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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765692/the-cascading-pathogenic-consequences-of-sarcoptes-scabiei-infection-that-manifest-in-host-disease
#1
Alynn M Martin, Tamieka A Fraser, John A Lesku, Kellie Simpson, Georgia L Roberts, Jillian Garvey, Adam Polkinghorne, Christopher P Burridge, Scott Carver
Sarcoptic mange, caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei , causes a substantive burden of disease to humans, domestic animals and wildlife, globally. There are many effects of S. scabiei infection, culminating in the disease which hosts suffer. However, major knowledge gaps remain on the pathogenic impacts of this infection. Here, we focus on the bare-nosed wombat host ( Vombatus ursinus ) to investigate the effects of mange on: (i) host heat loss and thermoregulation, (ii) field metabolic rates, (iii) foraging and resting behaviour across full circadian cycles, and (iv) fatty acid composition in host adipose, bone marrow, brain and muscle tissues...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748479/pressurized-liquid-extraction-ple-as-an-innovative-green-technology-for-the-effective-enrichment-of-galician-algae-extracts-with-high-quality-fatty-acids-and-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-properties
#2
Paz Otero, Somaris E Quintana, Guillermo Reglero, Tiziana Fornari, Mónica R García-Risco
Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of high qualify fatty acids that represent useful leads in the development of new nutraceutical agents. In this work, we investigated the lipid composition of six algae species from the Northwest of Spain ( Ulva intestinalis , Ulva lactuca , Fucus vesiculosus, Dictyota dichotoma, Cystoseira baccata and Himanthalia elongata ) and compared the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Furthermore, Fucus vesiculosus ( F...
May 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746616/a-regulatory-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-in-the-fads-gene-cluster-influences-pufa-and-lipid-profiles-among-chinese-adults-a-population-based-study
#3
Peiqin Li, Jing Zhao, Kumar S D Kothapalli, Xiang Li, Hui Li, Yuxuan Han, Shengquan Mi, Wenhua Zhao, Qizhai Li, Hong Zhang, Yiqing Song, J Thomas Brenna, Ying Gao
Background: Arachidonic acid (AA) is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) substrate for potent eicosanoid signaling to modulate inflammation and thrombosis and is controlled in part by tissue abundance. Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) catalyzes synthesis of omega-6 (n-3) AA and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-base pair (bp) insertion-deletion 137 bp downstream of a sterol regulatory element in FADS2 intron 1, mediates expression of FADS1 in vitro, as well as exerting positive selection in several human populations...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715470/omega-3-and-omega-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-dietary-sources-metabolism-and-significance-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Young-Soo Keum
Linoleic acid (LA) (n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) (n-3) are essential fatty acids (EFAs) as they cannot be synthesized by humans or other higher animals. In the human body, these fatty acids (FAs) give rise to arachidonic acid (ARA, n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, n-3) that play key roles in regulating body homeostasis. Locally acting bioactive signaling lipids called eicosanoids derived from these FAs also regulate diverse homeostatic processes. In general, ARA gives rise to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids whereas EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory eicosanoids...
April 28, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679982/association-of-maternal-omega-6-fatty-acid-intake-with-infant-birth-outcomes-korean-mothers-and-children-s-environmental-health-moceh
#5
Eunjung Lee, Hyesook Kim, Hyejin Kim, Eun-Hee Ha, Namsoo Chang
BACKGROUND: Maternal fatty acids (FAs) intake has an effect on birth weight, birth length, and gestational age, as fetal development is entirely dependent on the maternal essential FA supply. This study aimed to identify the association between the maternal intake of FAs and birth outcomes among pregnant women who participated in the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) prospective cohort study in South Korea. METHODS: A total of 1407 pregnant women, aged 30...
April 21, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668864/bovine-embryo-elongation-is-altered-due-to-maternal-fatty-acid-supplementation
#6
K Giller, B Drews, J Berard, H Kienberger, M Schmicke, J Frank, B Spanier, H Daniel, G Geisslinger, S E Ulbrich
The pre-implantation period is prone to embryonic losses in bovine. Embryo-maternal communication is crucial to support embryo development. Thereby, factors of the uterine fluid (UF) are of specific importance. The maternal diet can affect the UF composition. Since omega 3 fatty acids (omega 3 FA) are considered to be beneficial for reproduction, we investigated if dietary omega 3 FA affected factors in the UF related to embryo elongation. Angus heifers (n = 37) were supplemented with either 450 g of rumen-protected fish oil (omega 3 FA) or sunflower oil (omega 6 FA) for a period of 8 weeks...
