee A Barnes
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of individual hip muscles to the net hip power in normal adult self-selected speed walking. A further goal was to examine each muscle's role in propulsion or support of the body during that task. METHODS: An EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model was developed which scaled muscle-tendon unit (MTU) force output to gait EMG. Active muscle power was defined as the product of MTU forces (derived from EFP) and that muscle's contraction velocity...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Ross A Bogey, Lee A Barnes
The force of a single muscle is not directly measurable without invasive methods. Yet invasive techniques are not appropriate for clinical use, thus a non-invasive technique that combined the electromyographic (EMG) signal and a neuromuscular model was developed to determine in vivo active muscle forces at the hip. The EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model included active and passive moment components, and the net EFP moment was compared with the hip moment obtained with standard inverse dynamics techniques ("gold standard")...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Bhupinder Singh, Huy Vo, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, H John Yack
PURPOSE: This study assessed the biomechanical gait changes in obese and normal-weight female adult subjects after a commonly recommended 30-min walking session. Hip and knee adduction and extensor moments, which are the primary modulators of frontal and sagittal plane load distribution, were hypothesized to increase in obese females after a 30-min walking period, resulting in more stress across the hip and knee joint. METHODS: Ten obese (37.7 ± 4.8 yr of age, body mass index [BMI] = 36...
March 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ross A Bogey, Lee A Barnes
The force of a single muscle is not directly measurable without invasive methods. Yet invasive techniques are not appropriate for clinical use, thus a non-invasive technique that combined the electromyographic (EMG) signal and a neuromuscular model was developed to determine in vivo active muscle forces at the hip. The EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model included active and passive moment components, and the net EFP moment was compared with the hip moment obtained with standard inverse dynamics techniques ("gold standard")...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Bhupinder Singh, Megan G Negatu, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, H John Yack
The purpose of this study was to determine how an overweight or obese child's cardiorespiratory fitness level and a state of fatigue affect gait biomechanics. METHODS: Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, twenty-nine (female and male) overweight and obese children aged 8-11 years walked on force plates before and after being fatigued from the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) protocol. Joint moments were calculated for the knee and hip in the frontal and sagittal planes...
October 2016: Gait & Posture
J-P Kulmala, M T Korhonen, S Kuitunen, H Suominen, A Heinonen, A Mikkola, J Avela
This study investigated the whole body frontal plane mechanics among young (26 ± 6 years), early old (61 ± 5 years), and old (78 ± 4 years) adults during walking, running, and sprinting. The age-groups had similar walking (1.6 m/s) and running (4.0 m/s) speeds, but different maximal sprinting speed (young 9.3 m/s, early old 7.9 m/s, and old 6.6 m/s). Surprisingly, although the old group exerted much lower vertical ground reaction force during running and sprinting, the hip frontal plane moment did not differ between the age-groups...
September 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Ward M Glasoe
Synopsis Hallux valgus is a progressive deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that changes the anatomy and biomechanics of the foot. To date, surgery is the only treatment to correct this deformity, though the recurrence rate is as high as 15%. This clinical commentary provides instruction in a strengthening approach for treatment of hallux valgus deformity, by addressing the moment actions of 5 muscles identified as having the ability to counter the hallux valgus process. Unlike surgery, muscle strengthening does not correct the deformity, but, instead, reduces the pain and associated gait impairments that affect the mobility of people who live with the disorder...
July 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Guilherme M Cesar, Curtis L Tomasevicz, Judith M Burnfield
The potential to use the vertical jump (VJ) to assess both athletic performance and risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury could have widespread clinical implications since VJ is broadly used in high school, university, and professional sport settings. Although drop jump (DJ) and VJ observationally exhibit similar lower extremity mechanics, the extent to which VJ can also be used as screening tool for ACL injury risk has not been assessed. This study evaluated whether individuals exhibit similar knee joint frontal plane kinematic and kinetic patterns when performing VJs compared with DJs...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
D McClelland, D Barlow, T S Moores, C Wynn-Jones, D Griffiths, P J Ogrodnik, P B M Thomas
In arthritis of the varus knee, a high tibial osteotomy (HTO) redistributes load from the diseased medial compartment to the unaffected lateral compartment. We report the outcome of 36 patients (33 men and three women) with 42 varus, arthritic knees who underwent HTO and dynamic correction using a Garches external fixator until they felt that normal alignment had been restored. The mean age of the patients was 54.11 years (34 to 68). Normal alignment was achieved at a mean 5.5 weeks (3 to 10) post-operatively...
