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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526097/abundance-of-active-ingredients-in-sea-buckthorn-oil
#1
REVIEW
Aleksandra Zielińska, Izabela Nowak
Vegetable oils are obtained by mechanical extraction or cold pressing of various parts of plants, most often: seeds, fruits, and drupels. Chemically, these oils are compounds of the ester-linked glycerol and higher fatty acids with long aliphatic chain hydrocarbons (min. C14:0). Vegetable oils have a variety of properties, depending on their percentage of saturation. This article describes sea-buckthorn oil, which is extracted from the well characterized fruit and seeds of sea buckthorn. The plant has a large number of active ingredients the properties of which are successfully used in the cosmetic industry and in medicine...
May 19, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521737/validation-of-the-german-version-of-the-mediterranean-diet-adherence-screener-medas-questionnaire
#2
Katrin Hebestreit, Maryam Yahiaoui-Doktor, Christoph Engel, Walter Vetter, Michael Siniatchkin, Nicole Erickson, Martin Halle, Marion Kiechle, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Health benefits of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) have been shown in different at-risk populations. A German translation of the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) consortium was used in the LIBRE study, investigating effects of lifestyle-intervention on women with BRCA1/2 mutations. The purpose of the present study is to validate the MEDAS German version. METHODS: LIBRE is a multicentre (three university hospitals during this pilot phase), unblinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial...
May 18, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504119/the-ratio-of-1-3-linoleic-acid-to-alpha-linolenic-acid-is-optimal-for-oligodendrogenesis-of-embryonic-neural-stem-cells
#3
Hossein Hejr, Majid Ghareghani, Kazem Zibara, Maryam Ghafari, Farzad Sadri, Zinab Salehpour, Azadeh Hamedi, Koresh Negintaji, Hassan Azari, Amir Ghanbari
During neural development, embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs) differentiate toward glial, oligodendrocytic, and neuronal cells. Dysregulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce a wide range of neurological and developmental disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect of various concentrations and ratios of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA), which belong respectively to omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, on the proliferation and differentiation of eNSCs.Results showed that low (25 and 50μM) or high (100 and 200μM) concentrations of ALA, but not LA, and the ratio of 1:3 of LA/ALA significantly increased neurospheres size, frequency and cell numbers, in comparison to controls...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493486/pansteatitis-in-polluted-olifants-river-impoundments-nutritional-perspectives-on-fish-in-a-eutrophic-lake-lake-loskop-south-africa
#4
K D A Huchzermeyer, S Woodborne, G Osthoff, A Hugo, A C Hoffman, H Kaiser, J C A Steyl, J G Myburgh
This study compares the aetiology of pansteatitis in Lake Loskop, relative to two other impoundments along the Olifants River. Macroscopic and microscopic pathology, age determination and analysis of stomach content, fatty acids and stable isotopes explain the high prevalence of pansteatitis in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) and several other species in Lake Loskop. All the dietary indicator comparisons between pansteatitis-affected and healthy fish fail to support a systemic cause. Pansteatitis in Lake Loskop was linked to size and weight of O...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488685/effect-of-diets-rich-in-either-saturated-fat-or-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-supplemented-with-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-plasma-lipoprotein-profiles
#5
C B Dias, N Amigo, L G Wood, X Correig, M L Garg
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Abnormalities in lipoprotein profiles (size, distribution and concentration) play an important role in the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Dietary fat, among other factors, has been demonstrated to modulate lipoprotein profiles. We aimed to investigate if background dietary fat (saturated, SFA versus omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6PUFA) was a determinant of the effects of LCn-3PUFA supplementation on lipoprotein profiles. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical intervention trial in a parallel design was conducted...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475424/metabolic-dysregulation-after-neutron-exposures-expected-from-an-improvised-nuclear-device
#6
Evagelia C Laiakis, Yi-Wen Wang, Erik F Young, Andrew D Harken, Yanping Xu, Lubomir Smilenov, Guy Y Garty, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace
The increased threat of terrorism across the globe has raised fears that certain groups will acquire and use radioactive materials to inflict maximum damage. In the event that an improvised nuclear device (IND) is detonated, a potentially large population of victims will require assessment for radiation exposure. While photons will contribute to a major portion of the dose, neutrons may be responsible for the severity of the biologic effects and cellular responses. We investigated differences in response between these two radiation types by using metabolomics and lipidomics to identify biomarkers in urine and blood of wild-type C57BL/6 male mice...
