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linoleic acid

Magdalena Karamać, Hakime H Orak, Ryszard Amarowicz, Adnan Orak, Wojciech Piekoszewski
The aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacities and phenolic compound profiles of wild and cultivated Lupinus albus L. seeds. The total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antioxidant activity in an β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion were determined. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify phenolics. The TPC of lupin seeds ranged from 4.36 to 7.24 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter (d.m.). The dominant phenolics of all genotypes were two p-coumaric acid derivatives (0...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Heena Ambreen, Shivendra Kumar, Amar Kumar, Manu Agarwal, Arun Jagannath, Shailendra Goel
Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) is an important oilseed crop producing seed oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Scarcity of identified marker-trait associations is a major limitation toward development of successful marker-assisted breeding programs in safflower. In the present study, a safflower panel (CartAP) comprising 124 accessions derived from two core collections was assayed for its suitability for association mapping. Genotyping of CartAP using microsatellite markers revealed significant genetic diversity indicated by Shannon information index ( H = 0...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mary J Espina, C M Sabbir Ahmed, Angelina Bernardini, Ekundayo Adeleke, Zeinab Yadegari, Prakash Arelli, Vince Pantalone, Ali Taheri
Soybean is an important oil-producing crop in the Fabaceae family and there are increasing demands for soybean oil and other soybean products. Genetic improvement of soybean is needed to increase its production. In order to provide genetic diversity and resources for identifying important genes, a new ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenized soybean population was generated using the newly released germplasm, JTN-5203 (maturity group V). Treatment of soybean seeds with 60 mM EMS concentration was found to be suitable for inducing mutation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Aline Ferain, Chloé Bonnineau, Ineke Neefs, Krishna Das, Yvan Larondelle, Jean-François Rees, Cathy Debier, Benjamin Lemaire
Lipids, and their constitutive fatty acids, are key nutrients for fish health as they provide energy, maintain cell structure, are precursors of signalling molecules and act as nuclear receptor ligands. These specific roles may be of crucial importance in a context of exposure to pollutants. We recently showed that the fatty acid profile of rainbow trout liver cell phospholipids modulates sensitivity to an acute methylmercury challenge. In order to investigate mechanisms of effects, we herein tested whether specific polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may protect cells from methylmercury through decreasing intracellular mercury accumulation and/or enhancing cellular defences (e...
March 22, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Saleha Akter, Michael E Netzel, Mary T Fletcher, Ujang Tinggi, Yasmina Sultanbawa
Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) is a native Australian fruit. Industrial processing of T. ferdinandiana fruits into puree generates seeds as a by-product, which are generally discarded. The aim of our present study was to process the seed to separate the kernel and determine its nutritional composition. The proximate, mineral and fatty acid compositions were analysed in this study. Kernels are composed of 35% fat, while proteins account for 32% dry weight (DW). The energy content and fiber were 2065 KJ/100 g and 21...
April 12, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Robert A Gibson
Since the 1950's nutrition recommendations have focussed on the replacement of saturated fats in the diet with polyunsaturated fats, a strategy that continues to this day. Despite supporting evidence from clinical trials for the advantages of Mediterranean diets, there has been less attention paid to the role of monounsaturated fats. It has been known for many years that diets high in linoleic acid (LA) compete for the incorporation of omega 3 fatty acids into tissues. What is also clear is that diets rich in LA are not free from concerns and the discovery of oxlams, oxygenated derivatives of LA, having potent inflammatory effects may help us question the dogma of LA rich diets...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
G Conte, C Dimauro, A Serra, N P P Macciotta, M Mele
Although milk fat depression (MFD) has been observed and described since the beginning of the last century, all the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. Some fatty acids (FA) originating during rumen biohydrogenation have been proposed as causative elements of MFD. However, contradictory results were obtained when studying the effect of single FA on MFD. An alternative could be the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of many FA using a multivariate approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between individual milk FA of ruminal origin and MFD using canonical discriminant analysis, a multivariate technique able to distinguish 2 or more groups on the basis of a pool of variables...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Xinyue Huang, Zi Ye, Qingfeng Cao, Guannan Su, Qingfeng Wang, Jing Deng, Chunjiang Zhou, Aize Kijlstra, Peizeng Yang
Purpose: To investigate gut microbiota composition and fecal metabolic phenotype in patients with acute anterior uveitis. Methods: Fecal DNA was extracted from 78 fecal samples (38 acute anterior uveitis (AAU) patients and 40 family members of patients or sex- and age-matched healthy controls) and then sequenced by high-throughput 16S rDNA analysis. Gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics was performed on 60 fecal samples (30 AAU patients and 30 healthy controls)...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
B R Abdel-Halim
The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of linoleic acid-treated oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) on cumulus cell expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, blastocyst development and DNA damage of cumulus cells and how its effects were alleviated by supplementation of the maturation medium with Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs). Inhibitory effects of LA at a concentration (100 μM/ml) or more significantly decreased the percentage of oocytes reaching metaphase II stage, the rate of fully expanded cumulus cells 24 h after IVM and the percentage of blastocyst rate compared with the control (p < 0...
March 31, 2018: Theriogenology
Béla Zimmer, Carlo Angioni, Tabea Osthues, Andy Toewe, Dominique Thomas, Sandra C Pierre, Gerd Geisslinger, Klaus Scholich, Marco Sisignano
Eicosanoids play a crucial role in inflammatory pain. However, there is very little knowledge about the contribution of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites in inflammatory pain and peripheral sensitization. Here, we identify 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DiHOME), a cytochrome P450-derived linoleic acid metabolite, as crucial mediator of thermal hyperalgesia during inflammatory pain. We found 12,13-DiHOME in increased concentrations in peripheral nervous tissue during acute zymosan- and complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain...
