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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551260/fatty-acid-and-phenolic-profiles-of-almond-grown-in-serbia
#1
Slavica D Čolić, Milica M Fotirić Akšić, Kristina B Lazarević, Gordan N Zec, Uroš M Gašić, Dragana Č Dabić Zagorac, Maja M Natić
Almond production is not typical for Serbia however the existence of natural populations and unexpectedly suitable agro-climatic conditions initiated this kind of study. Total oil content and concentrations of the fatty acids, total phenolic content and radical-scavenging activity were determined in the kernel oil of 20 local almond selections originating from North Serbia and cultivars 'Marcona', 'Texas' and 'Troito'. Sixteen fatty acids were identified and quantified, with the most abundant being oleic acid and linoleic acid...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551180/effect-of-dietary-quebracho-tannin-extract-on-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-cows
#2
Anika Henke, Edwin Westreicher-Kristen, Joachim Molkentin, Uta Dickhoefer, Karin Knappstein, Mario Hasler, Andreas Susenbeth
The aim of this study was to examine the capacity of quebracho tannin extract (QTE) to modulate the fatty acid (FA) profile in the milk fat of cows. Fifty Holstein cows yielding 33.2 ± 8.2 kg/d of milk were divided into 2 groups. The cows were fed a basal diet with a forage-concentrate ratio of 66:34 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Diets tested were control (CON, basal diet without QTE) and basal diet plus 15 or 30 g of QTE/kg of DM (QTE15 and QTE30, respectively). Two treatments could be tested simultaneously and were arranged along 6 periods...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551025/cytochrome-p450-derived-eicosanoids-and-heart-function
#3
REVIEW
K Lockhart Jamieson, Tomoko Endo, Ahmed M Darwesh, Victor Samokhvalov, John M Seubert
The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system (CYP) is a multigene superfamily of enzymes, which are important in the metabolism foreign and endogenous compounds. CYP isoforms metabolize a number of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA), arachidonic acid (20:4n6, AA), ecosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3, DHA) into bioactive lipid mediators, termed eicosanoids. CYP-derived eicosanoids have numerous effects toward physiological and pathophysiological events within the body, which depends on the type, quantity and timing of metabolites produced...
May 24, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550409/lipid-droplets-accumulation-and-other-biochemical-changes-induced-in-the-fungal-pathogen-ustilago-maydis-under-nitrogen-starvation
#4
Lucero Romero Aguilar, Juan Pablo Pardo, Mónica Montero Lomelí, Oscar Ivan Luqueño Bocardo, Marco A Juárez Oropeza, Guadalupe Guerra Sánchez
In many organisms, the growth under nitrogen-deprivation or a poor nitrogen source impacts on the carbon flow distribution and causes accumulation of neutral lipids, which are stored as lipid droplets (LDs). Efforts are in progress to find the mechanism of LDs synthesis and degradation, and new organisms capable of accumulating large amounts of lipids for biotechnological applications. In this context, when Ustilago maydis was cultured in the absence of a nitrogen source, there was a large accumulation of lipid bodies containing mainly triacylglycerols...
May 26, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549946/potential-metabolomic-biomarkers-for-reliable-diagnosis-of-behcet-s-disease-using-gas-chromatography-with-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#5
Joong Kyong Ahn, Jungyeon Kim, Jiwon Hwang, Juhwan Song, Kyoung Heon Kim, Hoon-Suk Cha
OBJECTIVES: Although many diagnostic criteria of Behcet's disease (BD) have been developed and revised by experts, diagnosing BD is still complicated and challenging. No metabolomic studies on serum have been attempted to improve the diagnosis and to identify potential biomarkers of BD. The purposes of this study were to investigate distinctive metabolic changes in serum samples of BD patients and to identify metabolic candidate biomarkers for reliable diagnosis of BD using the metabolomics platform...
