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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087943/rna-interference-in-fungi-retention-and-loss
#1
Francisco E Nicolás, Victoriano Garre
RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism conserved in eukaryotes, including fungi, that represses gene expression by means of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) of about 20 to 30 nucleotides. Its discovery is one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the past 20 years, and it has revolutionized our perception of the functioning of the cell. Initially described and characterized in Neurospora crassa, the RNAi is widespread in fungi, suggesting that it plays important functions in the fungal kingdom. Several RNAi-related mechanisms for maintenance of genome integrity, particularly protection against exogenous nucleic acids such as mobile elements, have been described in several fungi, suggesting that this is the main function of RNAi in the fungal kingdom...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087801/occurrence-of-similar-mycoviruses-in-pathogenic-saprotrophic-and-mycorrhizal-fungi-inhabiting-the-same-forest-stand
#2
Eeva J Vainio, Taina Pennanen, Tiina Rajala, Jarkko Hantula
Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) are considered to be highly host specific, but phylogenetic analysis supports the occasional occurrence of horizontal transmission between species. We used an extensive sampling strategy to investigate whether similar viruses occur in more than one fungal species of the same forest habitat. Mycelial samples were collected from in-growth mesh bags (N = 259), fruiting bodies (N = 173) and cultured isolates (N = 68) at a forest site where the spatial distribution of viral infections in clonal individuals of the wood decay fungus H...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080916/aerobic-microflora-and-endoparasites-of-freshly-shot-wild-agouti-dasyprocta-leporina-in-trinidad-west-indies
#3
Rod Suepaul, Roxanne Charles, Francis Dziva
The agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina ) is a New World wild rodent hunted for its meat in Trinidad and other Latin American countries. Studies on agouti under captive conditions have yielded some data on health-related aspects, but relatively very little is known about their wild counterparts. The environment of the agouti can influence the microflora and parasites harbored by the animals, which may contain zoonotic pathogens. Here, the microflora found on the nasal mucosa and sections of the intestinal tract and endoparasites of freshly shot agouti from various areas of Trinidad are described...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074432/stereo-and-region-specific-biotransformation-of-physapubescin-by-four-fungal-strains
#4
Chongyue Qiu, Ting Yuan, Dejuan Sun, Suyu Gao, Lixia Chen
Biotransformations of physapubescin (1) were performed by four fungal strains-Mucor subtilissimus AS 3.2454, Mucor polymorphosporus AS 3.3443, Aspergillus niger AS 3.795, and Syncephalastrum racemosum AS 3.264. Four metabolites were prepared in the biotransformation process of 1, and their structures were elucidated as 15α-acetoxy-5,6β:22,26:24,25-triepoxy-26α-hydroxy-3β-methoxy 4β-hydroxyergost-1-one (2), 15α-acetoxy-5,6β:22,26-diepoxy-4β,24β,25α,26(α, β)-tetrahydroxyergost-3β-methoxy-1-one (3a/3b), 15α-acetoxy-5,6β:22,26-diepoxy-4β,24β,25α,26(α, β)-tetrahydroxyergost-2-en-1-one (4a/4b), and physapubescin D (5), by spectroscopic data analysis...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074427/erratum-to-functional-identification-and-regulatory-analysis-of-%C3%AE-6-fatty-acid-desaturase-from-the-oleaginous-fungus-mucor-sp-eim-10
#5
Xianzhang Jiang, Hongjiao Liu, Yongchao Niu, Feng Qi, Mingliang Zhang, Jianzhong Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063611/pulmonary-mucormycosis-at-onset-of-diabetes-in-a-young-patient
#6
Javier Espíldora-Hernández, Carmen Pérez-López, Manuel Abarca-Costalago, Enrique Nuño-Álvarez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053593/evaluation-of-aerial-microbial-pollutants-in-al-haram-al-nabawi-during-pilgrimage-of-2013
#7
Kholoud M Alananbeh, Nahla Boquellah, Nadia Al Kaff, Majid Al Ahmadi
Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053147/bone-and-joint-infections-caused-by-mucormycetes-a-challenging-osteoarticular-mycosis-of-the-twenty-first-century
#8
Saad J Taj-Aldeen, Maria N Gamaletsou, Blandine Rammaert, Nikolaos V Sipsas, Valerie Zeller, Emmanuel Roilides, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Michael Henry, Vidmantas Petraitis, Brad Moriyama, David W Denning, Olivier Lortholary, Thomas J Walsh
Osteomyelitis and arthritis caused by mucormycetes are rare diseases that rank among the most challenging complications in orthopedic and trauma surgery. The aim of this work is to review the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of the osteoarticular mucormycosis with particular emphasis on high-risk patients. A systematic review of osteoarticular mucormycosis was performed using PUBMED and EMBASE databases from 1978 to 2014. Among 34 patients with median age 41 (0.5-73 years), 24 (71%) were males...
