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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356428/humic-acid-of-commercial-origin-causes-changes-in-gill-morphology-of-silver-catfish-rhamdia-quelen-exposed-to-acidic-water-response-of-silver-catfish-gills-to-low-ph-and-humic-acid
#1
Silvio T da Costa, Luciane T Gressler, Fernando J Sutili, Luíza Loebens, Marisa N Fernandes, Rafael Lazzari, Bernardo Baldisserotto
The effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) against the burden of low pH was assessed in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen through the gills. A commercial humic acid (HA) was used as the source of DOC at 0 (control), 10, 25, and 50 mg/l. For each HA concentration, two pH levels were tested: 6.5 (control) and 5.5. After 40 days of exposure, the gills were removed and morphological variables were analyzed through light and scanning electronic microscopy. The low water pH caused a reduction in the length of filaments, number of lamellae, and gill respiratory surface area (GRSA) and an increase in chloride cells (CCs) number in the filament epithelium...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356411/silicon-based-anodes-for-lithium-ion-batteries-from-fundamentals-to-practical-applications
#2
REVIEW
Kun Feng, Matthew Li, Wenwen Liu, Ali Ghorbani Kashkooli, Xingcheng Xiao, Mei Cai, Zhongwei Chen
Silicon has been intensively studied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) because of its exceptionally high specific capacity. However, silicon-based anode materials usually suffer from large volume change during the charge and discharge process, leading to subsequent pulverization of silicon, loss of electric contact, and continuous side reactions. These transformations cause poor cycle life and hinder the wide commercialization of silicon for LIBs. The lithiation and delithiation behaviors, and the interphase reaction mechanisms, are progressively studied and understood...
January 22, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356385/3d-electronic-channels-wrapped-large-sized-na3-v2-po4-3-as-flexible-electrode-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#3
Qiao Ni, Ying Bai, Yu Li, Liming Ling, Limin Li, Guanghai Chen, Zhaohua Wang, Haixia Ren, Feng Wu, Chuan Wu
The development of portable and wearable electronics has aroused the increasing demand for flexible energy-storage devices, especially for the characteristics of high energy density, excellent mechanical properties, simple synthesis process, and low cost. However, the development of flexible electrodes for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) is still limited due to the intricate production methods and the relatively high-cost of current collectors such as graphene/graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. Here, the hierarchical 3D electronic channels wrapped large-sized Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 is designed and fabricated by a simple electrospinning technique...
January 22, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356328/confined-self-assembly-in-two-dimensional-interlayer-space-monolayered-mesoporous-carbon-nanosheets-with-in-plane-orderly-arranged-mesopores-and-high-graphitized-framework
#4
Jie Wang, Yunling Xu, Bing Ding, Zhi Chang, Xiaogang Zhang, Yusuke Yamauchi, Kevin Chia-Wen Wu
Although two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials are widely investigated, a well-defined 2D carbon nanosheet with an ordered mesostructure has rarely been realized. Herein monolayer ordered mesoporous carbon nanosheets (OMCNS) are prepared through confinement assembly of resol and F127 in the interlayer of montmorillonite (MONT). The nano-distances of the interlayer space of MONT only allow the assembly of resol and F127 in the same plane, leading to ordered mesopores perpendicular to carbon nanosheets, and favour the formation of sp2 carbon, resulting in highly graphitization degree...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355834/creation-of-nanosized-holes-in-graphene-planes-for-improvement-of-rate-capability-of-lithium-ion-batteries
#5
Lyubov G Bulusheva, Svetlana G Stolyarova, Andrey Chuvilin, Yury Shubin, Igor P Asanov, Alexei M Sorokin, Maxim S Mel'gunov, Su Zhang, Yue Dong, Xiaohong Chen, Huaihe Song, Alexander V Okotrub
The holes with an average size of 2-5 nm have been created in graphene layers by a heating of graphite oxide (GO) in concentrated sulfuric acid followed by annealing in an argon flow. The hot mineral acid acts simultaneously as a defunctionalizing and etching agent, removing a part of oxygen-containing groups and lattice carbon atoms from the layers. Annealing of the holey reduced GO at 800-1000°C causes decrease of the content of residual oxygen and the interlayer spacing thus producing thin compact stacks from holey graphene layers...
