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Conservative management

C Andres Benatti, Natalie A Afshari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review updates the mechanisms, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of Descemet membrane detachment after cataract surgery, particularly during cataract surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: The advent of new imaging techniques like the anterior segment optical coherence tomography and a better comprehension of the clinical and pathological aspects of detachment, has improved the diagnosis and treatment of this complication to the extent that the first algorithms and protocols have been proposed...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Anne-Lise Chaber, Gabriele Cozzi, Femke Broekhuis, Robyn Hartley, John W McNutt
The recent increase in the creation of transboundary protected areas and wildlife corridors between them lends importance to information on pathogen prevalence and transmission among wildlife species that will become connected. One such initiative is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area of which Botswana's Okavango Delta constitutes a major contribution for wildlife and ecosystems. Between 2008 and 2011, we collected serum samples from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ), four leopards ( Panthera pardus ), 19 spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ), and six cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the Okavango...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
O Strobel, S Brangs, U Hinz, T Pausch, F J Hüttner, M K Diener, L Schneider, T Hackert, M W Büchler
BACKGROUND: Chyle leak is a well known but poorly characterized complication after pancreatic surgery. Available data on incidence, risk factors and clinical significance of chyle leak are highly heterogeneous. METHODS: For this cohort study all patients who underwent pancreatic surgery between January 2008 and December 2012 were identified from a prospective database. Chyle leak was defined as any drainage output with triglyceride content of 110 mg/dl or more...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Surgery
Mark Ajalat, Russell Williams, Samuel E Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
J Casey, E Jardim, J Th Martinsohn
Exploitation of fish and shellfish stocks by the European Union fishing fleet is managed under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), which aims to ensure that fishing and aquaculture are environmentally, economically and socially sustainable and that they provide a source of healthy food for E.U. citizens. A notable feature of the CFP is its legally enshrined requirement for sound scientific advice to underpin its objectives. The CFP was first conceived in 1970 when it formed part of the Common Agricultural Policy...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Behnaz RaheliNamin, Samar Mortazavi, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny
The combination of degrading natural conditions and resources, climate change, growing population, urban development, and competition in a global market complicate optimization of land for agricultural products. The use of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production in the agricultural fields has become excessive in the recent years and Golestan Province of Iran is no exception in this regard. For this, effective management with an efficient and cost-effective practice should be undertaken, maintaining public service at a high level and preserving the environment...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ajaz A Shah, Nahida Dar, Mohammed Israr Ul Khaliq, Tajamul Hakeem
The management of parotid fistulae has been unsatisfactory in the past, and numerous methods of treatment with varying success and morbidity have been described. A case of parotid fistula caused by damage to glandular elements during a transparotid approach for a subcondylar fracture reduction is reported. This paper presents a simple but effective and conservative method of treating this complication with the use of hot hypertonic saline.
September 2016: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Richard L Pyle, Raymond Boland, Holly Bolick, Brian W Bowen, Christina J Bradley, Corinne Kane, Randall K Kosaki, Ross Langston, Ken Longenecker, Anthony Montgomery, Frank A Parrish, Brian N Popp, John Rooney, Celia M Smith, Daniel Wagner, Heather L Spalding
Although the existence of coral-reef habitats at depths to 165 m in tropical regions has been known for decades, the richness, diversity, and ecological importance of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) has only recently become widely acknowledged. During an interdisciplinary effort spanning more than two decades, we characterized the most expansive MCEs ever recorded, with vast macroalgal communities and areas of 100% coral cover between depths of 50-90 m extending for tens of km(2) in the Hawaiian Archipelago...
2016: PeerJ
A Khudan, G Jugmohansingh, S Islam, S Medford, V Naraynsingh
OBJECTIVES: Conservative management for retropharyngeal abscesses <2 cm is now a first line option. It is unclear if conservative management can be used to manage larger abscesses without increased morbidity and mortality. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective case series was performed from 2012 to 2015 by the Otolaryngology department of the San Fernando General Hospital involving pediatric patients who presented with retropharyngeal abscesses. All patients were initially treated with antibiotics alone...
November 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
J Qian, K Xue
The management of retinoblastoma (RB) has dramatically changed over the past two decades. The introduction of chemotherapy has transformed treatment algorithms completely. Chemotherapy is currently used as a first line approach for children with RB and can be delivered by intravenous, intra-arterial and intravitreal routes. However, there still remains some controversy on the treatment of advanced RB, especially in eyeball salvage. This article described domestic and international approaches to eyeball salvage treatment...
