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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452256/modulation-of-oxidative-stress-response-by-flaxseed-oil-role-of-lipid-peroxidation-and-underlying-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Rajnish Kumar Yadav, Manjari Singh, Subhadeep Roy, Mohd Nazam Ansari, Abdulaziz S Saeedan, Gaurav Kaithwas
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) are majorly classified as ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids. The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, ω-3:20-5), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ω-3:22-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3:18-3) are known ω-3 fatty acids, extracted from animal (e.g fish oil) and plant sources (e.g flaxseed oil). Furthermore, linoleic acid (LA, ω-6:18-2) is recognized as ω-6 fatty acid and the most prominent biological fatty acid with a pro-inflammatory response. Flaxseed oil has variety of biological roles, due to a significant amount of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids...
February 13, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450735/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-protects-dental-tissue-stem-cells-against-oxidative-stress-in-vitro
#2
Jasmina Martacic, Milica Kovacevic Filipovic, Suncica Borozan, Zorica Cvetkovic, Tamara Popovic, Aleksandra Arsic, Marija Takic, Vesna Vucic, Maria Glibetic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate whether N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) could protect stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) against oxidative damage, during in vitro cultivation, to preserve regenerative potential of these cells. Accordingly, we examined the potential of cell culture supplementation with NAC in prevention of lipid peroxidation, unfavorable changes of total lipids fatty acid composition, and the effects on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the extent of oxidative damage in SHED after 48 h treatment with different NAC concentrations...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449902/sers-fluorescence-bimodal-nanoprobes-for-in-vitro-imaging-of-fatty-acid-responsive-receptor-gpr120
#3
Lifu Xiao, Abdul K Parchur, Timothy A Gilbertson, Anhong Zhou
G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), as a member of the rhodopsin family of G-protein-coupled receptors, has been shown to function as a sensor for dietary fat in the gustatory and digestive systems. Its specific role in the chemoreception of fatty acids, which is thought to be crucial in understanding the mechanism surrounding the control of fat intake and, accordingly, in the treatment of obesity, remains unclear. Here we report a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-fluorescence bimodal microscopic technique for detection and imaging of GPR120 in single living cells...
2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448064/toxicity-of-different-fatty-acids-and-methyl-esters-on-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae
#4
Aline Rocha de Melo, Israel J Pereira Garcia, José Eduardo Serrão, Hérica Lima Santos, Luciana A Rodrigues Dos Santos Lima, Stênio Nunes Alves
The Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito is a vector of several diseases, and its control has been performed with synthetic insecticides, which may have human and environmental side effects. Thus, the use of new and safe molecules are important, and this study evaluated the toxicity of active substances against this mosquito. The oleic, linoleic, linolenic, palmitic and stearic acids and their respective methyl esters were tested against fourth instar C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids had LC50 values of 8...
February 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446339/the-rs1527483-but-not-rs3212018-cd36-polymorphism-associates-with-linoleic-acid-detection-and-obesity-in-czech-young-adults
#5
Jiří Plesník, Omar Šerý, Amira S Khan, Peter Bielik, Naim A Khan
Recent evidence has raised the possibility of the existence of a sixth taste modality - that is, taste for fat - which is mediated by lingual CD36 and plays a role in obesity. Consequently, the genetic polymorphism of CD36 has been shown to be associated with altered oro-sensory detection of dietary lipids. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between oro-sensory perception of linoleic acid (LA), two CD36 polymorphisms (rs1527483 and rs3212018), obesity parameters and craving habits for dietary lipids in young Czech adults...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445419/highly-efficient-conversion-of-plant-oil-to-bio-aviation-fuel-and-valuable-chemicals-by-combination-of-enzymatic-transesterification-olefin-cross-metathesis-and-hydrotreating