May 23, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547181/sequential-feeding-of-lipid-supplement-enriches-beef-adipose-tissues-with-18-3n-3-biohydrogenation-intermediates
#6
P Vahmani, J L Aalhus, D C Rolland, T A McAllister, N Prieto, H C Block, S D Proctor, L L Guan, M E R Dugan
The present study was designed to determine if feeding steers extruded flaxseed and hay (25 and 75%; DM basis) together as a total mixed ration (TMR), or sequentially (non-TMR) would result in different enrichments of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their biohydrogenation intermediates (BHI) in beef adipose tissues [subcutaneous (SC) vs perirenal (PR) fat]. Forty-eight Angus cross steers (325 ± 16 kg) were stratified by weight to six pens, and pens were randomized to either TMR or non-TMR and fed ad libitum for an average of 242 days...
May 25, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544323/mass-spectrometric-evidence-for-the-modification-of-small-molecules-in-a-cobalt-60-irradiated-rodent-diet
#7
J K Prasain, L S Wilson, A Arabshahi, C Grubbs, S Barnes
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of radiation on the content of animal diet constituents using global metabolomics. Aqueous methanolic extracts of control and cobalt-60 irradiated NIH 7001 diets were comprehensively analyzed using nanoLC-MS/MS. Among the over two thousand ions revealed by XCMS followed by data preprocessing, 94 positive and 143 negative metabolite ions had greater than 1.5 fold changes and p-values <0.01. Use of Metaboanalyst statistical software demonstrated complete separation of the irradiated and non-radiated diets in unsupervised principal components analysis and supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543537/evaluation-of-bioactive-compounds-in-black-table-olives-fermented-with-selected-microbial-starters
#8
Miriana Durante, Maria Tufariello, Luca Tommasi, Marcello Salvatore Lenucci, Gianluca Bleve, Giovanni Mita
BACKGROUND: Table olives have been a component of the Mediterranean diet for centuries, with a consumption trend currently increasing worldwide. They are rich in bioactive molecules with nutritional, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or hormone-like properties. In this study, the concentration of phenolics, triterpenic acids, carotenoids, vitamins, as well as the fatty acid profiles and antioxidant activity were analyzed in the edible portion of black table olives (Olea europea L.) from Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars fermented with selected autochthonous starters and in the corresponding monovarietal olive oils...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542405/exchange-of-polar-lipids-from-adults-to-neonates-in-daphnia-magna-perturbations-in-sphingomyelin-allocation-by-dietary-lipids-and-environmental-toxicants
#9
Namrata Sengupta, Delaney C Reardon, Patrick D Gerard, William S Baldwin
Because xenosensing nuclear receptors are also lipid sensors that regulate lipid allocation, we hypothesized that toxicant-induced modulation of HR96 activity would alter lipid profiles and the balance between adult survival and neonate production following exposure in Daphnia magna. Adult daphnids were exposed to unsaturated fatty acid- and toxicant- activators or inhibitors of HR96 and later starved to test whether chemical exposure altered allocation toward survival or reproduction. The HR96 activators, linoleic acid and atrazine, decreased reproduction as expected with concomitant changes in the expression of HR96 regulated genes such as magro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540526/high-fat-diet-inhibits-pgc-1%C3%AE-suppressive-effect-on-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-hepatocytes
#10
Wermerson Assunção Barroso, Vanessa Jacob Victorino, Isabela Casagrande Jeremias, Ricardo Costa Petroni, Suely Kunimi Kubo Ariga, Thiago A Salles, Denise Frediani Barbeiro, Thais Martins de Lima, Heraldo Possolo de Souza
PURPOSE: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) regulates the expression of genes implicated in fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. Its role in liver steatosis is well established, since mice with liver-specific deletion of PGC-1α exhibit lipid accumulation and high-fat diet reduces hepatic PGC-1α expression in mice. In this study, we investigated the role of PGC-1α in the inflammatory changes observed in steatohepatitis induced by high-fat diet...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540308/relationships-between-composition-of-major-fatty-acids-and-fat-distribution-and-insulin-resistance-in-japanese
