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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706189/vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-reverses-diet-induced-gene-regulatory-changes-impacting-lipid-metabolism
#1
Juan Du, Jingyan Tian, Lili Ding, Candi Trac, Brian Xia, Siming Sun, Dustin E Schones, Wendong Huang
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) produces sustainable weight loss, remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and improvement of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic benefits of VSG have remained elusive. According to our previous results, diet-induced obesity induces epigenetic modifications to chromatin in mouse liver. We demonstrate here that VSG in C57BL/6J wild-type male mice can reverse these chromatin modifications and thereby impact the expression of key metabolic genes...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699199/omega-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-serum-zinc-delta-5-and-delta-6-desaturase-activities-and-incident-metabolic-syndrome
#2
T Yary, S Voutilainen, T-P Tuomainen, A Ruusunen, T Nurmi, J K Virtanen
BACKGROUND: The associations of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with metabolic syndrome have been poorly explored. We investigated the associations of the serum n-6 PUFA and the activities of enzymes involved in the PUFA metabolism, delta-5-desaturase (D5D) and delta-6-desaturase (D6D) with risk of incident metabolic syndrome. We also investigated whether zinc, a cofactor for these enzymes, modifies these associations. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 661 men who were aged 42-60 years old at baseline in 1984-1989 and who were re-examined in 1998-2001...
August 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690672/emulsified-omega-3-fatty-acids-modulate-the-symptoms-of-depressive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-a-pilot-study
#3
Jana Trebatická, Zuzana Hradečná, František Böhmer, Magdaléna Vaváková, Iveta Waczulíková, Iveta Garaiova, Ján Luha, Igor Škodáček, Ján Šuba, Zdeňka Ďuračková
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mood disorders in children is a growing global concern. Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are emerging as a promising adjuvant therapy for depressive disorder (DD) in paediatric patients. The primary objective of this pilot, single-centre, randomized, double-blind controlled study was to compare the efficacy of an Omega-3 FA fish oil emulsion with a control oil emulsion alongside standard treatment for depressive symptoms in children and adolescents suffering from depressive disorder (DD) and mixed anxiety depressive disorder (MADD)...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688796/fatty-acid-based-lipidomics-and-membrane-remodeling-induced-by-apoe3-and-apoe4-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#4
Paraskevi Prasinou, Ioannis Dafnis, Giorgia Giacometti, Carla Ferreri, Angeliki Chroni, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major lipid carrier of the lipoprotein transport system that plays critical roles in various pathologies. Human apoE has three common isoforms, the apoE4 being associated with Alzheimer's disease. This is the first study in the literature investigating the effects of apoE (apoE3 and apoE4 isoforms) on membrane fatty acid profile in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Fatty acid analyses were carried out by gas chromatography of the corresponding methyl esters (FAME). We observed the occurrence of membrane fatty acid remodeling in the presence of each of the two apoE isoforms...
July 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687939/effects-of-different-fat-sources-saturated-and-unsaturated-on-reproductive-performance-and-biological-indices-of-ewes-during-flushing-period
#5
Amir Hossein Asgari Safdar, Ali Asghar Sadeghi, Mohammad Chamani
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different sources of fat during flushing period on the reproductive performance, lambing percent, and twin numbers of Afshari ewes. A total of 84 ewes (mean weight 48 ± 3 kg; age: 3-4 years) were divided into seven groups of 12 animals and received flushing-specific rations for 5 weeks. The control group just received a basic ration (non-flushing). Lipid sources were calcium salt of palm oil (CaP), pure palm oil (PO), calcium salt of flaxseed (CaFL), calcium salt of sunflower oil (CaSF), flaxseed oil (FLO), and sunflower oil (SFO)...
July 7, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686542/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-endocannabinoids-in-health-and-disease
#6
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Alinny Rosendo Isaac, Renato Malcher-Lopes, Bruno Lourenço Diaz, Isis Hara Trevenzoli, Ricardo Augusto De Melo Reis
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are lipid derivatives of omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) or of omega-6 (arachidonic acid, ARA) synthesized from membrane phospholipids and used as a precursor for endocannabinoids (ECs). They mediate significant effects in the fine-tune adjustment of body homeostasis. Phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids also rule the daily life of billions worldwide, as they are involved in obesity, depression and drug addiction. Consequently, there is growing interest to reveal novel active compounds in this field...
July 7, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686292/microencapsulation-of-borage-oil-with-blends-of-milk-protein-%C3%AE-glucan-and-maltodextrin-through-spray-drying-physicochemical-characteristics-and-stability-of-the-microcapsules
#7
Ru-Yi Li, Yan Shi
BACKGROUND: Borage oil is a rich commercial source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6). However, borage oil is rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vulnerable to oxidation. Thus, selecting of appropriate wall materials is critical to the encapsulation of borage oil. This study investigated the influence of wall materials on the physicochemical characteristics and stability of microencapsulated borage oil by spray drying. Blends of milk protein [sodium caseinate (CAS) or whey protein concentrate (WPC)], β-glucan (GLU) and maltodextrin (MD) were used as the wall materials for encapsulating borage oil...