#6
Meng Wang, Mojin Chen, Yunming Fang, Tianwei Tan
Background: The production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources is increasingly important due to the environmental concern and depletion of fossil fuel. Despite the fast technical development in the production of aviation fuels, there are still several shortcomings such as a high cost of raw materials, a low yield of aviation fuels, and poor process techno-economic consideration. In recent years, olefin metathesis has become a powerful and versatile tool for generating new carbon-carbon bonds...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442208/the-role-of-acyl-coa-thioesterase-acot8i-in-mediating-intracellular-lipid-metabolism-in-oleaginous-fungus-mortierella-alpina
#7
Jing Guo, Haiqin Chen, Bo Yang, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Yong Q Chen
Thioesterases (TEs) play an essential role in the metabolism of fatty acids (FAs). To explore the role of TEs in mediating intracellular lipid metabolism in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina, the acyl-CoA thioesterase ACOT8I was overexpressed. The contents of total fatty acids (TFAs) were the same in the recombinant strains as in the wild-type M. alpina, whilst the production of free fatty acids (FFAs) was enhanced from about 0.9% (wild-type) to 2.8% (recombinant), a roughly threefold increase. Linoleic acid content in FFA form constituted about 9% of the TFAs in the FFA fraction in the recombinant strains but only about 1...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436473/high-erythrocyte-levels-of-the-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-linoleic-acid-are-associated-with-lower-risk-of-subsequent-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-a-southern-european-nested-case-control-study
#8
Paola de Pablo, Dora Romaguera, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder, Anne-Marie Quirke, Alison J Cartwright, Salvatore Panico, Amalia Mattiello, Diana Gavrila, Carman Navarro, Carlotta Sacerdote, Paolo Vineis, Rosario Tumino, William E Ollier, Dominique S Michaud, Elio Riboli, Patrick J Venables, Benjamin A Fisher
OBJECTIVES: Findings relating to dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mixed. Erythrocyte membrane PUFA is an accurate objective biomarker of PUFA status; however, there are little data on erythrocyte membrane PUFA and risk of RA. The objective was therefore to compare erythrocyte membrane PUFA between pre-RA individuals and matched controls from a population-based sample, and specifically to test the hypothesis that higher levels of longer chain n-3 PUFA are associated with lower risk of RA...
February 7, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433780/nutritional-enhancement-of-sheep-meat-fatty-acid-profile-for-human-health-and-wellbeing
#9
Obert C Chikwanha, Payam Vahmani, Voster Muchenje, Michael E R Dugan, Cletos Mapiye
Dietary fatty acids (FA) consumed by sheep, like other ruminants, can undergo biohydrogenation resulting in high proportions of saturated FA (SFA) in meat. Biohydrogenation is typically less extensive in sheep than cattle, and consequently, sheep meat can contain higher proportions of omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and PUFA biohydrogenation intermediates (PUFA-BHI) including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-monounsaturated FAs (t-MUFA). Sheep meat is also noted for having characteristically higher contents of branched chain FA (BCFA)...
February 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433298/chemical-composition-and-inhibitory-activities-on-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-and-pancreatic-lipase-of-two-underutilized-species-from-the-brazilian-savannah-oxalis-cordata-a-st-hil-and-xylopia-aromatica-lam-mart
#10
Verena B Oliveira, Raquel L B Araújo, Thomas Eidenberger, Maria G L Brandão
Brazil has the greatest vegetal biodiversity in the world, but products derived from native species are not optimally utilized. Oxalis cordata and Xylopia aromatica are two underutilized species whose leaves and fruits, respectively, have been used as food in the 19th century. In this study, we used chemical and in vitro assays to evaluate the potential of these species as functional foods. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase and DPP-IV were evaluated using the crude extracts and fractions ethyl acetate, butanol and water of these two species...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433225/metabolite-profiling-of-green-green-red-and-red-lettuce-cultivars-variation-in-health-beneficial-compounds-and-antioxidant-potential
#11
Dae-Eun Kim, Xiaomin Shang, Awraris Derbie Assefa, Young-Soo Keum, Ramesh Kumar Saini