#11
Chikako Fujii, Toshihide Kawai, Koichiro Azuma, Yuko Oguma, Fuminori Katsukawa, Hiroshi Hirose, Kumiko Tanaka, Shu Meguro, Hideo Matsumoto, Hiroshi Itoh
Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the composition of free fatty acids (FFAs) and metabolic parameters, including body fat distribution, in Japanese. Methods. The study subjects were 111 Japanese patients (54 males, 57 females). Metabolic parameters and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas as determined by CT scanning at the umbilical level were measured. Glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed by administering 75 g glucose orally. Results. The percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2), the greatest constituent among FFAs, was negatively correlated with visceral fat area (r = -0...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540041/effects-of-quantitative-feed-restriction-and-sex-on-carcass-traits-meat-quality-and-meat-lipid-profile-of-morada-nova-lambs
#12
Thiago L A C de Araújo, Elzânia S Pereira, Ivone Y Mizubuti, Ana C N Campos, Marília W F Pereira, Eduardo L Heinzen, Hilton C R Magalhães, Leilson R Bezerra, Luciano P da Silva, Ronaldo L Oliveira
BACKGROUND: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed restriction (FR) and sex on the quantitative and qualitative carcass traits of Morada Nova lambs. Thirty-five animals with an initial body weight of 14.5 ± 0.89 kg and age of 120 d were used in a completely randomized study with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme consisting of three sexes (11 entire males, 12 castrated males and 12 females) and three levels of feeding (ad libitum - AL and 30% and 60% FR). RESULTS: Entire males presented greater hot and cold carcass weights (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539223/dietary-effects-of-raphanus-sativus-cv-sango-on-lipid-and-oxysterols-accumulation-in-rat-brain-a-lipidomic-study-on-a-non-genetic-obesity-model
#13
V Cardenia, F Vivarelli, S Cirillo, M Paolini, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Donatella Canistro
The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprout juice (SSJ) administration (75mg/kg b.w. SSJ/day) on the brain lipidomic profile (fatty acid, sterols, cholesterol oxidation) of rats (non-genetic model) subjected to a high-fat (34% crude fat) dietary regimen. The SSJ did not affect the lipid infiltration (7.7-9.3%) and the fatty acid composition of the rat brain, which was mainly composed by unsaturated fatty acids (∼58%); however, the high-fat diet regimen significantly halved linoleic acid (LA)...
May 21, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535958/dispersal-and-assimilation-of-an-aquaculture-waste-subsidy-in-a-low-productivity-coastal-environment
#14
C A White, P D Nichols, D J Ross, T Dempster
To understand dispersal and assimilation of aquaculture waste subsidies in a naturally low-productivity environment, we applied a novel, rapid transmethylation technique to analyse sediment and biota fatty acid composition. This technique was initially validated at Atlantic salmon farms in Macquarie Harbour, Australia, where sediments were collected at farm and control locations. Subsequently, sediment, benthic polychaete and zooplankton were sampled at sites 0, 50, 250, 500 and 1000m distant from multiple cages...
May 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535956/highly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-hufa-mediate-and-monitor-food-s-impact-on-health
#15
REVIEW
Bill Lands
A hyperbolic, saturable, competitive dynamic of ligand binding to metabolic enzymes and lipid mediator receptors gives non-linear dose-response interactions that need careful management when planning or interpreting nutrient-based interventions. Relatively indiscriminate metabolism during accumulation of HUFA from n-3 and n-6 nutrients allows the amounts of n-3 and n-6 nutrients to determine the HUFA balance accumulated in tissue phospholipids. However, when HUFA-based eicosanoid actions are more intense with n-6 than n-3 mediators, they cause healthy physiology to shift toward pathophysiology...
