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Carbon ion

Min Du, Kun Rui, Yuanqin Chang, Yu Zhang, Zhongyuan Ma, Wenping Sun, Qingyu Yan, Jixin Zhu, Wei Huang
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and their derivatives with well-defined structures and compositions show great potential for wide applications such as sensors, catalysis, energy storage, and conversion, etc. However, poor electric conductivity and large volume expansion are main obstacles for their utilization in energy storage, e.g., lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. Herein, a facile strategy is proposed for embedding the MOFs, e.g., ZIF-67 and MIL-88 into polyacrylonitrile fibers, which is further used as a template to build a 3D interconnected conductive carbon necklace paper...
November 22, 2017: Small
Yayi Cheng, Jianfeng Huang, Hui Qi, Liyun Cao, Xiaomin Luo, Jiayin Li, Zhanwei Xu, Jun Yang
The Sn-C bonding content between the SnO2 and CNTs interface was controlled by the hydrothermal method and subsequent heat treatment. Electrochemical analysis found that the SnO2@CNTs with high Sn-C bonding content exhibited much higher capacity contribution from alloying and conversion reaction compared with the low content of Sn-C bonding even after 200 cycles. The high Sn-C bonding content enabled the SnO2 nanoparticles to stabilize on the CNTs surface, realizing an in situ pulverization process of SnO2...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Oleg Borodin, Xiaoming Ren, Jenel Vatamanu, Arthur von Wald Cresce, Jaroslaw Knap, Kang Xu
Electroactive interfaces distinguish electrochemistry from chemistry and enable electrochemical energy devices like batteries, fuel cells, and electric double layer capacitors. In batteries, electrolytes should be either thermodynamically stable at the electrode interfaces or kinetically stable by forming an electronically insulating but ionically conducting interphase. In addition to a traditional optimization of electrolytes by adding cosolvents and sacrificial additives to preferentially reduce or oxidize at the electrode surfaces, knowledge of the local electrolyte composition and structure within the double layer as a function of voltage constitutes the basis of manipulating an interphase and expanding the operating windows of electrochemical devices...
November 22, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ruiying Yang, Xiaoxia Yan, Yanmei Li, Xiaohua Zhang, Jinhua Chen
Herein, novel photoactive materials, nitrogen-doped porous carbon-ZnO (NPC-ZnO) nanopolyhedra, were prepared by direct carbonization of ZIF-8 nanopolyhedra in a nitrogen atmosphere. The morphology, structure and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption method, and PEC methods. The results showed that the obtained NPC-ZnO nanopolyhedra had rhombic dodecahedron morphology with uniform particle size of about 100 nm and high surface area of 609...
November 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hui-Ying Qu, Daniel Primetzhofer, Miguel A Arvizu, Zhen Qiu, Umut Cindemir, Claes G Granqvist, Gunnar A Niklasson
Nickel oxide thin films are of major importance as anodically coloring components in electrochromic smart windows with applications in energy-efficient buildings. However, the optical performance of these films degrades upon extended electrochemical cycling, which has hampered their implementation. Here, we use a potentiostatic treatment to rejuvenate degraded nickel oxide thin films immersed in electrolytes of LiClO4 in propylene carbonate. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis provided unambiguous evidence that both Li+ ions and Cl-based ions participate in the electrochromism...
November 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yuxiang Hu, Delai Ye, Bin Luo, Han Hu, Xiaobo Zhu, Songcan Wang, Linlin Li, Shengjie Peng, Lianzhou Wang
Rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries (AIBs) are considered as a new generation of large-scale energy-storage devices due to their attractive features of abundant aluminum source, high specific capacity, and high energy density. However, AIBs suffer from a lack of suitable cathode materials with desirable capacity and long-term stability, which severely restricts the practical application of AIBs. Herein, a binder-free and self-standing cobalt sulfide encapsulated in carbon nanotubes is reported as a novel cathode material for AIBs...
