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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103039/single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-mimics-of-biological-ion-channels
#1
Hasti Amiri, Kenneth L Shepard, Colin Nuckolls, Raúl Hernández Sánchez
Here we report on the ion conductance through individual, small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes. We find that they are mimics of ion channels found in natural systems. We explore the factors governing the ion selectivity and permeation through single-walled carbon nanotubes by considering an electrostatic mechanism built around a simplified version of the Gouy-Chapman theory. We find that the single-walled carbon nanotubes preferentially transported cations and that the cation permeability is size-dependent...
January 19, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103016/sns2-nanowall-arrays-toward-high-performance-sodium-storage
#2
Peng Zhou, Xiao Wang, Wenhao Guan, Dan Zhang, Libin Fang, Yinzhu Jiang
Cost-effective sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are springing out as desirable alternative choice of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), in terms of application in large-scale energy storage devices. SnS2 is regarded as a potential anode material for SIBs due to its unique layered structure and high theoretical specific capacity. However, the development of SnS2 was hindered by the sluggish kinetics of diffusion process and the inevitable volume change during repeated sodiation/desodiation processes. In this work, SnS2 with a unique nanowall arrays (NWAs) structure is fabricated by one-step pulsed spray evaporation chemical vapor deposition (PSE-CVD), which could be used directly as binder-free and carbon-free anodes for SIBs...
January 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102408/bottom-up-synthesis-of-nitrogen-doped-porous-carbon-scaffolds-for-lithium-and-sodium-storage
#3
Hongling Lu, Renpeng Chen, Yi Hu, Xiaoqi Wang, Yanrong Wang, Lianbo Ma, Guoyin Zhu, Tao Chen, Zuoxiu Tie, Zhong Jin, Jie Liu
Here we report an effective bottom-up solution-phase process for the preparation of nitrogen-doped porous carbon scaffolds (NPCSs), which can be employed as high-performance anode materials for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The as-obtained NPCSs show favorable features for electrochemical energy storage such as high specific surface area, appropriate pore size distribution (3.9 nm in average), large pore volume (1.36 cm(3) g(-1)), nanosheet-like morphology, a certain degree of graphitization, enlarged interlayer distance (0...
January 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102018/microwave-assisted-rapid-synthesis-of-self-assembled-t-nb2o5-nanowires-for-high-energy-hybrid-supercapacitors
#4
Huiling Yang, Henghui Xu, Libin Wang, Lei Zhang, Yunhui Huang, Xianluo Hu
Recently ion-intercalation hybrid supercapacitors with high energy density at high power density have been widely investigated to meet the ever-increasing practical applications. Here a unique hybrid supercapacitor is designed and fabricated using self-assembled orthorhombic-phase niobium oxide@carbon (T-Nb2O5@C) nanowires as an anode and commercially available activated carbon as a cathode. The 3D-interconnected T-Nb2O5@C nanowires have been synthesized via a highly efficient microwave-solvothermal method combined with subsequent thermal treatment...
