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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549368/developing-population-models-a-systematic-approach-for-pesticide-risk-assessment-using-herbaceous-plants-as-an-example
#1
Amelie Schmolke, Katherine E Kapo, Pamela Rueda-Cediel, Pernille Thorbek, Richard Brain, Valery Forbes
Population models are used as tools in species management and conservation and are increasingly recognized as important tools in pesticide risk assessments. A wide variety of population model applications and resources on modeling techniques, evaluation and documentation can be found in the literature. In this paper, we add to these resources by introducing a systematic, transparent approach to developing population models. The decision guide that we propose is intended to help model developers systematically address data availability for their purpose and the steps that need to be taken in any model development...
May 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549304/landowner-preferences-for-wetlands-conservation-programs-in-two-southern-ontario-watersheds
#2
Ryan Trenholm, Wolfgang Haider, Van Lantz, Duncan Knowler, Pascal Haegeli
Wetlands in the region of Southern Ontario, Canada have declined substantially from their historic area. Existing regulations and programs have not abated this decline. However, reversing this trend by protecting or restoring wetlands will increase the supply of important ecosystem services. In particular, these actions will contribute to moderating the impacts of extreme weather predicted to result from climate change as well as reducing phosphorous loads in Lake Erie and ensuing eutrophication. Since the majority of land in the region is privately owned, landowners can play an important role...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549194/disentangling-timing-of-admixture-patterns-of-introgression-and-phenotypic-indicators-in-a-hybridizing-wolf-population
#3
M Galaverni, R Caniglia, L Pagani, E Fabbri, A Boattini, E Randi
Hybridization is a natural or anthropogenic process that can deeply affect the genetic make-up of populations, possibly decreasing individual fitness but sometimes favouring local adaptations. The population of Italian wolves (Canis lupus), after protracted demographic declines and isolation, is currently expanding in anthropic areas, with documented cases of hybridization with stray domestic dogs. However, identifying admixture patterns in deeply introgressed populations is far from trivial. In this study, we used a panel of 170,000 SNPs analysed with multivariate, Bayesian and local ancestry reconstruction methods to identify hybrids, estimate their ancestry proportions and timing since admixture...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548616/pediatric-superior-semicircular-canal-dehiscence-illustrative-case-and-systematic-review
#4
Carlito Lagman, Vera Ong, Lawrance K Chung, Lekaa Elhajjmoussa, Christina Fong, Anthony C Wang, Quinton Gopen, Isaac Yang
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to present an illustrative case of pediatric superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and to systematically review the current published literature in the pediatric population. METHODS An electronic search of the Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and Embase databases was performed by 2 independent authors through January 2017. Search term combinations included "pediatrics," "children," "canal," and "dehiscence." Inclusion criteria were as follows: English, full-text clinical studies, case reports, and case series describing pediatric patient(s) (younger than 18 years) with CT evidence of SSCD...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548596/cyst-formation-after-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-a-systematic-review
#5
Adeel Ilyas, Ching-Jen Chen, Dale Ding, Panagiotis Mastorakos, Davis G Taylor, I Jonathan Pomeraniec, Cheng-Chia Lee, Jason Sheehan
OBJECTIVE Cyst formation can occasionally occur after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Given the limited data regarding post-SRS cyst formation in patients with AVM, the time course, natural history, and management of this delayed complication are poorly defined. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the incidence, time course, and optimal management of cyst formation after SRS for AVMs. METHODS A literature review was performed using PubMed to identify studies reporting cyst formation in AVM patients treated with SRS...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547520/small-scale-intraspecific-patterns-of-adaptive-immunogenetic-polymorphisms-and-neutral-variation-in-lake-superior-lake-trout
#6
Shauna M Baillie, Riley R Hemstock, Andrew M Muir, Charles C Krueger, Paul Bentzen
Many fishes express high levels of intraspecific variability, often linked to resource partitioning. Several studies show that a species' evolutionary trajectory of adaptive divergence can undergo reversals caused by changes in its environment. Such a reversal in neutral genetic and morphological variation among lake trout Salvelinus namaycush ecomorphs appears to be underway in Lake Superior. However, a water depth gradient in neutral genetic divergence was found to be associated with intraspecific diversity in the lake...