April 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667150/topical-application-of-omega-3-omega-6-and-omega-9-rich-oil-emulsions-for-cutaneous-wound-healing-in-rats
#7
Wan Maznah Wan Ishak, Haliza Katas, Ng Pei Yuen, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah, Mohd Hanif Zulfakar
Wound healing is a physiological event that generates reconstitution and restoration of granulation tissue that ends with scar formation. As omega fatty acids are part of membrane phospholipids and participate in the inflammatory response, we investigated the effects of omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids in the form of oils on wound healing. Linseed (LO), evening primrose (EPO), and olive oils (OO) rich in omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were formulated into emulsions and were topically applied on rats with excision wounds...
April 17, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665872/maternal-intake-of-omega-3-and-omega-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-mid-pregnancy-is-inversely-associated-with-linear-growth
#8
M Al-Hinai, A Baylin, M M Tellez-Rojo, A Cantoral, A Ettinger, M Solano-González, K E Peterson, W Perng
This study investigates relations of maternal N-3 and N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake during pregnancy with offspring body mass index (BMI), height z-score and metabolic risk (fasting glucose, C-peptide, leptin, lipid profile) during peripuberty (8-14 years) among 236 mother-child pairs in Mexico. We used food frequency questionnaire data to quantify trimester-specific intake of N-3 alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); N-6 linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (AA); and N-6:N-3 (AA:EPA+DHA), which accounts for the fact that the two PUFA families have opposing effects on physiology...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662045/macronutrient-and-major-food-group-intake-in-a-cohort-of-southern-italian-adults
#9
Serena Mulè, Mariagiovanna Falla, Alessandra Conti, Dora Castiglione, Isabella Blanco, Armando Platania, Maurizio D'Urso, Marina Marranzano
BACKGROUND: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. METHODS: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. RESULTS: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones...
April 15, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657077/reprint-of-marine-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#10
Trevor A Mori
Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA)...
April 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649154/chemical-and-nutritional-composition-of-terminalia-ferdinandiana-kakadu-plum-kernels-a-novel-nutrition-source
#11
Saleha Akter, Michael E Netzel, Mary T Fletcher, Ujang Tinggi, Yasmina Sultanbawa
Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) is a native Australian fruit. Industrial processing of T. ferdinandiana fruits into puree generates seeds as a by-product, which are generally discarded. The aim of our present study was to process the seed to separate the kernel and determine its nutritional composition. The proximate, mineral and fatty acid compositions were analysed in this study. Kernels are composed of 35% fat, while proteins account for 32% dry weight (DW). The energy content and fiber were 2065 KJ/100 g and 21...
April 12, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616827/dietary-fats-and-cardiovascular-health-a-summary-of-the-scientific-evidence-and-current-debate
#12
Elena Fattore, Elena Massa
This narrative review summarises the main studies of the role of the different fatty acids in coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the current scientific debate on dietary recommendations. Reduction and substitution of the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are still the main dietary recommendation to prevent CHD and CVD. In the last few years, however, the strength of the scientific evidence underlying this dietary advice has been questioned...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610056/omega-6-fatty-acids-and-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Jacqueline K Innes, Philip C Calder
Inflammation is a normal process that is part of host defence and tissue healing. However, excessive or unresolved inflammation can lead to uncontrolled tissue damage, pathology and disease. In humans on a Western diet, the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA) makes a significant contribution to the fatty acids present in the membrane phospholipids of cells involved in inflammation. ARA is a precursor to a number of potent pro-inflammatory mediators including well described prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which has led to the development of anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals that target the ARA pathway to successfully control inflammation...
March 22, 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599053/the-omega-6-omega-3-ratio-a-critical-appraisal-and-possible-successor
#14
REVIEW
William S Harris
The well-known health effects of the long-chain, marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) has led to a growing interest in the prognostic value that blood levels of these FAs might have vis-à-vis cardiovascular and neurocognitive diseases. The measurement and expression of n-3 FA levels is not straight-forward, however, and a wide variety of means of expression of n-3 FA status have been used in research and clinical medicine. This has led to considerable confusion as to what "optimal" n-3 FA status is...
March 20, 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594475/individual-fatty-acids-in-erythrocyte-membranes-are-associated-with-several-features-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-children
#15
Sara Bonafini, Angela Tagetti, Rossella Gaudino, Paolo Cavarzere, Martina Montagnana, Elisa Danese, Marco Benati, Diego Alberto Ramaroli, Sara Raimondi, Alice Giontella, Anna Mantovani, Angela Donato, Andrea Dalbeni, Pietro Minuz, Franco Antoniazzi, Claudio Maffeis, Cristiano Fava
PURPOSE: Obesity leads to the clustering of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) also in children and is often accompanied by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Quality of dietary fat, beyond the quantity, can influence CV risk profile and, in particular, omega-3 fatty acids (FA) have been proposed as beneficial in this setting. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations of individual CV risk factors, characterizing the MetS, with erythrocyte membrane FA, markers of average intake, in a group of 70 overweight/obese children...