April 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Theresa Zesiewicz, Frederic Heerinckx, Robert De Jager, Omid Omidvar, Marcus Kilpatrick, Jessica Shaw, Mikhail S Shchepinov
BACKGROUND: RT001 is a deuterated ethyl linoleate that inhibits lipid peroxidation and is hypothesized to reduce cellular damage and recover mitochondrial function in degenerative diseases such as Friedreich's ataxia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of RT001 in Friedreich's ataxia patients. DESIGN/METHODS: We conducted a phase I/II double-blind, comparator-controlled trial with 2 doses of RT001 in Friedreich's ataxia patients (9 subjects each cohort)...
April 6, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Olga Mykhailenko, Vladimir Kovalyov, Sergey Kovalyov, Erika Toryanik, Tatyana Osolodchenko, Yurii Buidin
Different Iris species are a rich source of secondary metabolites and they are widely used due to their medicinal properties, i.e. such as antibacterial, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, antiplasmodial, and immunomodulatory effects. Determination of the fatty acid composition is necessary to create complex phytopreparations on their basis, and also, it is important for understanding of the adaptive capabilities of the plant. In our study, a comparative analysis of fatty acids composition of total lipids of the leaves and rhizomes of Iris sibirica was carried out by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
Guoyong Yu, Jia Bei, Jing Zhao, Quanhong Li, Chen Cheng
Insoluble dietary fiber (DF) extracted from carrot pomace was modified by complex enzyme method, ultrafine comminution and high hydrostatic pressure and their structural, physicochemical, and functional properties were evaluated. Results showed that complex enzyme method increased the content of soluble DF to 15.07%, and the cholesterol adsorption capacity peaked; ultrafine comminution greatly improved the total antioxidant activities, DPPH radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant abilities in linoleic acid system of DF; high hydrostatic pressure led to a significant increase in capacities of water retention (7...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Rimsha Dilshad, Rida Batool, Nazia Jamil
Utilization of herbs for medicinal purpose started in the early history of mankind several thousand years ago. In this study, some plants that are used for lowering cholesterol level in local areas of Pakistan, such as Artemisia absinthium L., Swertia chirayita and Sphaeranthus indicus were screened for their phytochemical and antibacterial properties. For this purpose, these plants were extracted in different solvents i.e. ethanol, hexane and ethyl acetate. Phytochemcial analysis unveiled the existence of different bioactive compounds in these extracts...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
X H Hu, S Z Zhang, H R Miao, F G Cui, Y Shen, W Q Yang, T T Xu, N Chen, X Y Chi, Z M Zhang, J Chen
The cultivated peanut, A. hypogaea L., is an important oil and food crop globally.High-density genetic linkage mapping is a valuable and effective method for exploring complex quantitative traits. In this context, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) of 146 lines was developed by crossing Huayu28 and P76. We developed 433,679 high-quality SLAFs, of which 29,075 were polymorphic. 4,817 SLAFs were encoded and grouped into different segregation patterns. A high-resolution genetic map containing 2,334 markers (68 SSRs and 2,266 SNPs) on 20 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 2586...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Magdalena Matusiewicz, Iwona Kosieradzka, Tomasz Niemiec, Marta Grodzik, Hanna Antushevich, Barbara Strojny, Małgorzata Gołębiewska
Colorectal cancer is the third most widely diagnosed cancer. Extracts from snails may modulate growth and development of colorectal cancer cells. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of tissues derived from Helix aspersa Müller and red-ox properties of tissue extracts. Then, the influence of extracts and their fractions of different molecular weights on viability of Caco-2 cells was examined. Tissue lyophilisates contained antioxidants that could be important in the prevention of colorectal cancer...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
L R Rivera-Rangel, K I Aguilera-Campos, A García-Triana, J G Ayala-Soto, D Chavez-Flores, L Hernández-Ochoa
Two different extraction processes, Soxhlet and ultrasound, were used to obtain the oil extracts of Western Schley, Wichita, and Native pecan nuts cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico. The aspects evaluated in this study were the extraction yield of the processes and fatty acids' profile of the resulting extracts. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify and determine the composition percentage of fatty acids present in pecan nuts oils extracted. The results obtained show that higher oil extraction yields were obtained by Soxhlet method with hexane (69...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Gye-Woong Kim, Hack-Youn Kim
Background: The meat quality of Korean native pigs (KNP) and crossbred pigs (LYD; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) was examined to generate data useful for selecting native pigs for improved pork production. Methods: Fifty Korean native pigs (KNP) and 50 crossbred pigs (LYD) were tested. Loin samples ( M. longissimus dorsi ) of the two breeds were analyzed to determine meat quality and sensory properties. Result: KNP had a higher moisture content than LYD ( p  < 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Jacqueline K Innes, Philip C Calder
Inflammation is a normal process that is part of host defence and tissue healing. However, excessive or unresolved inflammation can lead to uncontrolled tissue damage, pathology and disease. In humans on a Western diet, the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA) makes a significant contribution to the fatty acids present in the membrane phospholipids of cells involved in inflammation. ARA is a precursor to a number of potent pro-inflammatory mediators including well described prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which has led to the development of anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals that target the ARA pathway to successfully control inflammation...
March 22, 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Asma Ennigrou, Hervé Casabianca, Emmanuelle Vulliet, Belgacem Hanchi, Karim Hosni
The fatty acid, essential oil compositions and their respective antioxidant and antibacterial activities was determined in Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi leaves and twigs. The lipid content ranged from 1.75 to 4.65% in twigs and leaves, respectively. Thirteen fatty acids were identified with α-linolenic (C18:3), palmitic (C16:0) and linoleic (C18:2) acids being the main components. The essential oils of both organs were characterized by a high amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons (68.91-74.88%) with α-phellandrene (33...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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