July 7, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665359/estrogen-promotes-hepatic-synthesis-of-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-by-regulating-elovl5-at-post-transcriptional-level-in-laying-hens
#8
Meng Zhang, Cui-Cui Li, Fang Li, Hong Li, Xiao-Jun Liu, Juan J Loor, Xiang-Tao Kang, Gui-Rong Sun
The very long chain fatty acid elongase (ELOVL) plays an important role in the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Previous studies suggest that chicken could be an alternate source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we detected that ELOVL5, which plays a key role in the biosynthesis of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), was highly expressed in the liver of laying hens and increased rapidly after sexual maturity...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656110/erythrocyte-omega-3-fatty-acid-content-in-elite-athletes-in-response-to-omega-3-supplementation-a-dose-response-pilot-study
#9
Franchek Drobnic, Félix Rueda, Victoria Pons, Montserrat Banquells, Begoña Cordobilla, Joan Carles Domingo
INTRODUCTION: Supplementation of Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) in athletes is related to the anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effect and consequently its action on all the processes of tissue restoration and adaptation to physical stress. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the Omega-3 Index (O3Ix) response, in red blood cells, to supplemental EPA + DHA intake in the form of high purity and stable composition gums (G), in elite summer athletes. METHOD: Twenty-four summer sport athletes of both sexes, pertaining to the Olympic Training Center in Spain, were randomized to two groups (2G = 760 or 3G = 1140 mg of n-3 FA in Omegafort OKids, Ferrer Intl...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647413/omega-6-fatty-acids-opposing-associations-with-risk-the-ludwigshafen-risk-and-cardiovascular-health-study
#10
Graciela E Delgado, Winfried März, Stefan Lorkowski, Clemens von Schacky, Marcus E Kleber
BACKGROUND: Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-6 PUFA) are recommended in European cardiovascular prevention guidelines. However, individual fatty acids have distinct biological functions, and there have been conflicting reports about the association of omega-6 PUFA with cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the association of individual omega-6 fatty acids with mortality in a cohort of patients referred for coronary angiography...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646829/chia-seeds-salvia-hispanica-health-promoting-properties-and-therapeutic-applications-%C3%A2-a-review
#11
Katarzyna Marcinek, Zbigniew Krejpcio
Chia has been known for over 5,500 years. Chia seeds were one of the most important components of the diet of Mayas and Aztecs. The chemical composition and technological properties of chia give the plant a high nutritional potential. Chia is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids: omega-3 and omega-6, soluble dietary fiber. It also contains appreciable amount of proteins and phytochemicals. Nutritional value of chia is the reason why it is used in prophylaxis of several non-infectious diseases such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer and diabetes...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646265/omega-3-and-omega-6-fatty-acids-act-as-inhibitors-of-the-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-activity
#12
Eleonora Nicolai, Federica Sinibaldi, Gianpaolo Sannino, Giuseppina Laganà, Francesco Basoli, Silvia Licoccia, Paola Cozza, Roberto Santucci, Maria Cristina Piro
Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to play a protective role in a wide range of diseases characterized by an increased metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. The recent finding that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids exert an anti-inflammatory effect in periodontal diseases has stimulated the present study, designed to determine whether such properties derive from a direct inhibitory action of these compounds on the activity of MMPs. To this issue, we investigated the effect exerted by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, two enzymes that actively participate to the destruction of the organic matrix of dentin following demineralization operated by bacteria acids...
August 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646239/intake-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-contributes-to-bone-mineral-density-at-the-hip-in-a-younger-japanese-female-population
#13
T Kuroda, H Ohta, Y Onoe, N Tsugawa, M Shiraki
This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism...
June 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620418/the-changes-in-rats-with-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-supplemented-with-evening-primrose-oil-behavioural-morphologic-and-morphometric-analysis
#14
Danial Ramli, Izzuddin Aziz, Masro Mohamad, Dauda Abdulahi, Junedah Sanusi
Nerve crush injuries are commonly used models for axonotmesis to examine peripheral nerve regeneration. As evening primrose oil (EPO) is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acid component and gamma-linolenic acid, studies have shown the potential role of EPO in myelination. Seventy-two healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into three groups: normal group, control group, and experimental group. The result indicates that there was significant difference in toe-spreading reflex between the normal and the control groups (1...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599651/microtiter-plate-cultivation-of-oleaginous-fungi-and-monitoring-of-lipogenesis-by-high-throughput-ftir-spectroscopy
#15
Gergely Kosa, Achim Kohler, Valeria Tafintseva, Boris Zimmermann, Kristin Forfang, Nils Kristian Afseth, Dimitrios Tzimorotas, Kiira S Vuoristo, Svein Jarle Horn, Jerome Mounier, Volha Shapaval
BACKGROUND: Oleaginous fungi can accumulate lipids by utilizing a wide range of waste substrates. They are an important source for the industrial production of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (gamma-linolenic and arachidonic acid) and have been suggested as an alternative route for biodiesel production. Initial research steps for various applications include the screening of fungi in order to find efficient fungal producers with desired fatty acid composition. Traditional cultivation methods (shake flask) and lipid analysis (extraction-gas chromatography) are not applicable for large-scale screening due to their low throughput and time-consuming analysis...