March 28, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590160/tissue-specific-impact-of-fads-cluster-variants-on-fads1-and-fads2-gene-expression
#16
Lindsay M Reynolds, Timothy D Howard, Ingo Ruczinski, Kanika Kanchan, Michael C Seeds, Rasika A Mathias, Floyd H Chilton
Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) long (≥ 20 carbon) chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) play a critical role in human health and disease. Biosynthesis of LC-PUFAs from dietary 18 carbon PUFAs in tissues such as the liver is highly associated with genetic variation within the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster, containing FADS1 and FADS2 that encode the rate-limiting desaturation enzymes in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms by which FADS genetic variants affect LC-PUFA biosynthesis, and in which tissues, are unclear...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580540/chemical-composition-of-kale-as-influenced-by-dry-vermicast-potassium-humate-and-volcanic-minerals
#17
Lord Abbey, Thu Huong Pham, Nana Annan, Adedayo Leke-Aladekoba, Raymond H Thomas
Biofortification using agronomic practices can be used to improve the nutritional quality of food crops. Three natural media amendments (dry vermicast, potassium (K)-humate and volcanic minerals) were assessed under greenhouse conditions to determine the effects on the chemical composition of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala 'Ripbor'). The results indicated that K-humate had low pH, while the volcanic minerals had high pH. Plants grown in the dry vermicast amended media had the highest levels of macronutrients and micronutrients except for zinc and iron...
May 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573696/low-omega-6-omega-3-ratio-in-a-maternal-protein-deficient-diet-promotes-histone-3-changes-in-progeny-neural-cells-and-favors-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-gene-transcription
#18
Alinny Rosendo Isaac, Emerson Alexandre Neves da Silva, Rhowena Jane Barbosa de Matos, Ricielle Lopes Augusto, Giselle Machado Magalhães Moreno, Ingrid Prata Mendonça, Raphael Fabrício de Souza, Paulo Euzébio Cabral-Filho, Cláudio Gabriel Rodrigues, Catarina Gonçalves-Pimentel, Fabíola Lacerda, Maria Luisa Martins Alessio, Marcelo Cairrão Araujo Rodrigues, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade-da-Costa
Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids modulate epigenetic changes critical to genesis and differentiation of neural cells. Conversely, maternal protein-malnutrition can negatively modify these changes. This study investigated whether a low n-6/n-3 ratio in a maternal diet could favor histone-3 (H3) modifications, gene transcription and differentiation in the offspring neural cells even under protein-deficiency. Female rats fed a control (Ct), or 3 types of multideficient diets differing in protein levels or linoleic/alpha-linolenic fatty acid ratios (RBD, RBD-C, RBD-SO) from 30 days prior to mating and during pregnancy...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570689/association-between-maternal-and-foetal-erythrocyte-fatty-acid-profiles-and-birth-weight
#19
Giulia Cinelli, Marta Fabrizi, Lucilla Ravà, Fabrizio Signore, Pamela Vernocchi, Michela Semeraro, Cristina Vallone, Rosalba Lanciotti, Marta Ciofi Degli Atti, Melania Manco
Regular foetal development is crucial for assuring good health status in the offspring. The quality and quantity of maternal dietary fatty acids (FAs) can affect growth. The study aimed to: (1) investigate the association of maternal/foetal lipid profiles with birth weight (BW); and (2) compare these profiles in small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA) infants. FAs were measured in erythrocyte membranes using gas chromatography analysis in 607 mother-infant pairs (316 males, 52...
March 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569241/effects-on-bread-and-oil-quality-after-functionalization-with-microencapsulated-chia-oil
#20
Agustín González, Marcela L Martínez, Alberto E León, Pablo D Ribotta
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids-rich oils suffer oxidation reactions that alter their chemical and organoleptic quality. However, microencapsulation can be a powerful tool for its protection against ambient conditions. The addition of microencapsulated chia oil as an ingredient in bread preparation and its effect on the technological and chemical quality of breads was studied in this work. RESULTS: Microencapsulation of chia oil was carried out by freeze-drying with soy proteins as wall material and the oil release was determined in in-vitro gastric and intestinal conditions...
March 23, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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