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Anidulafungin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904738/recent-developments-in-the-management-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-oncohematological-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Markus Ruhnke, Stefan Schwartz
Patients with hematological cancer have a high risk of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). These infections are mostly life threatening and an early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for the clinical outcome. Most commonly, Aspergillus and Candida species are involved. However, other non-Aspergillus molds are increasingly be identified in cases of documented IFDs. Important risk factors are long lasting granulocytopenia with neutrophil counts below 500/μl for more than 10 days or graft-versus-host disease resulting from allogeneic stem-cell transplantation...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902377/comparison-of-susceptibility-patterns-using-commercially-available-susceptibility-testing-methods-performed-on-prevalent-candida-species
#2
David Cretella, Katie E Barber, S Travis King, Kayla R Stover
The rising rates of invasive fungal infections caused by non-albicans Candida and the increasing emergence of antifungal resistance complicate the management of invasive candidiasis. Accurate and timely antifungal susceptibility testing is critical to targeting antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare commercially available susceptibility testing methods using prospectively collected Candida isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed on 74 Candida isolates collected from July 2014-March 2015 using broth microdilution (BMD) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method, Etest, Vitek2 (YS-05), and Sensititre...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872072/pharmacokinetics-of-anidulafungin-in-critically-ill-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit-with-suspected-or-proven-invasive-fungal-infections
#3
R J M Brüggemann, V Middel-Baars, D W de Lange, A Colbers, A R J Girbes, P Pickkers, E L Swart
Echinocandins, such as anidulafungin are first line treatment for candidemia or invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. There is conflicting data on the pharmacokinetic properties of anidulafungin in ICU patients. Adult ICU patients (from 3 hospitals) receiving anidulafungin for suspected or proven fungal infections were included. Patient were considered evaluable when a pharmacokinetic curve on day 3 could be completed. 23 out of 36 patients (7 female, 16 male) were evaluable. Median (range) age and bodyweight were 66 (28-88) yr and 76 (50-115) kg...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872063/in-vitro-exposure-to-increasing-micafungin-concentrations-easily-promotes-echinocandin-resistance-in-candida-glabrata-isolates
#4
María Ángeles Bordallo-Cardona, Pilar Escribano, Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Rafael Cantón, Emilio Bouza, Jesús Guinea
We assessed the in vitro susceptibility of five echinocandin-susceptible C. glabrata isolates after exposure to micafungin. The direct exposure to plates at different micafungin concentrations resulted in the inhibition of growth at 0.062 μg/ml. The progressive exposure was performed on plates with 0.031 μg/ml of micafungin and sequentially propagated on plates containing the next two-fold concentration; the MICs of micafungin and anidulafungin increased sequentially and all the isolates became echinocandin-resistant showing fks2 mutations...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799221/frequency-of-the-paradoxical-effect-measured-using-eucast-with-micafungin-anidulafungin-and-caspofungin-against-candida-spp-isolates-causing-candidemia
#5
Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Pilar Escribano, Carlos Sánchez-Carrillo, Emilio Bouza, Jesús Guinea
We report data on the frequency of the paradoxical effect of echinocandins against Candida spp. (n= 602 incident isolates) using the EUCAST EDef 7.2 procedure. The paradoxical effect for one or more echinocandins was observed in 16% of the isolates. However, differences between species were found, and the paradoxical effect was more common in Candida tropicalis (P<0.001). Caspofungin was the drug in which the paradoxical effect was most common, followed by anidulafungin and micafungin (P<0.001).
October 31, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799206/a-multi-center-study-of-method-dependent-epidemiological-cutoff-values-ecvs-for-resistance-detection-in-candida-spp-and-aspergillus-spp-to-amphotericin-b-and-echinocandins-for-the-etest-agar-diffusion-method
#6
A Espinel-Ingroff, M Arendrup, E Cantón, S Cordoba, E Dannaoui, J García-Rodríguez, G M Gonzalez, N P Govender, E Martin-Mazuelos, C Lass-Flörl, M Lackner, M J Linares Sicilia, M A Rodriguez-Iglesias, T Pelaez, R K Shields, G Garcia-Effron, J Guinea, M Sanguinetti, J Turnidge
Method-dependent Etest epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are not available for susceptibility testing of either Candida or Aspergillus species with amphotericin B or echinocandins. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. are unreliable. Candida and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) Etest MIC distributions (microorganisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 4,341 Candida albicans, 113 C. dubliniensis, 1,683 C. glabrata species complex (SC), 709 C...
October 31, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760829/synergistic-effect-of-anidulafungin-combined-with-posaconazole-in-experimental-aspergillosis
#7
Adela Martin-Vicente, Javier Capilla, Josep Guarro
Clinical and experimental data have shown discrepancies on the efficacy of combinations between triazoles and echinocandins. In this study, anidulafungin plus posaconazole have shown efficacy against a murine systemic infection by three strains of Aspergillus fumigatus The combination increased mice survival and reduced burden in the kidneys over the corresponding monotherapies and voriconazole. Clearance of kidneys was observed in 62% to 100% of animals (strain dependant). We observed good in vitro- in vivo correlation when a cutoff < 1 was indicative of synergy...
October 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751781/epico-3-0-empirical-antifungal-therapy-in-critically-ill-hematology-patients
#8
Pedro Llinares, Isabel Ruiz, Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Santiago Grau
BACKGROUND: Although in the past decade the management of invasive fungal infections has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding empirical antifungal treatment in critically-ill hematology patients. AIMS: To identify key clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations, with a high level of consensus, necessary for the approach to fungal infections in critically-ill hematology patients. METHODS: A Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists in fungal invasive infections from six scientific national societies; intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases...