January 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034456/biotransformation-of-an-africanane-sesquiterpene-by-the-fungus-mucor-plumbeus
#9
Braulio M Fraga, Carmen E Díaz, Leonardo J Amador, Matías Reina, Matías López-Rodriguez, Azucena González-Coloma
Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate...
December 26, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034347/the-fate-of-mitochondria-after-infection-of-the-mucoralean-fungus-absidia-glauca-by-the-fusion-parasite-parasitella-parasitica-comparison-of-mitochondrial-genomes-in-zygomycetes
#10
Sabrina Ellenberger, Anke Burmester, Johannes Wöstemeyer
Absidia glauca and Parasitella parasitica constitute a versatile experimental system for studying horizontal gene transfer between a mucoralean host and its fusion parasite. The A. glauca chondriome has a length of approximately 63 kb and a GC content of 28%. The chondriome of P. parasitica is larger, 83 kb, and contains 31% GC base pairs. These mtDNAs contain the standard fungal mitochondrial gene set, small and large subunit rRNAs, plus ribonuclease P RNA. Comparing zygomycete chondriomes reveals an unusually high number of homing endonuclease genes in P...
December 30, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019140/cutaneous-mucormycosis-as-result-of-insulin-administration-in-an-aml-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Anke Delie, Philip Vlummens, David Creytens, Eva Steel
We present a case of cutaneous mucormycosis in a patient with several important risk factors precipitating disease, namely underlying acute myeloid leukaemia and poorly controlled secondary diabetes. Inoculation was most likely caused by repeated minor trauma (insulin injection) at the site of infection. Treatment consisted of surgical debridement and liposomal Amphotericin B (LAmB) during 71 days. Posaconazole had already been initiated prior to infection as primary antifungal prophylaxis but was discontinued during follow-up as susceptibility testing later revealed resistance to posaconazole...
December 26, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018316/leveraging-the-attributes-of-mucor-hiemalis-derived-silver-nanoparticles-for-a-synergistic-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-platform
#12
Nafe Aziz, Rishikesh Pandey, Ishan Barman, Ram Prasad
Driven by the need to engineer robust surface coatings for medical devices to prevent infection and sepsis, incorporation of nanoparticles has surfaced as a promising avenue to enhance non-fouling efficacy. Microbial synthesis of such nanoscale metallic structures is of substantive interest as this can offer an eco-friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable route for further development. Here we present a Mucor hiemalis-derived fungal route for synthesis of silver nanoparticles, which display significant antimicrobial properties when tested against six pathological bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas brassicacearum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus) and three pathological fungal strains (Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus flavus)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017141/rhinocerebral-zygomycosis-with-orosinusal-involvement-diagnostic-and-surgical-treatment-guidelines
#13
Giuseppe Giudice, Daniela Anna Cutrignelli, Pasquale Spportelli, Luisa Limongelli, Giuseppe Di Gioia, Luigi Santacroce, Eugenio Maiorano, Gianfranco Favia
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, rapidly progressive and potentially lethal disease almost exclusively affecting immunocompromised hosts or patients with metabolic disorders, such as poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. This work is aimed to describe five cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis to review and possibly define diagnostic and surgical treatment guidelines. In all the patients, surgical debridement, systemic and local antifungal therapy, and oral rehabilitation using filling prostheses were performed...
December 23, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011902/ecil-6-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-candidiasis-aspergillosis-and-mucormycosis-in-leukemia-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#14
Frederic Tissot, Samir Agrawal, Livio Pagano, Georgios Petrikkos, Andreas H Groll, Anna Skiada, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Thierry Calandra, Claudio Viscoli, Raoul Herbrecht
The European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL) provides recommendations for diagnostic strategies and prophylactic, pre-emptive or targeted therapy strategies for various types of infection in patients with hematological malignancies or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Meetings are held every two years since 2005 and evidence-based recommendations are elaborated after evaluation of the literature and discussion among specialists of nearly all European countries. In this manuscript, the ECIL group presents the 2015-update of the recommendations for the targeted treatment of invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis and mucormycosis...