October 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Magda Silva Carneiro, Caroline Cambraia Furtado Campos, Luiz Alberto Beijo, Flavio Nunes Ramos
Species homogenization or floristic differentiation are two possible consequences of the fragmentation process in plant communities. Despite the few studies, it seems clear that fragments with low forest cover inserted in anthropogenic matrices are more likely to experience floristic homogenization. However, the homogenization process has two other components, genetic and functional, which have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to verify whether there was homogenization of tree reproductive functions in a fragmented landscape and, if found, to determine how the process was influenced by landscape composition...
2016: PloS One
Li F Chen, Hsuan K Chang, Yu C Chen, Jau C Wu, Wen C Huang, Henrich Cheng, Su S Lo
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the medical expenses and outcomes of central cord syndrome (CCS), comparing patients who received surgical and non-surgical management. METHODS: Using a 14-year nationwide database in Taiwan, this study followed-up all patients of CCS at least 5 years. The incidence rates, medical expenses, permanently disabled spinal cord injury (SCI), and mortality rates were compared for patients who underwent surgery and those who were managed conservatively...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Mandeep S Tamber, Dimitrios Nikas, Alexandra Beier, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Susan Durham, Paul Klimo, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine Mazzola, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Rachana Tyagi, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: No evidence-based guidelines exist on the role of cranial-molding orthosis (helmet) therapy for patients with positional plagiocephaly. OBJECTIVE: To address the clinical question: "Does helmet therapy provide effective treatment for positional plagiocephaly?" and to make treatment recommendations based on the available evidence. METHODS: The US National Library of Medicine Medline database and the Cochrane Library were queried by using MeSH headings and key words relevant to the objective of this systematic review...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
James Chatterton
James Chatterton is veterinary services manager at Auckland Zoo. Part of his role involves providing veterinary care for the kakapo, one of the most endangered birds in New Zealand. He regularly provides onsite help on two protected islands off the South Island of New Zealand as part of his role as veterinary coordinator to the Kakapo Recovery Group.
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Record
Rika Kobayashi, Koichi Tsunoda, Rumi Ueha, Yoko Fujimaki, Takaharu Nito, Tatsuya Yamasoba
CONCLUSIONS: It is considered that a regimen combining pharmacologic management and lifestyle modifications is the most effective treatment for laryngeal granulomas caused by GER. OBJECTIVES: This study compared the results of the combination therapy and surgery to determine the best treatment of laryngeal granuloma caused by gastro-esophageal reflux in 51 patients. METHODS: Prospective study. RESULTS: In the conservative treatment group, the CR rate was 89...
October 19, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Michael J Manfredo, Jeremy T Bruskotter, Tara L Teel, David Fulton, Shalom H Schwartz, Robert Arlinghaus, Shigehiro Oishi, Ayse K Uskul, Kent Redford, Shinobu Kitayama, Leeann Sullivan
The hope for creating widespread change in social values has endured among conservation professionals since early calls by Aldo Leopold for a "Land Ethic". However, there has been little serious attention in conservation to the fields of investigation that address values, how they are formed, and how they change. We introduce a social-ecological systems approach in which values are seen not just as motivational goals that people hold, but they are also deeply embedded in the world around us, in our material culture, collective behaviors, traditions, and social institutions...
October 19, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
André P Antunes, Rachel M Fewster, Eduardo M Venticinque, Carlos A Peres, Taal Levi, Fabio Rohe, Glenn H Shepard
The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins...
October 2016: Science Advances
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Przemysław Bombiński, Stanisław Warchoł, Michał Brzewski, Zofia Majkowska, Teresa Dudek-Warchoł, Maria Żerańska, Małgorzata Panek, Magdalena Drop
BACKGROUND: Extravaginal testicular torsion (ETT), also called prenatal or perinatal, occurs prenatally and is present at birth or appears within the first month of life. It has different etiology than intravaginal torsion, which appears later in life. Testicular torsion must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute scrotum and should be confirmed or ruled out at first diagnostic step. Ultrasonography is a basic imaging modality, however diagnostic pitfalls are still possible...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
S Sabharwal, N K Patel, D Griffiths, T Athanasiou, C M Gupte, P Reilly
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing surgical and non-surgical management of fractures of the proximal humerus, and to determine whether further analyses based on complexity of fracture, or the type of surgical intervention, produced disparate findings on patient outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed identifying all RCTs that compared surgical and non-surgical management of fractures of the proximal humerus...
October 2016: Bone & Joint Research
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