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malnutrition in hospitalized children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609548/effectiveness-of-13-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv13-against-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-in-the-dominican-republic
#1
Sara Tomczyk, Fernanda C Lessa, Jacqueline Sánchez, Chabela Peña, Josefina Fernández, M Gloria Carvalho, Fabiana Pimenta, Doraliza Cedano, Cynthia G Whitney, Jennifer R Verani, Hilma Coradin, Zacarías Garib, Lucia Helena De Oliveira, Jesús Feris-Iglesias
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the effectiveness of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in resource-poor settings and PCV naïve populations. The Dominican Republic introduced PCV13 in September 2013 using a 2 + 1 schedule (2, 4, and 12 months) without a catch-up campaign. We evaluated PCV13 effectiveness against vaccine-type (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study...
April 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576347/intestinal-pathogen-clearance-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-is-unrelated-to-inpatient-morbidity
#2
Christian J Versloot, Suzanna Attia, Céline Bourdon, Susan E Richardson, Isabel Potani, Robert H J Bandsma, Wieger Voskuijl
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) often suffer from diarrhea, which is associated with increased mortality. The contribution of intestinal bacteria, parasites and viruses to morbidity such as diarrhea in SAM remains poorly understood. To evaluate their association with clinical outcomes, we detected stool pathogens in children with SAM at hospital admission and after clinical stabilization prior to discharge. METHODS: 15 intestinal pathogens, fecal calprotectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined at admission and after clinical stabilization in children aged 8-59 months (n = 47) hospitalized in Malawi for complicated SAM...
April 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565146/stunting-wasting-and-mid-upper-arm-circumference-status-among-children-admitted-to-nemazee-teaching-hospital
#3
Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Hazhir Javaherizadeh, Masoomeh Heidary, Naser Honar, Maryam Ataollahi, Homa Ilkanipour, Hossein Moravej
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status in children without prior hospital admission or evidence of chronic disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study is a cross-sectional and observational study which was conducted for assessing the nutritional status of children. In this study, consecutive sampling was used, with a sample size about 400 children aged 6 months to 18 years at first hospital admission. All subjects were hospitalized consecutively in the Pediatric Emergency Department of the Nemazee Teaching Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran)...
January 10, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560163/effectiveness-of-supplementary-blended-flour-based-on-chickpea-and-cereals-for-the-treatment-of-infants-with-moderate-acute-malnutrition-in-iran-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Roghayeh Javan, Akram Kooshki, Monavvar Afzalaghaee, Mitra Aldaghi, Mahdi Yousefi
Background: Despite the decreasing rate of under nutrition children in recent years overall, the negative affect in growth and development make it as a main concern in the world. Applying an available and appropriate supplementary food is a major approach in treating children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM). Objective: To compare the effectiveness of a new supplementary blended flour (containing chickpea, rice, wheat and barley, named Shadameen) in combination with multivitamin/mineral supplement and nutritional counseling versus multivitamin/mineral supplement and nutritional counseling alone, in the treatment of children with MAM...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548623/ready-to-use-food-supplement-with-or-without-arginine-and-citrulline-with-daily-chloroquine-in-tanzanian-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-double-blind-random-order-crossover-trial
#5
Sharon E Cox, Elizabeth A Ellins, Alphonce I Marealle, Charles R Newton, Deogratias Soka, Philip Sasi, Gian Luca Di Tanna, William Johnson, Julie Makani, Andrew M Prentice, Julian P Halcox, Fenella J Kirkham
BACKGROUND: Sickle-cell disease increases the risk of malnutrition. Low arginine and nitric oxide bioavailability are implicated in morbidity related to sickle-cell disease. Simple interventions are required, especially in low-income settings. We aimed to test the hypotheses that: (1) supplementary arginine, citrulline, and daily chloroquine increase bioavailable arginine and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD; maximal diameter change; FMDmax %), a measure of nitric oxide-dependent endothelial function; and (2) protein energy supplementation in the form of ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) improves the height-for-age and body-mass index-for-age Z-scores in children with sickle-cell disease...