Salad vegetables, commonly consumed at baby-leaf stages, are the most appropriate and emerging dietary source of antioxidant compounds. Screening and identification of nutrient-rich cultivars can be potentially useful to obtain a nutrient-dense diet. Thus, in this study, we explored the genetic potential of baby leaves of 23 diverse lettuce cultivars for the health-beneficial metabolites. The results showed that the composition and contents of the studied metabolites in lettuces varied significantly between cultivars and were principally dependent on leaf color...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428612/spirulina-cultivated-under-different-light-emitting-diodes-enhanced-cell-growth-and-phycocyanin-production
#12
Denise da Fontoura Prates, Elisângela Martha Radmann, Jessica Hartwig Duarte, Michele Greque de Morais, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa
This study evaluated light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source in Spirulina sp. LEB 18 cultures in terms of growth parameters and biomass composition. Different photoperiods (partial and integral) and colors (blue, green, red and white) were assessed. Blue, green, red and white LEDs increased biomass productivity and maximum specific growth rate of such cultivations. The maximum biomass concentration (1.77 ± 0.02 g L -1 ) was obtained when red LEDs in integral light photoperiod were applied to cultivations...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425111/the-safety-of-lipistart-a-medium-chain-triglyceride-based-formula-in-the-dietary-treatment-of-long-chain-fatty-acid-disorders-a-phase-i-study
#13
Anita MacDonald, Rachel Webster, Matthew Whitlock, Adam Gerrard, Anne Daly, Mary Anne Preece, Sharon Evans, Catherine Ashmore, Anupam Chakrapani, Suresh Vijay, Saikat Santra
BACKGROUND: Children with long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation disorders (LCFAOD) presenting with clinical symptoms are treated with a specialist infant formula, with medium chain triglyceride (MCT) mainly replacing long chain triglyceride (LCT). It is essential that the safety and efficacy of any new specialist formula designed for LCFAOD be tested in infants and children. METHODS: In an open-label, 21-day, phase I trial, we studied the safety of a new MCT-based formula (feed 1) in six well-controlled children (three male), aged 7-13 years (median 9 years) with LCFAOD (very long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency [VLCADD], n=2; long chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency [LCHADD], n=2; carnitine acyl carnitine translocase deficiency [CACTD], n=2)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424439/divergent-response-of-murine-and-porcine-adipocytes-to-stimulation-of-browning-genes-by-18-carbon-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-beta-receptor-agonists
#14
Sunhye Shin, Kolapo M Ajuwon
Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are known to activate brown and beige adipocytes. However, very little is known about the effects of the number and the position of double bonds in LCFA with the same length on brown fat-specific gene expression. To determine the specificity of LCFA in the regulation of these genes in different adipocyte models, fully differentiated 10T1/2, 3T3-L1, murine, or porcine primary adipocytes (obtained from the subcutaneous fat pad of C57BL/6 mice or Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc crossbred piglets) were treated with 50 μM of the following 18-carbon fatty acids: stearic acid (STA; 18:0), oleic acid (OLA; 18:1, Δ9), linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2, Δ9,12), α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3, Δ9,12,15), γ-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3, Δ6,9,12), or pinolenic acid (PLA; 18:3, Δ5,9,12) for 24 h with or without 4-h norepinephrine (NE) treatment...
February 9, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423386/erythrocyte-membrane-unsaturated-mono-and-poly-fatty-acids-profile-in-newly-diagnosed-basal-cell-carcinoma-patients
#15
Fatemeh Rahrovani, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Ehsan Ghaedi, Hamed Mohammadi, Amir-Hooshang Ehsani, Ali Esrafili, Mahmoud Djalali
Studies have reported different changes in the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) total lipids in patients with various types of cancer. It has been indicated that n-3/n-6 ratio plays a key role in the general consequence of skin photocarcinogenesis. However, to our knowledge there was no study examining the unsaturated fatty acid profile in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients. So, we explore the fatty acid composition of RBCs in newly diagnosed BCC patients in a hospital-based case-control study...