June 9, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595290/dietary-fat-intake-and-fecundability-in-two-preconception-cohort-studies
#16
Lauren A Wise, Amelia K Wesselink, Katherine L Tucker, Shilpa Saklani, Ellen M Mikkelsen, Heidi Cueto, Anders H Riis, Ellen Trolle, Craig J McKinnon, Kristen A Hahn, Kenneth J Rothman, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Elizabeth E Hatch
The association between dietary fat and fertility is not well-studied. We evaluated intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA), and omega-3 and-6 fatty acids in relation to fecundability in Danish and North American preconception cohort studies. Female pregnancy planners completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Pregnancy status was updated bimonthly for 12 months or until pregnancy. Fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable proportional probabilities regression...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593444/efficacy-of-dietary-supplementation-of-fatty-acid-compound-on-performance-and-production-in-finishing-pigs
#17
Santi Devi Upadhaya, Hyeok Min Yun, Shuaiqi Huang, In Ho Kim
The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary supplementation of 0.5 and 1% of fatty acid (FA) compound containing conjugated linoleic acid as active component on growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, serum lipid profile, meat quality, and fatty acid profiles in muscle and adipose tissue in finishing pigs. A total of 90 finishing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) were used in 5-week trial. The growth performance and nutrient digestibility were unaffected with FA supplementation...
June 8, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578064/effect-of-liquid-smoking-on-lipid-hydrolysis-and-oxidation-reactions-during-in-vitro-gastrointestinal-digestion-of-european-sea-bass
#18
Bárbara Nieva-Echevarría, Encarnación Goicoechea, María D Guillén
The effect of smoking using liquid smoke flavourings on the hydrolysis and oxidation of European sea bass lipids during in vitro digestion was investigated. The techniques used were (1)H NMR and SPME-GC/MS. The former proved that liquid smoking does not influence the extent of lipolysis, but prevents those lipid oxidation reactions that occur during in vitro digestion of unsmoked samples, giving rise to cis,trans-conjugated dienes associated with hydroperoxy/hydroxy groups. SPME-GC/MS corroborated the results obtained by (1)H NMR in relation to the antioxidant effect of smoking under gastrointestinal conditions...
July 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570125/high-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-fat-1-mice-reduce-inflammatory-pain
#19
Enji Zhang, Jwa-Jin Kim, Nara Shin, Yuhua Yin, Yongshan Nan, Yinshi Xu, Jinpyo Hong, Tzung Min Hsu, Woosuk Chung, Youngkwon Ko, Wonhyung Lee, Kyu Lim, Dong Woon Kim, Sun Yeul Lee
Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as α-linolenic and linoleic acids, are essential fatty acids in mammals, because they cannot be synthesized de novo. However, fat-1 transgenic mice can synthesize omega-3 PUFAs from omega-6 PUFAs without dietary supplementation of omega-3, leading to abundant omega-3 PUFA accumulation in various tissues. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice to investigate the role of omega-3 PUFAs in response to inflammatory pain. A high omega-3 PUFA tissue content attenuated formalin-induced pain sensitivity, microglial activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and the phosphorylation of NR2B, a subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor...
June 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558948/ultrasonic-assisted-incorporation-of-nano-encapsulated-omega-3-fatty-acids-to-enhance-the-fatty-acid-profile-of-pork-meat
#20
K Shikha Ojha, Camila A Perussello, Carlos Álvarez García, Joseph P Kerry, Daniel Pando, Brijesh K Tiwari
In this study, ultrasound was employed to enhance the diffusion of microencapsulated fatty acids into pork meat. Nanovesicles of fish oil composed of 42% EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and 16% DHA (docosahexanoic acid) were prepared using two different commercial Pronanosome preparations (Lipo-N and Lipo-CAT; which yield cationic and non-cationic nanovesicles, respectively). The thin film hydration (TFH) methodology was employed for encapsulation. Pork meat (Musculus semitendinosus) was submerged in the nanovesicles suspension and subjected to ultrasound (US) treatment at 25kHz for either 30 or 60min...
May 5, 2017: Meat Science
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