January 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355738/carbonic-anhydrase-ii-does-not-exhibit-nitrate-reductase-or-nitrous-anhydrase-activity
#6
Jacob T Andring, Carrie L Lomelino, Chingkuang Tu, David N Silverman, Robert McKenna, Erik R Swenson
Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of water and CO2 to bicarbonate and a proton. CA II is abundant in most cells, and plays a role in numerous processes including gas exchange, epithelial ion transport, respiration, extra- and intracellular pH control, and vascular regulation. Beyond these CO2 and pH-linked roles, it has been postulated that CA II might also reduce nitrite (NO2-) to nitric oxide (NO), as bicarbonate and NO2- both exhibit sp2 molecular geometry and NO also plays an important role in vasodilation and regulation of blood pressure...
January 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350621/electrodeposited-binder-free-nico2o4-carbon-nanofiber-as-high-performance-anode-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#7
Jie Zhang, Ruixia Chu, Yanli Chen, Heng Jiang, Ying Zhang, Nay Ming Huang, Hang Guo
Binder-free nickle cobaltite on carbon nanofiber (NiCo2O4@CNF) anode for lithium ion batteries was prepared via a two-step procedure of electrospinning and electrodeposition. The CNF was obtained by annealing the electrospun poly-acrylonitrile (PAN) in the nitrogen (N2). The NiCo2O4 nanostructures were then grown on the CNF by electrodeposition, followed by annealing in the air. Experimental results showed vertically aligned NiCo2O4 nanosheets were uniformly grown on the surface of CNF, forming an interconnected network...
January 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350526/folding-graphene-film-yields-high-areal-energy-storage-in-lithium-ion-batteries
#8
Bin Wang, Jaegeon Ryu, Sungho Choi, Gyujin Song, Dongki Hong, Chihyun Hwang, Xiong Chen, Bo Wang, Wei Li, Hyun-Kon Song, Soojin Park, Rodney S Ruoff
We show that a high energy density can be achieved in a practical manner with freestanding electrodes without using conductive carbon, binders, and current collectors. We made and used a folded graphene composite electrode designed for a high areal capacity anode. The traditional thick graphene composite electrode, such as made by filtering graphene oxide to create a thin film and reducing it such as through chemical or thermal methods, has sluggish reaction kinetics. Instead, we have made and tested a thin composite film electrode that was folded several times using a water-assisted method; it provides a continuous electron transport path in the fold regions and introduces more channels between the folded layers, which significantly enhances the electron/ion transport kinetics...
January 19, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350035/selective-proton-deuteron-transport-through-nafion-graphene-nafion-sandwich-structures-at-very-high-current-density
#9
Saheed Bukola, Ying Liang, Carol Korzeniewski, Joel Harris, Stephen Creager
Ion current densities near 1 A cm-2 at modest bias voltages (< 200 mV) are reported for proton and deuteron transmission across single-layer graphene in polyelectrolyte-membrane (PEM)-style hydrogen pump cells. The graphene is sandwiched between two Nafion membranes and covers the entire area between two platinum-carbon electrodes, such that proton transfer is forced to occur through the graphene layer. Raman spectroscopy confirms that buried graphene layers are single-layer and relatively free of defects following the hot-press procedure used to make the sandwich structures...