November 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
Li Sun, Yu Zhang, Deyang Zhang, Yihe Zhang
A facile solution-based method was developed to combine the advantage of amorphous nanoscale red P sheets and highly conductive graphene, forming a high-performance P/graphene composite anode for advanced lithium ion batteries. Graphene can be easily expanded into a 3D framework in solution with rich interior porosity and abundant adsorption points, which enables a large percentage of red P to be loaded and form a uniform P/graphene hybrid structure. The nanoscale and amorphous features of red P effectively reduce the volume expansion and mechanical stress within individual P sheets, thereby alleviating P pulverization during cycling...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Xuanpeng Wang, Kang Han, Dongdong Qin, Qi Li, Chenyang Wang, Chaojiang Niu, Liqiang Mai
Soft carbon, which possesses the advantages of low cost and considerable potassium storage capacity, has been widely studied as an anode in K-ion batteries (KIBs). Herein, we constructed a novel polycrystalline semi-hollow microrods-structured soft carbon as an anode in KIBs, which exhibited both high capacity and excellent cycling stability.
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Yan Du, Shanwei Luo, Xin Li, Jiangyan Yang, Tao Cui, Wenjian Li, Lixia Yu, Hui Feng, Yuze Chen, Jinhu Mu, Xia Chen, Qingyao Shu, Tao Guo, Wenlong Luo, Libin Zhou
Heavy-ion beam irradiation is one of the principal methods used to create mutants in plants. Research on mutagenic effects and molecular mechanisms of radiation is an important subject that is multi-disciplinary. Here, we re-sequenced 11 mutagenesis progeny (M3) Arabidopsis thaliana lines derived from carbon-ion beam (CIB) irradiation, and subsequently focused on substitutions and small insertion-deletion (INDELs). We found that CIB induced more substitutions (320) than INDELs (124). Meanwhile, the single base INDELs were more prevalent than those in large size (≥2 bp)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tsolmon Adiya, Cari L Johnson, Mark A Loewen, Kathleen A Ritterbush, Kurt N Constenius, Cory M Dinter
Caddisfly larvae construct underwater protective cases using surrounding materials, thus providing information on environmental conditions in both modern and ancient systems. Microbial bioherms associated with caddisfly cases are found in the Berriassian-Hauterivian (~140-130 Ma) Shinekhudag Formation of Mongolia, and yield new insights into aspects of lacustrine paleoecosystems and paleoenvironments. This formation contains the earliest record of plant-armored caddisfly cases and a rare occurrence of microbial-caddisfly association from the Mesozoic...
2017: PloS One
Alolika Mukhopadhyay, Yucong Jiao, Rui Katahira, Peter N Ciesielski, Michael E Himmel, Hongli Zhu
A novel renewable cathode made from earth-abundant, low-cost materials can contribute to the intermittent storage needs of renewable energy based society. Inspired by Nature, we report for the first-time tannin as a cathode material. Our approach exploits the charge storage mechanism of the redox active quinone moiety. Tannins extracted from tree bark using environmental friendly aqueous solvents has the highest phenol content (5.56 mol g-1) among all the natural phenolic biopolymers, 5000 times higher than lignin...
November 21, 2017: Nano Letters
Emmanuel Di Piazza, Corentin Boilleau, Antoine Vacher, Khalissa Merahi, Lucie Norel, Karine Costuas, Thierry Roisnel, Sylvie Choua, Philippe Turek, Stéphane Rigaut
The preparation and properties of novel ruthenium carbon-rich complexes [(Ph-C≡C-)2-nRu(dppe)2(-C≡C-bipyM(hfac)2)n] (n = 1, 2; M = Cu(II), Mn(II); bipy = 2,2'-bipyridin-5-yl) characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and designed for molecular magnetism are reported. With the help of EPR spectroscopy, we show that the neutral ruthenium system sets up a magnetic coupling between two remote paramagnetic Cu(II) units. More specifically, these copper compounds are unique examples of bimetallic and linear heterotrimetallic compounds for which a complete rationalization of the magnetic interactions could be made for exceptionally long distances between the spin carriers (8...
November 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Kunfeng Chen, Dongfeng Xue
Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage system is now sorely in need of new design paradigm at nanosize and ion-level to satisfy the higher energy and higher power demand. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery which integrates multiple-scale matter existing forms, i.e., ion clusters, colloidal ions, nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e., electrostatic, van der Waals force, chemical bonding, leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers...
