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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344195/significance-of-serum-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-level-imbalance-in-patients-with-acute-venous-thromboembolism
#1
Masaru Hiki, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Kazunori Shimada, Yurina Sugita, Megumi Shimizu, Tatsuro Aikawa, Shohei Ouchi, Tomoyuki Shiozawa, Kiyoshi Takasu, Shuhei Takahashi, Atsutoshi Takagi, Katsumi Miyauchi, Hiroyuki Daida
AIM: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) take part in various biological events linked to the pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulability. Several studies have demonstrated the association between PUFAs and the occurrence of VTE. However, the role of PUFAs in the pathogenesis of VTE remains unclear. METHODS: We enrolled 45 patients with acute VTE and 37 age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched healthy volunteers to examine their PUFA levels...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335075/breastmilk-with-a-high-omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acid-ratio-induced-cellular-events-similar-to-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#2
H Vaidya, S K Cheema
BACKGROUND: An imbalance of omega (n)-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) during critical periods of development may have adverse effects on the health of the newborn in later life. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that breastmilk with higher n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio will have higher inflammatory cytokines and initiate cellular events similar to insulin resistance and obesity. METHODS: Breastmilk was collected from healthy women who gave natural birth at full term...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333693/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#3
Cathleen M Courtney, Brad W Warner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330470/involvement-of-apoptotic-pathways-in-docosahexaenoic-acid-induced-benefit-in-prostate-cancer-pathway-focused-gene-expression-analysis-using-rt-2-profile-pcr-array-system
#4
Yanan Sun, Xiaopeng Jia, Lianguo Hou, Xing Liu, Qiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Present study aimed to better understand the potential apoptotic pathways that involved in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. METHODS: Human prostate cancer DU145 cells were treated with different concentrations of fish oil, omega-3 PUFA (DHA, and Eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), or omega-6 PUFA (Arachidonic acid, AA). Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay and Hoechst staining. Pathway-focused gene expression profiling of DU145 cells was analyzed with the RT(2) Profile PCR Array System...
March 23, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290321/-1-h-nmr-and-spme-gc-ms-study-of-hydrolysis-oxidation-and-other-reactions-occurring-during-in-vitro-digestion-of-non-oxidized-and-oxidized-sunflower-oil-formation-of-hydroxy-octadecadienoates
#5
Bárbara Nieva-Echevarría, Encarnación Goicoechea, María J Manzanos, María D Guillén
Both fresh and slightly oxidized sunflower oils, as models of omega-6 rich lipids, were submitted to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and studied by (1)H NMR and SPME-GC/MS. Changes in lipolysis degree, lipid composition and oxidative level were studied by (1)H NMR. Three quantitative approaches were used and several equations were newly developed. In oxidized oil digestates slightly lower hydrolysis and a higher advance of oxidation took place during digestion. This latter was evidenced by a greater decrease of lipid unsaturation degree and enhanced generation of oxidation products (cis,trans-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoates, cis,trans- and trans,trans-hydroxy-octadecadienoates)...
January 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262603/biological-profiling-of-prospective-antidepressant-response-in-major-depressive-disorder-associations-with-neuro-inflammation-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-amygdala-reactivity
#6
R J T Mocking, T S Nap, A M Westerink, J Assies, F M Vaz, M W J Koeter, H G Ruhé, A H Schene
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of factors underlying antidepressant non-response may improve the prediction of which patients will respond to what treatment. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with alterations in fatty acid metabolism, (neuro)inflammation and amygdala-reactivity. However, their mutual relations, and the extent to which they are associated with prospective antidepressant-response, remain unknown. PURPOSE: To test (I) alterations in (neuro)inflammation and its associations with fatty acid metabolism and amygdala-reactivity in MDD-patients compared to controls, and (II) whether these alterations are associated with prospective paroxetine response...
February 21, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259677/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibition-alleviates-neuropathy-in-akita-ins2-akita-mice
#7
Karen Wagner, Jennifer Gilda, Jun Yang, Debin Wan, Christophe Morisseau, Aldrin V Gomes, Bruce D Hammock
The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a regulatory enzyme responsible for the metabolism of bioactive lipid epoxides of both omega-6 and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. These natural epoxides mediate cell signaling in several physiological functions including blocking inflammation, high blood pressure and both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Inhibition of the sEH maintains the level of endogenous bioactive epoxy-fatty acids (EpFA) and allows them to exert their generally beneficial effects...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259037/altered-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-derived-oxylipins-in-patients-with-seasonal-major-depression-an-exploratory-study
#8
Marie Hennebelle, Yurika Otoki, Jun Yang, Bruce D Hammock, Anthony J Levitt, Ameer Y Taha, Walter Swardfager
Many cytochrome p450-derived lipids promote resolution of inflammation, in contrast to their soluble epoxide hydrolase(sEH)-derived oxylipin breakdown products. Here we compare plasma oxylipins and precursor fatty acids between seasons in participants with major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern (MDD-s). Euthymic participants with a history of MDD-s recruited in summer-fall were followed-up in winter. At both visits, a structured clinical interview (DSM-5 criteria) and the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were administered...