March 13, 2018: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534241/clinical-features-and-outcome-of-children-with-severe-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-admitted-to-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-in-south-africa
#6
Hayley K Hutton, Heather J Zar, Andrew C Argent
Aim: Severe acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Methods: This is a 12-month retrospective cohort study of children (0-12 years) admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with ALRTI to investigate risk factors, clinical course and in-hospital survival. Results: In total, 265 patients (median age = 4 months [2-12 months]) were identified. In all,102 (38...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533163/invasive-cronobacter-species-infection-in-infants-and-children-admitted-to-a-rural-kenyan-hospital-with-a-high-prevalence-of-malnutrition
#7
Joe D Piper, Salim Mwarumba, Moses Ngari, Benedict Mvera, Susan Morpeth, James A Berkley
For children with acute malnutrition, ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are lifesaving treatments. In 2012, detailed testing detected Enterobacteriaceae including Cronobacter species at low levels in RUTF from all UNICEF-approved producers. Cronobacter in milk feeds has previously been associated with severe neonatal infections. Thus, given the susceptibility of severely malnourished children to invasive bacterial infections, concerns arose about the potential for Cronobacter infections from RUTF. This led to widespread production and supply problems in emergency feeding programmes...
March 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514329/validation-of-the-subjective-global-nutrition-assessment-sgna-and-screening-tool-for-the-assessment-of-malnutrition-in-paediatrics-stamp-to-identify-malnutrition-in-hospitalized-malaysian-children
#8
Shu Hwa Ong, Winnie Siew Swee Chee, L Mageswary Lapchmanan, Shan Ni Ong, Zhi Chin Lua, Jowynna Xia-Ni Yeo
Background: Early detection of malnutrition in hospitalized children helps reduce length of hospital stay and morbidity. A validated nutrition tool is essential to correctly identify children at risk of malnutrition or who are already malnourished. This study compared the use of the Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA, nutrition assessment tool) and Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP, nutrition screening tool) with objective nutritional parameters to identify malnutrition in hospitalized children...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514237/priorities-for-decreasing-morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-with-advanced-hiv-disease
#9
Lisa Frigati, Moherdran Archary, Helena Rabie, Martina Penazzato, Nathan Ford
Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. In contrast to adults with advanced HIV disease, cryptococcal disease is not common in childhood, although there is a peak in infancy and adolescence. Interventions such as TB screening in symptomatic children, and isoniazid and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be implemented...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511045/the-effect-of-malnutrition-on-the-risk-of-unplanned-7-day-readmission-in-pediatrics
#10
Louis Ehwerhemuepha, Donald Bendig, Caroline Steele, Cyril Rakovski, William Feaster
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is known to be associated with higher morbidity and a risk factor of readmissions in the adult population. In this study, we explore the effect of malnutrition in pediatrics because it may differ from the adult population. METHODS: Data for all inpatient encounters at a tertiary children's hospital within a 2-year period corresponding to 19 702 visits were obtained. The data included demographics, socioeconomic status, registered dietitian diagnosis of malnutrition, and variables of the LACE readmission model...
April 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509134/human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prevalence-viral-co-infections-and-risk-factors-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-under-5-years-of-age-at-a-general-hospital-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#11
Landry Kabego, Serge Balol'Ebwami, Joe Bwija Kasengi, Serge Miyanga, Yvette Lufungulo Bahati, Richard Kambale, Corena de Beer
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under the age of 5 years at the Provincial General Hospital of Bukavu (PGHB), and to analyse factors associated with the risk of ARI being diagnosed as lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODOLOGY: A total of 146 children under 5 years visiting the PGHB for ARI between August and December 2016 were recruited, and socio-demographic information, clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505479/pneumonia-in-hiv-exposed-and-infected-children-and-association-with-malnutrition
#12
Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Matthew O Wiens, Jerome Kabakyenga, Julius Kiwanuka, Elias Kumbakumba, Peter P Moschovis
We evaluated the association between HIV exposed-uninfected (HEU) status, malnutrition, and risk of death in Ugandan children hospitalized with pneumonia. Both HIV exposure and infection were associated with lower anthropometric indices on univariate analysis, and mid-upper arm circumference was significantly associated with overall mortality (OR 0.96) in a multivariable model. HIV infection (OR 5.0) but not HEU status was associated with overall mortality. Malnutrition may contribute to poor pneumonia outcomes among HIV-infected and HEU children requiring hospitalization...