May 25, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546651/activity-and-habitat-use-of-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-verus-in-the-anthropogenic-landscape-of-bossou-guinea-west-africa
#7
Nicola Bryson-Morrison, Joseph Tzanopoulos, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Tatyana Humle
Many primate populations inhabit anthropogenic landscapes. Understanding their long-term ability to persist in such environments and associated real and perceived risks for both primates and people is essential for effective conservation planning. Primates in forest-agricultural mosaics often consume cultivars to supplement their diet, leading to potentially negative encounters with farmers. When crossing roads, primates also face the risk of encounters with people and collision with vehicles. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa, face such risks regularly...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546238/persistent-fetal-lobulation-of-kidney-mimicking-renal-tumour
#8
Syed Muhammad Nazim, Muhibullah Bangash, Basit Salam
Renal pseudotumour is a term coined to describe conditions of renal anatomic variants that simulate focal renal pathology like a tumour on ultrasonography. These include persistent fetal lobulation, hypertrophy of Bertin columns and dromedary humps. We report a case of a 30-year-old nulliparous woman who was managed in gynaecology clinic for menorrhagia and was subsequently referred to us for management of recurrent urinary tract infections. The clinical examination was normal and on ultrasound scan, she was found to have multiple enlarged heterogeneous solid masses in both kidneys with significantly increased vascularity, suspicious for neoplastic lesions...
May 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545316/lower-extremity-fractures-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-characteristics-outcome-and-risk-factors-for-non-unions
#9
Lukas Grassner, Barbara Klein, Doris Maier, Volker Bühren, Matthias Vogel
CONTEXT: Sublesional osteoporosis is an important sequel after spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in a high incidence of fractures and impaired osseous healing due to altered bone metabolism. The following study aims to identify demographic characteristics and outcome of patients with SCI with lower extremity fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Level-I cross-regional trauma center. PARTICIPANTS: All patients with SCI suffering from osteoporotic/pathologic fractures during an 11-year-period (01/2003-12/2013) at the Center for Spinal Cord Injuries (Trauma Center Murnau) were analyzed via a chart review...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544666/identifying-target-reference-points-for-harvesting-assessment-limited-wildlife-populations-a-case-study
#10
Bryan S Stevens, James R Bence, William F Porter, Michael L Jones
Identifying appropriate strategies for sustainable harvest is a challenge for many terrestrial vertebrate species because of uncertain system dynamics, limited data to inform population models, and potentially conflicting objectives that seek to harvest and maintain populations at desirable levels. The absence of monitoring and assessment infrastructure needed to regularly estimate abundance accentuates this challenge for many species, and limits application of rigorous state-dependent frameworks for decision making that are commonly advocated in natural resource management...
May 22, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544181/the-k-2-conundrum
#11
Jasmine K Janes, Joshua M Miller, Julian R Dupuis, René M Malenfant, Jamieson C Gorrell, Catherine I Cullingham, Rose L Andrew
Assessments of population genetic structure have become an increasing focus as they can provide valuable insight into patterns of migration and gene flow. STRUCTURE, the most highly cited of several clustering-based methods, was developed to provide robust estimates without the need for populations to be determined a priori. STRUCTURE introduces the problem of selecting the optimal number of clusters and as a result the ΔK method was proposed to assist in the identification of the 'true' number of clusters...
May 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543922/molluscum-contagiosum-of-the-gluteal-cleft-observations-and-implications-for-management-in-five-children
#12
Joshua R Bakke, Sarah L Stein
Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common, self-limited skin infection caused by a double-stranded DNA virus of the family Poxviridae. Although the morphology of the disease is well described, MC presenting at unusual sites can exhibit atypical morphology, resulting in misdiagnosis. This observational, retrospective case series discusses the novel morphology of MC presenting in the intergluteal cleft of five children seen in the outpatient dermatology clinic of an academic medical center. We present this case series to highlight this novel presentation of MC in children and to emphasize a conservative approach to management given the sensitive location and the self-limited nature of the infection...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543102/low-flow-low-gradient-aortic-stenosis-still-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#13
REVIEW
Anja Vogelgesang, Gerd Hasenfuss, Claudius Jacobshagen
Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequently observed valvular heart disease. During the symptomatic stage, the rate of death increases dramatically, so that a precise diagnostic approach is taken to guide therapeutic options. Of patients with severe AS, 30% to 50% present with low-flow/low-gradient AS (LF/LGAS) status. This review focuses on LF/LGAS and the best diagnostic and therapeutic management in either classic LF/LGAS with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or paradoxical LF/LGAS with preserved LVEF...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543048/estimating-demographic-contributions-to-effective-population-size-in-an-age-structured-wild-population-experiencing-environmental-and-demographic-stochasticity