February 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248536/cardiovascular-diseases-depression-disorders-and-potential-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids
#9
J Trebatická, A Dukát, Z Ďuračková, J Muchová
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depressive disorders (DD) are two of the most prevalent health problems in the world. Although CVD and depression have different origin, they share some common pathophysiological characteristics and risk factors, such as the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, blood flow abnormalities, decreased glucose metabolism, elevated plasma homocysteine levels, oxidative stress and disorder in vitamin D metabolism. Current findings confirm the common underlying factors for both pathologies, which are related to dramatic dietary changes in the mid-19th century...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209162/fatty-acid-and-cholesterol-profiles-hypocholesterolemic-atherogenic-and-thrombogenic-indices-of-broiler-meat-in-the-retail-market
#10
Youssef A Attia, Mohammed A Al-Harthi, Mohamed A Korish, Mohamed M Shiboob
BACKGROUND: Broiler meat is an essential source of food due to its favourable effects on human health derived from its protein, fats, minerals, vitamins and its bioactive components. METHODS: A total of 90 carcasses were collected from the retail market in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia during April, May and June 2014 to determine the effects of meat type (frozen vs. fresh) and sources within fresh types (A, B, C) vs. frozen types (D, E and F) on their fatty acid profiles, cholesterol, their hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic and thrombogenic indices, and on their antioxidants' status...
February 16, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192066/performance-of-debaryomyces-hansenii-as-a-diet-for-rotifers-for-feeding-zebrafish-larvae
#11
Rafael Opazo, Karen Fuenzalida, Francisca Plaza-Parrochia, Jaime Romero
The zebrafish larval stage is a critical moment due to high mortality rates associated with inadequate supplies of nutritional requirements. Larval feeding has important challenges associated with such factors as small mouth gape (≈100 μm), the low activity of digestive enzymes, and the intake of live food. A common zebrafish live food at the onset of exogenous feeding is rotifers, mainly Brachionus plicatilis. These rotifers should be fed with other microorganisms such as microalgae or yeast, mostly from the Saccharomyces genus...
April 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189073/lower-levels-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-metals-and-the-marine-omega-3-fatty-acid-dha-in-farmed-compared-to-wild-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#12
Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Erik-Jan Lock, Josef D Rasinger, Ole Jakob Nøstbakken, Rita Hannisdal, Egil Karlsbakk, Vidar Wennevik, Abdullah S Madhun, Lise Madsen, Ingvild Eide Graff, Robin Ørnsrud
Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
May 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183443/improvement-of-the-omega-3-index-of-healthy-subjects-does-not-alter-the-effects-of-dietary-saturated-fats-or-n-6pufa-on-ldl-profiles
#13
Cintia B Dias, Núria Amigó, Lisa G Wood, Roger Mallol, Xavier Correig, Manohar L Garg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dietary fat composition is known to modulate circulating lipid and lipoprotein levels. Although supplementation with long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) has been shown to reduce plasma triglyceride levels, the effect of the interactions between LCn-3PUFA and the major dietary fats consumed has not been previously investigated. METHODS: In a randomized controlled parallel design clinical intervention, we examined the effect of diets rich in either saturated fatty acids (SFA) or omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA) on plasma lipid levels and lipoprotein profiles (lipoprotein size, concentration and distribution in subclasses) in subjects with an adequate omega 3 index...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173875/restored-in-vivo-like-membrane-lipidomics-positively-influence-in-vitro-features-of-cultured-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-derived-from-human-placenta
#14
Alexandros Chatgilialoglu, Martina Rossi, Francesco Alviano, Paola Poggi, Chiara Zannini, Cosetta Marchionni, Francesca Ricci, Pier Luigi Tazzari, Valentina Taglioli, Philip C Calder, Laura Bonsi
BACKGROUND: The study of lipid metabolism in stem cell physiology has recently raised great interest. The role of lipids goes beyond the mere structural involvement in assembling extra- and intra-cellular compartments. Nevertheless, we are still far from understanding the impact of membrane lipidomics in stemness maintenance and differentiation patterns. In the last years, it has been reported how in vitro cell culturing can modify membrane lipidomics. The aim of the present work was to study the membrane fatty acid profile of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from human fetal membranes (hFM-MSCs) and to correlate this to specific biological properties by using chemically defined tailored lipid supplements (Refeed®)...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169288/omega-3-and-omega-6-dpa-equally-inhibit-the-sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induced-ca-2-sensitization-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-contraction-via-inhibiting-rho-kinase-activation-and-translocation