January 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348658/novel-multifunctional-cheese-like-3d-carbon-bn-as-a-highly-efficient-adsorbent-for-water-purification
#10
Zhenya Liu, Yi Fang, Huichao Jia, Chong Wang, Qianqian Song, Lanlan Li, Jing Lin, Yang Huang, Chao Yu, Chengchun Tang
In this paper, a novel three dimensional carbon boron nitride (3D C-BN) was successfully prepared. The obtained material has porous cheese-like structure and pore size ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm. Attractively, the 3D C-BN, which combines the adsorption advantages of BN and carbon together, exhibits excellent adsorption properties for organic dyes, oils and heavy metal ions. The maximum removal capacities of 3D C-BN for methyl blue (MB) and congo red (CR) are 408 mg g-1 and 307 mg g-1, respectively...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347759/isochoric-isobaric-and-ultrafast-conductivities-of-aluminum-lithium-and-carbon-in-the-warm-dense-matter-regime
#11
M W C Dharma-Wardana, D D Klug, L Harbour, Laurent J Lewis
We study the conductivities σ of (i) the equilibrium isochoric state σ_{is}, (ii) the equilibrium isobaric state σ_{ib}, and also the (iii) nonequilibrium ultrafast matter state σ_{uf} with the ion temperature T_{i} less than the electron temperature T_{e}. Aluminum, lithium, and carbon are considered, being increasingly complex warm dense matter systems, with carbon having transient covalent bonds. First-principles calculations, i.e., neutral-pseudoatom (NPA) calculations and density-functional theory (DFT) with molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations, are compared where possible with experimental data to characterize σ_{ic}, σ_{ib}, and σ_{uf}...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347630/temperature-measurement-of-hohlraum-radiation-for-energy-loss-experiments-in-indirectly-laser-heated-carbon-plasma
#12
D Schumacher, S Bedacht, A Blažević, S Busold, W Cayzac, A Frank, T Heßling, D Kraus, A Ortner, G Schaumann, M Roth
For ion energy loss measurements in plasmas with near solid densities, an indirect laser heating scheme for carbon foils has been developed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Darmstadt, Germany). To achieve an electron density of 10^{22}cm^{3} and an electron temperature of 10-30eV, two carbon foils with an areal density of 100μg/cm^{2} heated in a double-hohlraum configuration have been chosen. In this paper we present the results of temperature measurements of both primary and secondary hohlraums for two different hohlraum designs...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346719/a-tunable-molten-salt-route-for-scalable-synthesis-of-ultrathin-amorphous-carbon-nanosheets-as-high-performance-anode-materials-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#13
Yixian Wang, Wei Tian, Luhai Wang, Haoran Zhang, Jialiang Liu, Tingyue Peng, Lei Pan, Xiaobo Wang, Mingbo Wu
Amorphous carbon is regarded as a promising alternative to commercial graphite as the lithium-ion battery anode due to its capability to reversibly store more lithium ions. However, the structural disorder with a large number of defects can lead to low electrical conductivity of the amorphous carbon, thus limiting its application for high power output. Herein, ultrathin amorphous carbon nanosheets were prepared from petroleum asphalt through tuning the carbonization temperature in a molten-salt medium. The amorphous nanostructure with expanded carbon interlayer spacing can provide substantial active sites for lithium storage while the two-dimensional (2D) morphology can facilitate fast electrical conductivity...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345900/high-performance-ga2o3-anode-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#14
Xun Tang, Xin Huang, Yongmin Huang, Yong Gou, James Pastore, Yao Yang, Yin Xiong, Jiangfeng Qian, Joel D Brock, Juntao Lu, Li Xiao, Héctor D Abruña, Lin Zhuang
There is a great deal of interest in developing battery systems that can exhibit self-healing behavior, thus enhancing cycleability. Given that gallium (Ga) is a metal that melts near room temperature, we wanted to test if it could be employed as a self-healing anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, Ga nanoparticles (NPs), when directly applied, tended to aggregate upon charge/discharge cycling. To address this issue, we employed carbon-coated Ga2O3 NPs as an alternative. By controlling the pH of the precursor solution, highly dispersed and ultra-fine Ga2O3 NPs, embedded in carbon shells, could be synthesized through a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) method...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344735/hydrochemistry-and-water-quality-of-rewalsar-lake-of-lesser-himalaya-himachal-pradesh-india