#14
Amanda E Trask, Eric M Bignal, Davy I McCracken, Stuart B Piertney, Jane M Reid
1.A population's effective size (Ne ) is a key parameter that shapes rates of inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity, thereby influencing evolutionary processes and population viability. However estimating Ne , and identifying key demographic mechanisms that underlie the Ne to census population size (N) ratio, remains challenging, especially for small populations with overlapping generations and substantial environmental and demographic stochasticity and hence dynamic age-structure. 2.A sophisticated demographic method of estimating Ne /N, which uses Fisher's reproductive value to account for dynamic age-structure, has been formulated...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542850/reproductive-biology-of-black-seabream-acanthopagrus-schlegelii-threadfin-porgy-evynnis-cardinalis-and-red-pargo-pagrus-major-in-the-northern-south-china-sea-with-consideration-of-fishery-status-and-management-needs
#15
C S W Law, Y Sadovy de Mitcheson
The reproductive biology of three commercially significant seabream species (family: Sparidae) Acanthopagrus schlegelii, Evynnis cardinalis and Pagrus major, taken from Hong Kong and adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) waters, were investigated for their sexual patterns, spawning seasons, length at maturity and exploitation in relation to their conservation and management status. Histological analysis showed E. cardinalis and P. major to be functionally gonochoristic, the latter having a bisexual juvenile stage and being a rudimentary hermaphrodite...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542661/-benign-acute-childhood-myositis-clinical-series-and-literature-review
#16
Felipe Cavagnaro S M, Alejandra Aird G, Ingrid Harwardt R, Carmen Gloria Marambio Q
Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare clinical condition that mainly affects pre-school and school age-children. It is usually preceded by a viral illness, particularly influenza virus infection. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cluster of BACM cases that were seen in a paediatric unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective series of cases that presented with a clinical picture suggestive of BACM between August and November 2012 in the paediatric emergency department of a private clinic...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542536/comparison-of-matrix-frequency-doubling-technology-perimetry-and-standard-automated-perimetry-in-monitoring-the-development-of-visual-field-defects-for-glaucoma-suspect-eyes
#17
Rongrong Hu, Chenkun Wang, Lyne Racette
BACKGROUND: Perimetry is indispensable for the clinical management of glaucoma suspects. Our goal is to compare the performance of standard automated perimetry (SAP) and Matrix frequency-doubling technology (FDT) perimetry in monitoring the development of visual field (VF) defects in glaucoma suspect eyes. METHODS: Longitudinal data of paired SAP and FDT from 221 eyes of 155 glaucoma suspects enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study or the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542313/environmental-dna-edna-metabarcoding-assays-to-detect-invasive-invertebrate-species-in-the-great-lakes
#18
Katy E Klymus, Nathaniel T Marshall, Carol A Stepien
Describing and monitoring biodiversity comprise integral parts of ecosystem management. Recent research coupling metabarcoding and environmental DNA (eDNA) demonstrate that these methods can serve as important tools for surveying biodiversity, while significantly decreasing the time, expense and resources spent on traditional survey methods. The literature emphasizes the importance of genetic marker development, as the markers dictate the applicability, sensitivity and resolution ability of an eDNA assay. The present study developed two metabarcoding eDNA assays using the mtDNA 16S RNA gene with Illumina MiSeq platform to detect invertebrate fauna in the Laurentian Great Lakes and surrounding waterways, with a focus for use on invasive bivalve and gastropod species monitoring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542185/protected-area-staff-and-local-community-viewpoints-a-qualitative-assessment-of-conservation-relationships-in-zimbabwe
#19
Chiedza Ngonidzashe Mutanga, Never Muboko, Edson Gandiwa
With the increase in illegal resource harvesting in most protected areas (PAs), the need to understand the determinants and relationships between PAs and local communities to enhance wildlife conservation is increasingly becoming important. Using focus group discussions and interviews, we established the determinants of PA staff-community relationship from both PA staff and local communities' viewpoints, and assessedperceptions of their relationship with each other. The study was guided by the following main research question, 'What is the nature of the relationship between PA staff and local communities and what are the main factors influencing the relationship?' Data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews from four PAs and their adjacent communities in Zimbabwe between July 2013 and February 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542108/contralateral-spondylolysis-and-fracture-of-the-lumbar-pedicle-in-a-young-athlete
#20
Eran Kessous, Tracy Borsinger, Ayesha Rahman, Pierre A d'Hemecourt
STUDY DESIGN: Clinical case report of unilateral pedicular stress fracture with a contralateral spondylolysis in a male high school athlete presenting with low back pain. OBJECTIVES: To report this uncommon cause of low back pain in an adolescent athlete, and review the relevant literature. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: The incidence of spondylolysis in the caucasian population was found to be about 3-6%. This number is probably higher in the athletic adolescent age group, with reports ranging from 8-15%...
May 24, 2017: Spine
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