#15
Ying Zhang, Min Zhang, Bochao Lyu, Hiroko Kishi, Sei Kobayashi
We previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA), effectively inhibits sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC)-induced Ca(2+)-sensitization of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contraction which is a major cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular vasospasm, and EPA is utilized clinically to prevent cerebrovascular vasospasm. In this study, we clearly demonstrate that docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), which exists in two forms as omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) PUFA, strongly inhibits SPC-induced contraction in VSM tissue and human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs), with little effect on Ca(2+)-dependent contraction...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167220/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-cytochrome-p450-derived-eicosanoids-in-cardiovascular-diseases-which-actions-and-interactions-modulate-hemodynamics
#16
REVIEW
Sara Bonafini, Cristiano Fava
Increasing interest is focused on omega-3 fatty acids (FA) because of their potential beneficial effects, particularly in cardiovascular disease prevention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two major omega-3 FA, are mainly consumed through diet, particularly from fish and seafood intake, whereas alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is present in high amounts in leafy green vegetables, nuts and seeds. The hypothesis of a cardiovascular protective action of omega-3 FA derives mainly from observational studies, whereas the evidence from interventional studies is not always consistent...
January 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165367/the-role-of-lipid-biomarkers-in-major-depression
#17
REVIEW
Amy Parekh, Demelza Smeeth, Yasmin Milner, Sandrine Thure
In the UK, the lifetime-documented prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is currently 10%. Despite its increasing prevalence and devastating impact on quality of life, the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning MDD remain to be fully elucidated. Current theories of neurobiological components remain incomplete and protein-centric, rendering pharmacological treatment options suboptimal. In this review, we highlight the pivotal role of lipids in intra- and inter-neuronal functioning, emphasising the potential use of lipids as biomarkers for MDD...
February 3, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163789/a-porcine-gluteus-medius-muscle-genome-wide-transcriptome-analysis-dietary-effects-of-omega-6-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-biological-mechanisms
#18
Magdalena Ogłuszka, Agnieszka Szostak, Marinus F W Te Pas, Ewa Poławska, Paweł Urbański, Tadeusz Blicharski, Chandra S Pareek, Edyta Juszczuk-Kubiak, Jenelle R Dunkelberger, Jarosław O Horbańczuk, Mariusz Pierzchała
BACKGROUND: The level of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can affect many cellular systems and function via nuclear receptors or the bioactive lipid regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the muscle transcriptome and the biological functions regulated by increased consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the pig gluteus medius muscle. RESULTS: The transcriptome of the gluteus medius muscle was studied for pigs subjected to either a control diet or a diet supplemented with linseed and rapeseed oil to increase polyunsaturated fatty acid content...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144165/osteosarcopenic-obesity-in-women-impact-prevalence-and-management-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Pegah JafariNasabian, Julia E Inglis, Owen J Kelly, Jasminka Z Ilich
Osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome (OSO) has recently been identified as a condition encompassing osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity. OSO is especially deleterious in older adults (even if they are not obese by conventional measures), due to age-related redistribution of fat and its infiltration into bone and muscle. Osteoporosis and bone fractures in elderly increase the risk of sarcopenia, which, through decreased mobility, increases the risk of more falls and fractures, creating a vicious cycle...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139226/non-target-analysis-of-phospholipid-and-sphingolipid-species-in-egg-yolk-using-liquid-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Bogusław Buszewski, Justyna Walczak, Petar Žuvela, J Jay Liu
In this work, phospholipids extracted from egg yolk (control group, experimental group) were identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Combinations of fatty acyls occurring in 11 classes of phospholipids from egg yolk were investigated. Differences between the profile of fatty acyls from hens fed traditionally and the ones that received special diet supplementation were observed. Experimental findings were complemented with multivariate chemometric analysis...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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