November 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
Alexis L Pasulka, Kimberlee Thamatrakoln, Sebastian H Kopf, Yunbin Guan, Bonnie Poulos, Annie Moradian, Michael J Sweredoski, Sonja Hess, Mathew B Sullivan, Kay D Bidle, Victoria J Orphan
While the collective impact of marine viruses has become more apparent over the last decade, a deeper understanding of virus-host dynamics and the role of viruses in nutrient cycling would benefit from direct observations at the single-virus level. We describe two new complementary approaches - stable isotope probing coupled with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) and fluorescence-based biorthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) - for studying the activity and biogeochemical influence of marine viruses...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Alexander C Forse, John M Griffin, Clare P Grey
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has emerged as a useful technique for probing the structure and dynamics of the electrode-electrolyte interface in supercapacitors, as ions inside the pores of the carbon electrodes can be studied separately from bulk electrolyte. However, in some cases spectral resolution can limit the information that can be obtained. In this study we address this issue by showing how cross polarisation (CP) NMR experiments can be used to selectively observe the in-pore ions in supercapacitor electrode materials...
November 4, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Lin Wang, Yuting Qian, Yun Cao, Ying Huang, Zhizhou Chang, Hongying Huang
Thermoactinomyces sp. strain YT06 was isolated from poultry compost and observed to degrade integral chicken feathers at 60°C completely, resulting in the formation of 3.24 mg/mL of free amino acid from 50 mL of culture containing 10 g/L chicken feathers. Strain YT06 could grow and secret keratinase using feather as the only carbon and nitrogen sources without other supplement, but complementation of 10 g/L sucrose and 4 g/L NaNO₃ increased the production of the keratinolytic enzyme. The maximum protease activities obtained were 110 U/mL and keratinase were 42 U/mL...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
C Struzzi, M Scardamaglia, N Reckinger, H Sezen, M Amati, L Gregoratti, J-F Colomer, C Ewels, R Snyders, C Bittencourt
Plasma fluorination of graphene is studied using a combination of spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, giving insight into the yield and fluorination mechanism for functionalization of supported graphene with both CF4 and SF6 gas precursors. Ion acceleration during fluorination is used to probe the effect on grafting functionalities. Adatom clustering, which occurs with CF4 plasma treatment, is suppressed when higher kinetic energy is supplied to the ions. During SF6 plasma functionalization, the sulfur atoms tend to bond to bare copper areas instead of affecting the graphene chemistry, except when the kinetic energy of the ions is restricted...
November 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiao-Kai Ding, Lu-Lu Zhang, Xue-Lin Yang, Hui Fang, Ying-Xian Zhou, Ji-Qing Wang, Di Ma
In this study, low cost anthracite derived dual-phase carbon coated Li3V2(PO4)3 composites have been successfully prepared via a traditional solid-phase method. XRD results show that the as-prepared samples have high crystallinity and anthracite-introducing has no influence on the LVP crystal structure. The LVP/C particles are uniformly covered with a dual-phase carbon layer composed of amorphous carbon and graphitic carbon. The effect of the amount of anthracite on the battery performance of LVP as a cathode material has also been studied...
November 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Min-Li Wu, Te-Yu Chen, Yen-Chun Chen, Yu-Chie Chen
Various ionization methods in mass spectrometry (MS) are available for the analysis of analytes with different properties. Nonetheless, using a single ionization method to analyze mixtures containing analytes with different polarities and volatiles in different phases at atmospheric pressure remains a challenge. Exploring an ionization method that can ionize small organics and large biomolecules with different properties for MS analysis is advantageous. Carbon fiber ionization mass spectrometry (CFI-MS) that uses a carbon fiber bundle as the ion source is useful for the analysis of small organics with low polarities...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Shamaila Sajjad, Sajjad Ahmed Khan Leghari, Anum Iqbal
This study represents a comprehensive review about the structural features of graphene oxide (GO) and its significance in environmental applications. Two Dimensional (2D) GO is tremendously focused in advanced carbon based nanomaterial for environmental applications due to its tunable physicochemical characteristics. Herein, we report foundational structural models of GO and explore the chemical bonding of oxygen moieties with graphite basal plane using various characterization tools. Moreover, the impact of these oxygen moieties and morphology of GO for the environmental applications such as removal of metal ions, catalytic, antibacterial and gas sensing abilities has here been critically reviewed for the first time...
November 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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