January 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100417/long-range-and-regional-transported-size-resolved-atmospheric-aerosols-during-summertime-in-urban-shanghai
#5
Xiaoxiao Ding, Lingdong Kong, Chengtian Du, Assiya Zhanzakova, Lin Wang, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, Xin Yang, Tiantao Cheng
In this study, the concentrations of water soluble ions (WSI), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) of size-resolved (0.056-18μm) atmospheric aerosols were measured in July and August 2015 in Shanghai, China. Backward trajectory model and potential source contribution function (PSCF) model were used to identify the potential source distributions of size-resolved particles and PM1.8-associated atmospheric inorganic and carbonaceous aerosols. The results showed that the average mass concentrations of PM0...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099805/the-importance-of-cannizzaro-type-reactions-during-electrocatalytic-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide
#6
Yuvraj Y Birdja, Marc T M Koper
A seemingly catalytic inactive electrode as boron doped diamond is found to be active for CO2 and CO reduction to formaldehyde and even methane. At very cathodic potentials formic acid and methanol are formed as well. However, these products are the result of base-catalyzed Cannizzaro-type disproportionation reactions. A local alkaline environment near the electrode surface, caused by the hydrogen evolution reaction, initiates aldehyde disproportionation promoted by hydroxide ions, which leads to the formation of the corresponding carboxylic acid and alcohol...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098987/predicting-copper-speciation-in-estuarine-waters-is-dissolved-organic-carbon-a-good-proxy-for-the-presence-of-organic-ligands
#7
Holly Beverley Clare Pearson, Sean David W Comber, Charlotte Braungardt, Paul J Worsfold
A new generation of speciation-based aquatic environmental quality standards (EQS) for metals have been developed using models to predict the free metal ion concentration, the most ecologically relevant form, to set site-specific values. Some countries such as the UK have moved towards this approach by setting a new estuarine and marine water EQS for copper, based on an empirical relationship between copper toxicity to mussels (Mytilus sp.) and ambient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. This assumes an inverse relationship between DOC and free copper ion concentration owing to complexation by predominantly organic ligands...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098926/relevance-of-osteoclast-specific-enzyme-activities-in-cell-based-in-vitro-resorption-assays
#8
A Bernhardt, K Koperski, M Schumacher, M Gelinsky
Cell-based in vitro resorption assays are an important tool to simulate the in vivo biodegradation of resorbable bone graft materials and to predict their clinical performance. The present study analyses the activity of osteoclast-specific enzymes as potential surrogate measures for classical pit assay, which is not applicable on irregular structured materials. Osteoclasts derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultivated on different surfaces: calcium phosphate bone cements (CPC), dentin discs, osteoblast-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) and tissue culture polystyrene as control...
January 18, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098442/a-nasicon-type-mg0-5ti2-po4-3-negative-electrode-material-exhibits-different-electrochemical-energy-storage-mechanisms-in-na-ion-and-li-ion-batteries
#9
Yingying Zhao, Zhixuan Wei, Qiang Pang, Yingjin Wei, Yongmao Cai, Qiang Fu, Fei Du, Angelina Sarapulova, Helmut Ehrenberg, Bingbing Liu, Gang Chen
A Carbon-coated Mg0.5Ti2(PO4)3 polyanion material was prepared by the sol-gel method and then studied as the negative electrode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. The material showed a specific capacity of 268.6 mAh g-1 in the voltage window of 0.01-3.0 V vs. Na+/Na0. Due to the fast diffusion of Na+ in the NASICON framework, the material exhibited superior rate capability with a specific capacity of 94.4 mAh g-1 at a current density of 5A g-1. Additionally, 99.1 % capacity retention was achieved after 300 cycles, demonstrating excellent cycle stability...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098302/carbon-two-dimensional-mote2-core-shell-structured-microspheres-as-an-anode-material-for-na-ion-batteries
#10
Jung Sang Cho, Hyeon Seok Ju, Jung-Kul Lee, Yun Chan Kang
Unique-structured composite microspheres of carbon and MoTe2 were prepared by a two-step process. Precursor C-MoOx composite microspheres were prepared by spray pyrolysis, and then the precursor was transformed into C-MoTe2 composite microspheres by a tellurization process. C-MoTe2 composites with a uniform distribution of MoTe2 nanocrystals (C/MoTe2) and core-shell-structured C-MoTe2 composites (C@MoTe2) were synthesized at tellurization temperatures of 450 and 600 °C, respectively. At a higher tellurization temperature of 600 °C, all of the MoTe2 nanocrystals moved to the surface of the microsphere because of the Ostwald ripening process...