May 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469462/role-of-macronutrients-and-micronutrients-in-dna-damage-results-from-a-food-frequency-questionnaire
#7
Carina Ladeira, Elisabete Carolino, Manuel C Gomes, Miguel Brito
The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides) and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441536/the-effect-of-forage-types-on-the-fatty-acid-profile-lipid-and-protein-oxidation-and-retail-colour-stability-of-muscles-from-white-dorper-lambs
#8
Gerlane F De Brito, Benjamin W B Holman, Shawn R McGrath, Michael A Friend, Remy van de Ven, David L Hopkins
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forage-types on lamb meat quality parameters. White Dorper lambs that had grazed five forage-types, were slaughtered commercially. At 24h post-mortem, the m. longissimus lumborum (LL) was removed from one side, sliced into three equal sub-samples, vacuum packaged and assigned to ageing periods (5, 12 or 40days); the other side of LL was aged for 5days. The m. adductor femoris was used for fatty acid analysis. Lambs fed chicory+arrowleaf clover had the highest concentration of health claimable omega-3 fatty acids and the lowest omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio...
August 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431151/dietary-choline-and-phospholipid-supplementation-enhanced-docosahexaenoic-acid-enrichment-in-egg-yolk-of-laying-hens-fed-a-2-schizochytrium-powder-added-diet
#9
H Wang, H J Zhang, X C Wang, S G Wu, J Wang, L Xu, G H Qi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipid supplementation on laying hen performance, egg quality, and the fatty acid profile of egg yolks from hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder diet. Three-hundred-sixty 28-wk-old Hy-line W-36 laying hens were randomly allocated to one of the 5 dietary treatments, each treatment with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. All diets included 2% Schizochytrium powder (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 137.09 mg/g). The control group was not supplemented with any additional phospholipids, whereas the other 4 experimental diets were supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg choline (CHO), 1,000 mg/kg monoethanolamine (MEA), 1,000 mg/kg lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or 500 mg/kg LPC + 500 mg/kg MEA (LPC + MEA)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394147/a-lower-ratio-of-omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acids-predicts-better-hippocampus-dependent-spatial-memory-and-cognitive-status-in-older-adults
#10
Nadia D Andruchow, Kyoko Konishi, Bryna Shatenstein, Véronique D Bohbot
OBJECTIVE: Evidence from several cross-sectional studies indicates that an increase in omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) may negatively affect cognition in old age. The hippocampus is among the first neural structures affected by age and atrophy in this brain region is associated with cognitive decline. Therefore, we hypothesized that a lower omega-6:3 FA ratio would predict better hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, and a higher general cognitive status. METHOD: Fifty-two healthy older adults completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA; a test of global cognition) and virtual navigation tasks that assess navigational strategies and spatial memory...
April 10, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393974/-origin-components-and-mechanisms-of-action-of-the-mediterranean-diet
#11
Inés Urquiaga, Guadalupe Echeverría, Catalina Dussaillant, Attilio Rigotti
The Mediterranean diet is currently considered a healthy dietary pattern. It includes a great variety of foods, which are eaten in moderation and within a positive social environment. The generic term "Mediterranean diet" was born after the "Seven Countries Study" led by Ancel Keys around 1960. This dietary pattern is characterized by a high intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, fish, white meats and olive oil. It also includes moderate consumption of fermented dairy products, low intake of red meat and drinking wine with moderation during meals...
January 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391879/individual-omega-9-monounsaturated-fatty-acids-and-mortality-the-ludwigshafen-risk-and-cardiovascular-health-study
#12
Graciela E Delgado, Bernhard K Krämer, Stefan Lorkowski, Winfried März, Clemens von Schacky, Marcus E Kleber
BACKGROUND: The association of polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with mortality has been extensively studied. Far less is known about the association of omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (omega-9 MUFA) with mortality. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the association of individual omega-MUFA with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. METHODS: Omega-9 MUFA concentrations were measured in erythrocytes in 3259 patients participating in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study using the HS-Omega-3 index method...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390839/validation-of-an-equation-predicting-highly-unsaturated-fatty-acid-hufa-compositions-of-human-blood-fractions-from-dietary-intakes-of-both-hufas-and-their-precursors
#13
Sarah E Strandjord, Bill Lands, Joseph R Hibbeln
Proportions of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) in 20- and 22-carbon highly unsaturated fatty acids with 3 or more double bonds (HUFA) accumulated in tissue HUFA (e.g., the %n-6 in HUFA) are biomarkers reflecting intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. An empirical equation, referred to here as the Lands' Equation, was developed previously to use dietary intakes of n-6 and n-3 HUFA and their 18-carbon precursors to estimate the %n-6 in HUFA of humans. From the PubMed database, we identified clinical trials reporting (a) dietary intake of at least linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), and (b) the amounts of at least arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in lipids of plasma, serum, or red blood cell...