January 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414239/effects-of-highland-barley-bran-extract-rich-in-phenolic-acids-on-the-formation-of-n%C3%AE%C2%B5-carboxymethyllysine-in-a-biscuit-model
#16
Huilin Liu, Xiaomo Chen, Dianwei Zhang, Jing Wang, Shuo Wang, Baoguo Sun
Highland barley, a staple food in northwest China, is a well-known source of bioactive phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of highland barley bran extracts (HBBE) on the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) levels in a biscuit model, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) contents. CML was detected in all inhibition models using HBBE extracted with different solvents. Under optimal conditions, CML formation in the heated model system composed of glucose/lysine/linoleic acid was effectively inhibited by HBBE...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413967/fatty-acid-profile-in-peri-prostatic-adipose-tissue-and-prostate-cancer-aggressiveness-in-african-caribbean-and-caucasian-patients
#17
Sandy Figiel, Michelle Pinault, Isabelle Domingo, Cyrille Guimaraes, Roseline Guibon, Pierre Besson, Elsa Tavernier, Pascal Blanchet, Luc Multigner, Franck Bruyère, Olivier Haillot, Romain Mathieu, Sebastien Vincendeau, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Souhil Lebdai, Abdel-Rahmene Azzouzi, Marie-Aimee Perrouin-Verbe, Georges Fournier, Laurent Doucet, Jerome Rigaud, Karine Renaudin, Karine Mahéo, Gaëlle Fromont
BACKGROUND: Genetic and nutritional factors have been linked to the risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). The fatty acid (FA) composition of peri-prostatic adipose tissue (PPAT), which reflects the past FA intake, is potentially involved in PCa progression. We analysed the FA composition of PPAT, in correlation with the ethno-geographical origin of the patients and markers of tumour aggressiveness. METHODS: From a cohort of 1000 men treated for PCa by radical prostatectomy, FA composition of PPAT was analysed in 156 patients (106 Caucasians and 50 African-Caribbeans), 78 with an indolent tumour (ISUP group 1 + pT2 + PSA <10 ng/mL) and 78 with an aggressive tumour (ISUP group 4-5 + pT3)...
March 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413964/in-situ-generation-metabolism-and-immunomodulatory-signaling-actions-of-nitro-conjugated-linoleic-acid-in-a-murine-model-of-inflammation
#18
Luis Villacorta, Lucia Minarrieta, Sonia R Salvatore, Nicholas K Khoo, Oren Rom, Zhen Gao, Rebecca C Berman, Soma Jobbagy, Lihua Li, Steven R Woodcock, Y Eugene Chen, Bruce A Freeman, Ana M Ferreira, Francisco J Schopfer, Dario A Vitturi
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a prime substrate for intra-gastric nitration giving rise to the formation of nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-CLA). Herein, NO2-CLA generation is demonstrated within the context of acute inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo. Macrophage activation resulted in dose- and time-dependent CLA nitration and also in the production of secondary electrophilic and non-electrophilic derivatives. Both exogenous NO2-CLA as well as that generated in situ, attenuated NF-κB-dependent gene expression, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and up-regulated Nrf2-regulated proteins...
January 12, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413935/microbial-lipid-production-by-cryptococcus-curvatus-from-vegetable-waste-hydrolysate
#19
Sulogna Chatterjee, S Venkata Mohan
This study primarily evaluated the effect of pre-treatment on release of reducing sugars (RS) from vegetable waste (VW). Different acids and alkalis viz., H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, H3PO4, NaOH and KOH were evaluated at varied concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%) for pretreatment. The highest RS yield of 472.36 ± 1.89 g/l and 439.13 ± 1.04 g/l was obtained with 1.5% H2SO4 and 2% HCl respectively. Secondly, pre-treated vegetable waste hydrolysates (PT-VWH) were evaluated for yeast fermentation using Cryptococcus curvatus MTCC 2698 for lipid production...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413364/arachidonic-acid-supplementation-modulates-blood-and-skeletal-muscle-lipid-profile-with-no-effect-on-basal-inflammation-in-resistance-exercise-trained-men
#20
James F Markworth, Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Kirsten M M Aasen, Brenan R Durainayagam, Sarah M Mitchell, Alex H C Chan, Andrew J Sinclair, Manohar Garg, David Cameron-Smith
Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is the metabolic precursor to the eicosanoid family of lipid mediators. Eicosanoids have potent pro-inflammatory actions, but also act as important autocrine/paracrine signaling molecules in skeletal muscle growth and development. Whether dietary ARA is incorporated into skeletal muscle phospholipids and the resulting impact on intramuscular inflammatory and adaptive processes in-vivo is not known. In the current study, resistance trained men (≥1 year) received dietary supplementation with 1...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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