March 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505139/underweight-status-is-an-independent-predictor-of-in-hospital-mortality-in-pediatric-patients-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#13
Pilar Anton-Martin, Michael Papacostas, Elisabeth Lee, Paul A Nakonezny, Michael L Green
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Children requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support represent an extremely ill subset of this population. There is a lack of data on the impact of nutrition state on survival in this cohort. We examined the association between being underweight and in-hospital mortality among children supported with ECMO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article reports on an observational retrospective cohort study performed among neonatal and pediatric patients supported with ECMO in a tertiary children's hospital from May 1996 through June 2013...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499047/characterizing-the-metabolic-phenotype-of-intestinal-villus-blunting-in-zambian-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-and-persistent-diarrhea
#14
Marta Farràs, Kanta Chandwe, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Beatrice Amadi, John Louis-Auguste, Ellen Besa, Kanekwa Zyambo, Richard Guerrant, Paul Kelly, Jonathan Richard Swann
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is widespread throughout the tropics and in children is associated with stunting and other adverse health outcomes. One of the hallmarks of EED is villus damage. In children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) the severity of enteropathy is greater and short term mortality is high, but the metabolic consequences of enteropathy are unknown. Here, we characterize the urinary metabolic alterations associated with villus health, classic enteropathy biomarkers and anthropometric measurements in severely malnourished children in Zambia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487467/empiric-treatment-of-acute-meningitis-syndrome-in-a-resource-limited-setting-clinical-outcomes-and-predictors-of-survival-or-death
#15
Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Byron Alexander Foster, Mulugeta Sitot Shibeshi, Henok Tadele Dangiso
Background: Bacterial meningitis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. However, limited research has focused on the diagnosis and management of meningitis in resource-limited settings. Methods: We designed a prospective case series of children admitted to a large, academic referral hospital with acute meningitis syndrome. Data were collected on age, time of presentation, prior antibiotics, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters, antibiotic and steroid prescription, and clinical outcome...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469018/evaluation-of-malnutrition-development-risk-in-hospitalized-children
#16
Omer F Beser, Fugen Cullu Cokugras, Tulay Erkan, Tufan Kutlu, Rasit V Yagci
OBJECTIVES: Many screening methods, such as the Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids) and the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), have been developed to detect malnutrition in pediatric patients. We aimed to explore the prevalence of malnutrition risk in hospitalized children via symptoms and identification of contributing factors, and to examine the efficacy of malnutrition screening tools for hospitalized children. METHODS: STRONGkids and PYMS were applied to 1513 inpatients at 37 hospitals in 26 cities from different regions of Turkey...
November 29, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466967/a-pediatric-death-audit-in-a-large-referral-hospital-in-malawi
#17
Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Rachel Mlotha-Mitole, Emily J Ciccone, Alyssa E Tilly, Jennie M Montijo, Hans-Joerg Lang, Michelle Eckerle
BACKGROUND: Death audits have been used to describe pediatric mortality in under-resourced settings, where record keeping is often a challenge. This information provides the cornerstone for the foundation of quality improvement initiatives. Malawi, located in sub-Saharan Africa, currently has an Under-5 mortality rate of 64/1000. Kamuzu Central Hospital, in the capital city Lilongwe, is a busy government referral hospital, which admits up to 3000 children per month. A study published in 2013 reported mortality rates as high as 9%...
February 21, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460804/the-costs-of-disease-related-malnutrition-in-hospitalized-children
#18
Karen Freijer, Esther van Puffelen, Koen F Joosten, Jessie M Hulst, Marc A Koopmanschap
INTRODUCTION: Disease related malnutrition (DRM) is a serious medical condition which is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality, augmenting resource use and associated costs. DRM can be detected by actively and fully assessing the nutritional status. Studies in adult malnourished patients have shown that the additional health care costs are about € 2 billion (€ 2000 million) per year. The objective of the current study was to estimate the annual additional costs of DRM for pediatric patients as was done for adults...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448936/chitinase-3-like-1-is-a-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-mortality-in-paediatric-severe-malaria
#19
Andrea L Conroy, Michael T Hawkes, Robyn Elphinstone, Robert O Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Christopher Miller, Chandy C John, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein elevated in paediatric severe malaria, and an emerging urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). Based on the hypothesis that elevated CHI3L1 levels in malaria are associated with disease severity, the relationship between plasma CHI3L1 levels, AKI and mortality was investigated in Ugandan children enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) as an adjunctive therapy for severe malaria. METHODS: Plasma CHI3L1 levels were measured daily for 4 days in children admitted to hospital with severe malaria and at day 14 follow up...
February 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432295/screening-tools-for-paediatric-malnutrition-are-we-there-yet
#20
Luise V Marino, Philippa C Thomas, Robert M Beattie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of nutritional screening tools has done much to raise the profile of nutrition and encourage healthcare practitioners to consider how to identify children at nutritional risk. However, the next challenge is to ensure nutritional screening accurately identifies those who have immediate and ongoing risk and therefore the potential to impact on it. RECENT FINDINGS: In this article, we review recent evidence which suggests that the large-scale use of these tools outside of a research setting is not always helpful...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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