December 23, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007266/aortoventricular-dissociation-and-refractory-fungal-endocarditis-caused-by-a-rare-pathogen-lichtheimia-a-surgical-and-medical-management-strategy
#15
Christopher M Terrien, Niloo M Edwards
We report a rare case of prosthetic valve fungal endocarditis caused by Lichtheimia, a subspecies of the order Mucorales. The patient experienced complicated prosthetic valve endocarditis less than 2 months after uneventful coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and 2 aortic valve replacements. Ultimately surgical management required aortic root replacement and lifelong antimicrobial agents. We believe this is the first case of fungal endocarditis caused by Lichtheimia.
January 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004587/biotransformation-of-20-r-panaxatriol-by-mucor-racemosus-and-the-anti-hepatic-fibrosis-activity-of-some-products
#16
Guangtong Chen, Jie Li, Sensen Yan, Haijun Lin, Juanjuan Wu, Xuguang Zhai, Yan Song, Jianlin Li
Biocatalysis of 20(R)-panaxatriol (PT) was performed by the fungus Mucor racemosus. Six metabolites (1-6) including five new compounds were obtained, and their structures were elucidated as 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,24β-dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (2), 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,22β-dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (3), 20(R),25-epoxy-23β-hydroxydammaran-3,6,12-trione (4), 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,23α- dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (5), and 20(R),25-epoxy-12β-hydroxydammaran-3,6,23-trione (6) by spectroscopic analysis. Pharmacological studies revealed that compounds 2, 3 and 5 exhibited significant antihepatic fibrosis activity, while 4 and 6 showed cytotoxicity against HSC-T6 cells...
December 22, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001234/abdominal-mucormycosis-in-a-child-a-case-report
#17
Felipe Rezende Caino de Oliveira, Nimara Grace Cardoso Batista Couto, Juliana de Oliveira Bastos, José Colleti, Werther Brunow de Carvalho
A 2-year-old Brazilian female child from the countryside in Bahia State presented with pain in the right flank of the abdomen, accompanied by a daily fever for about 2 weeks before admission. A large mass in the abdomen was resected by the surgical team. The biopsies revealed the mass was an intra-abdominal mucormycosis. However, the diagnosis was late, and despite treatment (amphotericin B) initiation, the patient eventually died.
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994475/isavuconazole-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-aspergillosis-and-mucormycosis-current-evidence-safety-efficacy-and-clinical-recommendations
#18
REVIEW
Suganthini Krishnan Natesan, Pranatharthi H Chandrasekar
The majority of invasive mold infections diagnosed in immunocompromised cancer patients include invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis. Despite timely and effective therapy, mortality remains considerable. Antifungal agents currently available for the management of these serious infections include triazoles, polyenes, and echinocandins. Until recently, posaconazole has been the only triazole with a broad spectrum of anti-mold activity against both Aspergillus sp. and mucorales. Other clinically available triazoles voriconazole and itraconazole, with poor activity against mucorales, have significant drug interactions in addition to a side effect profile inherent for all triazoles...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988906/functional-identification-and-regulatory-analysis-of-%C3%AE-6-fatty-acid-desaturase-from-the-oleaginous-fungus-mucor-sp-eim-10
#19
Xianzhang Jiang, Hongjiao Liu, Yongchao Niu, Feng Qi, Mingliang Zhang, Jianzhong Huang
OBJECTIVES: To enlarge the diversity of the desaturases associated with PUFA biosynthesis and to better understand the transcriptional regulation of desaturases, a Δ(6)-desaturase gene (Md6) from Mucor sp. and its 5'-upstream sequence was functionally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: Expression of the Δ(6)-fatty acid desaturase (Md6) in S. cerevisiae showed that Md6 could convert linolenic acid to γ-linolenic acid. Computational analysis of the promoter of Md6 suggested it contains several eukaryotic fundamental transcription regulatory elements...
December 17, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988409/cerebral-rhizomucor-infection-treated-by-posaconazole-delayed-release-tablets-in-an-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipient
#20
Diego O Andrey, Laurent Kaiser, Stéphane Emonet, Veronique Erard, Yves Chalandon, Christian van Delden
Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is an emerging fungal disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients. A 30-year-old woman diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia and needing allo-HSCT presented pulmonary and cerebral infection due to Rhizomucor pusillus. This fungal infection was treated with surgical treatment and posaconazole delayed-release tablets. This strategy allowed reaching high drug levels that could not be obtained with the posaconazole solution.
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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