#15
Pawan Kumar Gaury, Narendra Kumar Meena, A K Mahajan
The present research is to study hydrochemistry and water quality of Rewalsar Lake during pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons. The Ca2+ and Na+ are observed as the dominant cations from pre- to post-monsoon season. On the other hand, HCO3- and Cl- are observed dominant anions during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons, whereas HCO3- and SO42- during post-monsoon season. The comparison of alkaline earth metals with alkali metals and total cations (Tz+) has specified that the carbonate weathering is the dominant source of major ions in the water of lake...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343780/waste-windshield-derived-silicon-carbon-nanocomposites-as-high-performance-lithium-ion-battery-anodes
#16
Mingu Choi, Jae-Chan Kim, Dong-Wan Kim
Silicon has emerged as the most promising high-capacity material for lithium-ion batteries. Waste glass can be a potential low cost and environmentally benign silica resource enabling production of nanosized silicon at the industry level. Windshields are generally made of laminated glass comprising two separate glass bonded together with a layer of polyvinyl butyral sandwiched between them. Herein, silicon/carbon nanocomposites are fabricated from windshields for the first time via magnesiothermic reduction and facile carbonization process using both waste glass and polyvinyl butyral as silica and carbon sources, respectively...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342917/nitrogen-doped-carbon-for-red-phosphorous-based-anode-materials-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#17
Jiaoyang Li, Yumin Qian, Li Wang, Xiangming He
Serving as conductive matrix and stress buffer, the carbon matrix plays a pivotal role in enabling red phosphorus to be a promising anode material for high capacity lithium ion batteries and sodium ion batteries. In this paper, nitrogen-doping is proved to effective enhance the interface interaction between carbon and red phosphorus. In detail, the adsorption energy between phosphorus atoms and oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon is significantly reduced by nitrogen doping, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
January 15, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342185/nanocarrier-mediated-foliar-zinc-fertilization-influences-expression-of-metal-homeostasis-related-genes-in-flag-leaves-and-enhances-gluten-content-in-durum-wheat
#18
Paresh Deshpande, Ashwin Dapkekar, Manoj Oak, Kishore Paknikar, Jyutika Rajwade
BACKGROUND: Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341599/a-ni-catalyzed-carbon-carbon-bond-forming-reductive-amination
#19
Christoph Heinz, J Patrick Lutz, Eric M Simmons, Michael M Miller, William R Ewing, Abigail G Doyle
This report describes a three-component, Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling that enables the convergent synthesis of tertiary benzhydryl amines, which are challenging to access by traditional reductive amination methodologies. The reaction makes use of iminium ions generated in situ from the condensation of secondary N-trimethylsilyl amines with benzaldehydes, and these species undergo reaction with several distinct classes of organic electrophiles. The synthetic value of this process is demonstrated by a single-step synthesis of antimigraine drug flunarizine (Sibelium®) and high yielding derivatization of paroxetine (Paxil®) and metoprolol (Lopressor®)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341491/clinical-outcomes-of-carbon-ion-radiotherapy-with-concurrent-chemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-uterine-cervical-adenocarcinoma-in-a-phase-1-2-clinical-trial-protocol-1001
#20
Noriyuki Okonogi, Masaru Wakatsuki, Shingo Kato, Kumiko Karasawa, Hiroki Kiyohara, Shintaro Shiba, Daijiro Kobayashi, Takashi Nakano, Tadashi Kamada, Makio Shozu
We conducted a phase 1/2 study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced uterine cervical adenocarcinoma. Thirty-three patients were enrolled between April 2010 and March 2014. Treatment consisted of C-ion RT with concurrent weekly cisplatin at a dose of 40 mg/m2 . In the phase 1 component, the total dose was escalated from 68.0 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) to 74.4 Gy (RBE) to determine the maximum tolerated dose of C-ion RT...
January 17, 2018: Cancer Medicine
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