January 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098231/reduced-graphene-oxide-as-a-stable-and-high-capacity-cathode-material-for-na-ion-batteries
#11
Ghulam Ali, Asad Mehmood, Heung Yong Ha, Jaehoon Kim, Kyung Yoon Chung
We report the feasibility of using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a cost-effective and high performance cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Graphene oxide is synthesized by a modified Hummers' method and reduced using a solid-state microwave irradiation method. The RGO electrode delivers an exceptionally stable discharge capacity of 240 mAh g(-1) with a stable long cycling up to 1000 cycles. A discharge capacity of 134 mAh g(-1) is obtained at a high current density of 600 mA g(-1), and the electrode recovers a capacity of 230 mAh g(-1) when the current density is reset to 15 mA g(-1) after deep cycling, thus demonstrating the excellent stability of the electrode with sodium de/intercalation...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096362/catalytic-oxidation-of-li2s-on-the-surface-of-metal-sulfides-for-li-s-batteries
#12
Guangmin Zhou, Hongzhen Tian, Yang Jin, Xinyong Tao, Bofei Liu, Rufan Zhang, Zhi Wei Seh, Denys Zhuo, Yayuan Liu, Jie Sun, Jie Zhao, Chenxi Zu, David Sichen Wu, Qianfan Zhang, Yi Cui
Polysulfide binding and trapping to prevent dissolution into the electrolyte by a variety of materials has been well studied in Li-S batteries. Here we discover that some of those materials can play an important role as an activation catalyst to facilitate oxidation of the discharge product, Li2S, back to the charge product, sulfur. Combining theoretical calculations and experimental design, we select a series of metal sulfides as a model system to identify the key parameters in determining the energy barrier for Li2S oxidation and polysulfide adsorption...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096329/tissue-dual-rna-seq-allows-fast-discovery-of-infection-specific-functions-and-riboregulators-shaping-host-pathogen-transcriptomes
#13
Aaron M Nuss, Michael Beckstette, Maria Pimenova, Carina Schmühl, Wiebke Opitz, Fabio Pisano, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch
Pathogenic bacteria need to rapidly adjust their virulence and fitness program to prevent eradication by the host. So far, underlying adaptation processes that drive pathogenesis have mostly been studied in vitro, neglecting the true complexity of host-induced stimuli acting on the invading pathogen. In this study, we developed an unbiased experimental approach that allows simultaneous monitoring of genome-wide infection-linked transcriptional alterations of the host and colonizing extracellular pathogens. Using this tool for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-infected lymphatic tissues, we revealed numerous alterations of host transcripts associated with inflammatory and acute-phase responses, coagulative activities, and transition metal ion sequestration, highlighting that the immune response is dominated by infiltrating neutrophils and elicits a mixed TH17/TH1 response...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094922/nano-photoelectrochemical-cell-arrays-with-spatially-isolated-oxidation-and-reduction-channels
#14
Hang-Ah Park, Siyuan Liu, Youngseok Oh, Paul A Salvador, Gregory S Rohrer, Mohammad F Islam
Photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy is explored for many diverse applications but suffers from poor efficiencies due to limited solar absorption, inadequate charge carrier separation, redox half-reactions occurring in close proximity, and/or long ion diffusion lengths. We have taken a drastically different approach to the design of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) to spatially isolate reaction sites at the nanoscale to different materials and flow channels, suppressing carrier recombination and back-reaction of intermediates while shortening ion diffusion paths and, importantly, avoiding mixed product generation...