March 8, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390301/mercury-exposure-serum-antinuclear-antibodies-and-serum-cytokine-levels-in-the-long-island-study-of-seafood-consumption-a-cross-sectional-study-in-ny-usa
#14
Rebecca N Monastero, Roxanne Karimi, Jennifer F Nyland, James Harrington, Keith Levine, Jaymie R Meliker
Mercury (Hg) is a well-known neurotoxin, and has been more recently studied specifically as an immunotoxin. In experimental and a few epidemiologic studies, Hg has been associated with distinct cytokine profiles and antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity, though patterns at lower levels of exposure, typical of seafood consumers with a western diet, are not well characterized. Seafood consumers (n=287) recruited on Long Island, NY completed food frequency and health questionnaires and provided blood for analysis of Hg, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids), selenium (Se), ANA, and several cytokines (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-17, IFN-γ, and IL-1ra)...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372209/candida-antarctica-lipase-a-effectively-concentrates-dha-from-fish-and-thraustochytrid-oils
#15
Taiwo O Akanbi, Colin J Barrow
The fatty acid selectivity of Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL-A) was applied to produce DHA concentrate by controlling the rate and extent of hydrolysis. Calcium was utilized to achieve a higher degree of hydrolysis. CAL-A was not regioselective but rather fatty acid selective, showing sequential selectivity for saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the order of increasing double bonds. Based on its strong initial preference for saturates, CAL-A was used to concentrate 82% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 11% omega-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA-n6) after partial hydrolysis of algal oil...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372207/a-novel-process-for-preparation-of-fatty-acid-oil-mixture-in-solid-form
#16
Azadeh Kermanshahi Pour, Lauren MacEachern, Mahmoud Mirmehrabi
The present study describes a novel and scalable process for preparation of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in solid form. The process involves multiple steps consisting of combining the oil with a metal base in alcohol to form a solution, followed by addition of reaction mixture to acetonitrile (anti-solvent) to form a slurry and further separating the solid through filtration. This process results in formation of a flowable solid with yield of 44-76% depending on the procedure employed. The fatty acid profile of the calcium and magnesium salts was stable after one year of storage in ambient conditions...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371493/efficacy-of-nutritional-supplementation-with-omega-3-and-omega-6-fatty-acids-in-dry-eye-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#17
Ignacio Molina-Leyva, Alejandro Molina-Leyva, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas
PURPOSE: To critically appraise scientific evidence regarding the efficacy of nutritional supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for the treatment of dry eye syndrome (DES). METHODS: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials was performed. Two independent reviewers selected and analysed the scientific papers that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Objective and subjective efficacy outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: The trials involved a total of 2591 patients in fifteen independent studies...
March 30, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371257/dietary-intake-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-pain-in-spite-of-inflammatory-control-among-methotrexate-treated-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#18
Cecilia Lourdudoss, Daniela Di Giuseppe, Alicja Wolk, Helga Westerlind, Lars Klareskog, Lars Alfredsson, Ronald F van Vollenhoven, Jon Lampa
Objective To investigate potential associations between dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and pain patterns in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients after three months of methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Methods We included 591 early RA patients with MTX monotherapy from a population based prospective case-control study, the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA). Dietary data on PUFA (food frequency questionnaires) were linked with data on unacceptable pain (visual analogue scale (VAS) >40mm), non-inflammatory/refractory pain (VAS >40mm and C-reactive protein (CRP) <10mg/L) and inflammatory pain (VAS >40mm and CRP >10mg/L) after three months...
March 28, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365467/the-lipidome-in-major-depressive-disorder-shared-genetic-influence-for-ether-phosphatidylcholines-a-plasma-based-phenotype-related-to-inflammation-and-disease-risk
#19
E E M Knowles, K Huynh, P J Meikle, H H H Göring, R L Olvera, S R Mathias, R Duggirala, L Almasy, J Blangero, J E Curran, D C Glahn
BACKGROUND: The lipidome is rapidly garnering interest in the field of psychiatry. Recent studies have implicated lipidomic changes across numerous psychiatric disorders. In particular, there is growing evidence that the concentrations of several classes of lipids are altered in those diagnosed with MDD. However, for lipidomic abnormalities to be considered potential treatment targets for MDD (rather than secondary manifestations of the disease), a shared etiology between lipid concentrations and MDD should be demonstrated...
February 21, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361752/an-empirically-derived-dietary-pattern-associated-with-breast-cancer-risk-is-validated-in-a-nested-case-control-cohort-from-a-randomized-primary-prevention-trial
#20
Brandon H Hidaka, Bruce F Kimler, Carol J Fabian, Susan E Carlson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We reported an association between cytologic atypia, a reversible biomarker of breast cancer risk, and lower omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratio in blood and breast tissue. Our goal was to develop and validate a dietary pattern index in this high-risk sample of U.S. women, and test its capacity to predict incidence in a nested case-control cohort of Canadian women from a randomized trial of a low-fat dietary intervention for primary prevention of breast cancer. METHODS: Food intake was measured by food frequency questionnaire in the U...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
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