May 20, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534446/blood-fatty-acid-changes-in-healthy-young-americans-in-response-to-a-10-week-diet-that-increased-n-3-and-reduced-n-6-fatty-acid-consumption-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Andrew J Young, Bernadette P Marriott, Catherine M Champagne, Michael R Hawes, Scott J Montain, Neil M Johannsen, Kevin Berry, Joseph R Hibbeln
Military personnel generally under-consume n-3 fatty acids and overconsume n-6 fatty acids. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we investigated whether a diet suitable for implementation in military dining facilities and civilian cafeterias could benefit n-3/n-6 fatty acid status of consumers. Three volunteer groups were provided different diets for 10 weeks. Control (CON) participants consumed meals from the US Military's Standard Garrison Dining Facility Menu. Experimental, moderate (EXP-Mod) and experimental-high (EXP-High) participants consumed the same meals, but high n-6 fatty acid and low n-3 fatty acid containing chicken, egg, oils and food ingredients were replaced with products having less n-6 fatty acids and more n-3 fatty acids...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531790/an-initial-evaluation-of-newly-proposed-biomarker-of-zinc-status-in-humans-linoleic-acid-dihomo-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-la-dgla-ratio
#17
Marija Knez, James C R Stangoulis, Manja Zec, Jasmina Debeljak-Martacic, Zoran Pavlovic, Mirjana Gurinovic, Maria Glibetic
BACKGROUND: Zinc is an essential micronutrient for humans with important physiological functions. A sensitive and specific biomarker for assessing Zn status is still needed. OBJECTIVE: The major aim of this study was to examine if the changes in the content of plasma phospholipid LA, DGLA and LA: DGLA ratio can be used to efficiently predict the dietary Zn intake and plasma Zn status of humans. METHODS: The study was performed on healthy human volunteers, 25-55 years of age...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531128/linoleic-acid-a-nutritional-quandary
#18
REVIEW
Ronald J Jandacek
Over the course of the twentieth century, there was a 20-fold increase in consumption of vegetable oils resulting both from their increased availability and from recommendations to consume these oils as an aid to lower blood cholesterol levels. This dietary change markedly increased the consumption of linoleic acid to current levels of approximately 6% of total dietary energy. While considerable research has focused on the effects of dietary linoleic acid on cardiovascular health, questions about optimum dietary levels remain...
May 20, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530579/fatty-acid-and-sterol-composition-of-tea-seed-oils-their-comparison-by-the-fancytiles-approach
#19
Xiaoqin Wang, Qiumei Zeng, Vito Verardo, María Del Mar Contreras
Confusion among tea seed oils from Sect. Thea, Oleifera and Camellia in Camellia is a widespread problem in research and production. In this work, 22 fatty acids, squalene and 13 phytosterols in the three groups of tea seed oils from 16 Chinese regions were analyzed with GC-FID and GC-MS respectively. Thea oils were significantly higher in linoleic (C18:2) and palmitic (C16:0) acids but lower in oleic acid (C18:1) than Camellia and Oleifera oils while the latter two overlapped in major fatty acids. Similarly, Camellia and Oleifera oils clustered together based on the data of squalene and 12 phytosterols while Thea oils branched from them in HCA...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528080/toxicological-aspects-of-interesterified-fat-brain-damages-in-rats
#20
Lívia Ferraz D'avila, Verônica Tironi Dias, Luciana Taschetto Vey, Laura Hautrive Milanesi, Karine Roversi, Tatiana Emanuelli, Marilise Escobar Bürger, Fabíola Trevizol
In recent years, interesterified fat (IF) has been used to replace hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), rich in trans isomers, being found in processed foods. Studies involving IF have shown deleterious influences on the metabolic system, similarly to HVF, whereas no studies regarding its influence on the central nervous system (CNS) were performed. Rats from first generation born and maintained under supplementation (3g/Kg, p.o.) of soybean-oil or IF until adulthood were assessed on memory, biochemical and molecular markers in the hippocampus...
May 17, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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