January 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094919/synthesis-of-3d-nanoporous-li-rich-layered-cathode-oxides-for-high-volumetric-and-power-energy-density-li-ion-batteries
#15
Bao Qiu, Chong Yin, Yonggao Xia, Zhaoping Liu
As rechargeable Li-ion batteries have expanded their applications into onboard energy storage for electric vehicles, the energy and power must be increased to meet the new demands. Li-rich layered oxides are one of the most promising candidate materials, however, they are very difficult to be compatible with high volumetric energy density and power density. Here we develop an innovative approach to synthesize three dimensional (3D) nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides Li[Li0.144Ni0.136Co0.136Mn0.544]O2, directly occurring at deep chemical delithiation with carbon dioxide...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094156/removal-of-toxic-metals-during-biological-treatment-of-landfill-leachates
#16
T Robinson
Progressive implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in substantial changes in limits for discharges of heavy metals both to watercourses, and to sewer. The objective of this paper is to provide original, real, full-scale data obtained for removal of metals during aerobic biological leachate treatment, and also to report on studies carried out to look at further trace metal removal. Polishing technologies examined and investigated include; the incorporation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes into biological treatment systems, the use of ion exchange, and of activated carbon polishing processes...
January 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092980/hydrogeochemical-and-isotope-study-of-perched-aquifers-in-the-cuvelai-etosha-basin-namibia
#17
Josefina T Hamutoko, Heike Wanke, Paul Koeniger, Matthias Beyer, Marcel Gaj
A hydrogeochemical and stable isotope study ((2)H and (18)O) was carried out in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in order to characterize available groundwater and to identify possible recharge mechanisms for the perched aquifers. Data were collected during seven field campaigns between 2013 and 2015 from a total of 24 shallow and deep groundwater hand-dug wells. In the investigated groundwaters, hydrogencarbonate is the dominating anion in both well types, whereas cations vary between calcium and magnesium in deep wells, and sodium and potassium in shallow wells...
January 16, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092634/correlation-of-cation-distribution-with-the-hyperfine-and-magnetic-behaviour-of-ni0-3zn0-4co0-2cu0-1fe2o4-nanoparticles-and-their-microwave-absorption-properties-when-encapsulated-in-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#18
Madhumita Dalal, Ayan Mallick, Jean-Marc Greneche, Dipankar Das, Pabitra K Chakrabarti
Nanocrystalline samples of Ni0.3Zn0.4Co0.2Cu0.1Fe2O4 (NZCCF) are prepared by a simple co-precipitation method. To obtain nanoparticles of different sizes, the as prepared sample is annealed at 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C. Nanoparticles of the sample annealed at 600 °C are encapsulated in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). To confirm the crystallographic phase, x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns are analyzed by the Rietveld method and cation distribution in A- and B-sites is estimated from the analysis. Occupancy of Zn(2+) ions in A-site and that of Fe(3+) ions in B-site increase with the increase of annealing temperature (T A) and lattice parameters lie within 8...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092630/comparative-monte-carlo-study-on-the-performance-of-integration-and-list-mode-detector-configurations-for-carbon-ion-computed-tomography
#19
Sebastian Meyer, Chiara Gianoli, Lorena Magallanes, Benedikt Kopp, Thomas Tessonnier, Guillaume Landry, George Dedes, Bernd Voss, Katia Parodi
Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of a highly conformal tumor-dose distribution; however, this technique is extremely sensitive to inaccuracies in the treatment procedures. Ambiguities in the conversion of Hounsfield units of the treatment planning x-ray CT to relative stopping power (RSP) can cause uncertainties in the estimated ion range of up to several millimeters. Ion CT (iCT) represents a favorable solution allowing to directly assess the RSP. In this simulation study we investigate the performance of the integration-mode configuration for carbon iCT, in comparison with a single-particle approach under the same set-up...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092003/validated-electrochemical-and-chromatographic-quantifications-of-some-antibiotic-residues-in-pharmaceutical-industrial-waste-water
#20
Heba K Ibrahim, Mona M Abdel-Moety, Sherif A Abdel-Gawad, Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Mohamed Abdel Kawy
Realistic implementation of ion selective electrodes (ISEs) into environmental monitoring programs has always been a challenging task. This could be largely attributed to difficulties in validation of ISE assay results. In this study, the electrochemical response of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMX), ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPLX), trimethoprim (TMP), and norfloxacin (NFLX) was studied by the fabrication of sensitive membrane electrodes belonging to two types of ISEs, which are polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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