May 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
Anne Khuu, Eric Foch, Cara L Lewis
BACKGROUND: The single leg squat (SLS) is a functional task used by practitioners to evaluate and treat multiple pathologies of the lower extremity. Variations of the SLS may have different neuromuscular and biomechanical demands. The effect of altering the non-stance leg position during the SLS on trunk, pelvic, and lower extremity mechanics has not been reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare trunk, pelvic, hip, knee, and ankle kinematics and hip, knee, and ankle kinetics of three variations of the SLS using different non-stance leg positions: SLS-Front, SLS-Middle, and SLS-Back...
April 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Jens De Meyer, Joachim Christiaens, Dominique Adriaens
Two phenotypes are present within the European eel population: broad-heads and narrow-heads. The expression of these phenotypes has been linked to several factors, such as diet and differential growth. The exact factors causing this dimorphism, however, are still unknown. In this study, we performed a feeding experiment on glass eels from the moment they start to feed. Eels were either fed a hard diet, which required biting and spinning behavior, or a soft diet, which required suction feeding. We found that the hard feeders develop a broader head and a larger adductor mandibulae region than eels that were fed a soft diet, implying that the hard feeders are capable of larger bite forces...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ali Nabavizadeh
Jaw mechanics in ornithischian dinosaurs have been widely studied for well over a century. Most of these studies, however, use only one or few taxa within a given ornithischian clade as a model for feeding mechanics across the entire clade. In this study, mandibular mechanical advantages among 52 ornithischian genera spanning all subclades are calculated using 2D lever arm methods. These lever arm calculations estimate the effect of jaw shape and difference in adductor muscle line of action on relative bite forces along the jaw...
March 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Philip Santos Requejo, Sara J Mulroy, Puja Ruparel, Patricia E Hatchett, Lisa Lighthall Haubert, Valerie J Eberly, JoAnne K Gronley
BACKGROUND: Shoulder loading during manual wheelchair propulsion (WCP) contributes to the development of shoulder pain in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE: To use regression analysis to investigate the relationships between the hand contact angle (location of the hand on the pushrim at initial contact and release during the push phase of the WCP cycle) with propulsion characteristics, pushrim forces, and shoulder kinetics during WCP in individuals with paraplegia...
2015: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Katherine R Saul, Meghan E Vidt, Garry E Gold, Wendy M Murray
Our purpose was to characterize shoulder muscle volume and isometric moment, as well as their relationship, for healthy middle- aged adults. Muscle volume and maximum isometric joint moment were assessed for 6 functional muscle groups of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in 10 middle-aged adults (46–60 y, 5M, 5F). Compared with young adults, shoulder abductors composed a smaller percentage of total muscle volume (P = .0009) and there was a reduction in shoulder adductor strength relative to elbow flexors (P = ...
December 2015: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Monica R Maly, Stacey M Acker, Saara Totterman, José Tamez-Peña, Paul W Stratford, Jack P Callaghan, Jonathan D Adachi, Karen A Beattie
The objective was to determine the extent to which the external peak knee adduction moment (KAM) and cumulative knee adductor load explained variation in medial cartilage morphology of the tibia and femur in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Sixty-two adults with clinical knee OA participated (61.5 ± 6.2 years). To determine KAM, inverse dynamics was applied to motion and force data of walking. Cumulative knee adductor load reflected KAM impulse and loading frequency. Loading frequency was captured from an accelerometer...
September 18, 2015: Journal of Biomechanics
K Manal, E Gardinier, T S Buchanan, L Snyder-Mackler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the peak knee flexor moment (pKFM) provides unique and meaningful information about peak medial compartment loading above and beyond what is obtained from the peak knee adduction moment. METHODS: Standard video-based motion capture and EMG recordings were collected for 10 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed subjects walking at a self-selected speed. Knee joint moments were obtained using inverse dynamics and medial contact force was computed using an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model...
July 2015: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
E Klum, H Streicher, H Böhm, P Wagner, L Döderlein
BACKGROUND: Adolescents with cerebral palsy often complain about a Duchenne gait, which increases the load on the spine, the energy consumption and therefore decreases gait efficiency. However the underlying causes of a Duchenne gait in patients with CP are not clearly researched yet. Nevertheless there is an assumption that excessive trunk lean might assist foot clearance to compensate for muscle weakness or contractures of the legs. In particular weakness, secondary to surgical soft tissue muscle tendon lengthening in childhood, might predispose patients to greater compensatory movements of the trunk...
February 2015: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
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