October 14, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750452/epidemiology-of-candidemia-and-antifungal-susceptibility-in-invasive-candida-species-in-the-asia-pacific-region
#9
He Wang, Ying-Chun Xu, Po-Ren Hsueh
In the Asia-Pacific region, Candida albicans is the predominant Candida species causing invasive candidiasis/candidemia in Australia, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand whereas C. tropicalis is the most frequently encountered Candida species in Pakistan and India. Invasive isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis complex and C. tropicalis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole (>90% susceptible). Fluconazole resistance (6.8-15%), isolates with the non-wild-type phenotype for itraconazole susceptibility (3...
October 2016: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746090/-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-in-vitro-susceptibility-in-candidaemia-due-to-non-candida-albicans-species
#10
Elena M Marín Martínez, Ana Isabel Aller García, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) has increased in recent years due to there being a greater number of risk factors. IFI caused by Candida is the most frequent, and although Candida albicans is the most isolated species, there is currently a decrease of C. albicans and an increase of other species of the genus. AIMS: To analyse the epidemiology, risk factors, and antifungal susceptibility of blood culture isolates of non-C.albicans Candida species in our hospital in the last 12years...
October 13, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742099/species-diversity-of-aspergillus-section-versicolores-in-clinical-samples-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#11
João Paulo Zen Siqueira, Deanna A Sutton, Dania García, Josepa Gené, Pamela Thomson, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro
Aspergillus section Versicolores includes species of clinical relevance and many others that have been poorly studied but are occasionally found in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a multilocus phylogenetic approach, the spectrum of species of the section Versicolores and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. The study was based on a set of 77 clinical isolates from different USA medical centres, which had been previously identified as belonging to this section...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736768/chromosome-5-of-human-pathogen-candida-albicans-carries-multiple-genes-for-negative-control-of-caspofungin-and-anidulafungin-susceptibility
#12
Sumanun Suwunnakorn, Hironao Wakabayashi, Elena Rustchenko
Candida albicans is an important fungal pathogen with a diploid genome that can adapt to caspofungin, a major drug from the echinocandin class, by a reversible loss of one copy of chromosome 5 (Ch5). Here we explore a hypothesis that more than one gene for negative regulation of echinocandin tolerance is carried on Ch5. We constructed C. albicans strains that each lacked one of the following Ch5 genes: CHT2 for chitinase; PGA4 for glucanosyltransferase, and CSU51, a putative transcription factor. We demonstrate that independent deletion of each of these genes increased caspofungin and anidulafungin, another echinocandin, tolerance...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717650/the-distribution-and-drug-susceptibilities-of-clinical-candida-species-in-tsary-2014
#13
Zi-Li Zhou, Chih-Chao Lin, Wen-Li Chu, Yun-Liang Yang, Hsiu-Jung Lo
The species distribution and drug susceptibilities of 1106 Candida isolates collected in Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY) in 2014 were determined. Candida albicans is still the dominant species, accounting for 35.9%, followed by 28.3% C. glabrata, 26.6% C. tropicalis, 5.2% C. parapsilosis, 1.0% C. krusei, and 3.0% of 13 other species. Interestingly, the prevalence of candidemia caused by C. glabrata in the present study is significantly higher than that in previous three surveys (39/220 vs...
September 17, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681573/candida-glabrata-species-complex-prevalence-and-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-in-a-culture-collection-first-description-of-candida-nivariensis-in-argentina
#14
Soraya Eugenia Morales-López, Constanza G Taverna, María Eugenia Bosco-Borgeat, Ivana Maldonado, Walter Vivot, Wanda Szusz, Guillermo Garcia-Effron, Susana B Córdoba
The presence of the cryptic species belonging to the Candida glabrata complex has not been studied in Argentina. We analyzed a collection of 117 clinical isolates of C. glabrata complex belonging to a National Culture Collection of Instituto Nacional de Microbiología "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" from Argentina (40 isolates from blood samples, 18 from other normally sterile sites, 20 from vagina, 14 from urine, 7 from oral cavity, 3 from catheter, 1 from a stool sample and 14 isolates whose clinical origin was not recorded)...
September 28, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634140/micafungin-versus-anidulafungin-in-critically-ill-patients-with-invasive-candidiasis-a-retrospective-study
#15
Patrick J van der Geest, Nicole G M Hunfeld, Sophie E Ladage, A B Johan Groeneveld
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients the incidence of invasive fungal infections caused by Candida spp. has increased remarkably. Echinocandins are recommended as initial treatment for invasive fungal infections. The safety and efficacy of micafungin compared to caspofungin is similar, but no comparison is made between anidulafungin and micafungin concerning safety and efficacy. We therefore performed a retrospective study to assess these aspects in critically ill patients with invasive candidiasis...
September 15, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621210/antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-species-isolated-from-patients-with-candidemia-in-southern-taiwan-2007-2012-impact-of-new-antifungal-breakpoints
#16
Yi-Chun Chen, Shu-Fang Kuo, Fang-Ju Chen, Chen-Hsiang Lee
The Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) revised the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for the azoles and echinocandins against Candida species in 2012. We aimed to report the epidemiology of candidemia and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species and evaluate the impact of new CBPs on antifungal susceptibility in our region. All blood isolates of Candida species were obtained from 2007 to 2012. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, echinocandins and flucytosine against Candida isolates were determined by Sensititre YeastOne system...
September 12, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620474/preclinical-evaluation-of-the-stability-safety-and-efficacy-of-cd101-a-novel-echinocandin
#17
Voon Ong, Grayson Hough, Michael Schlosser, Ken Bartizal, James M Balkovec, Kenneth D James, B Radha Krishnan
Fungal infections pose a significant public health burden with high morbidity and mortality. CD101 is a novel echinocandin under development for the treatment and prevention of systemic Candida infections. Preclinical studies were conducted to evaluate the metabolic stability, plasma protein binding, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and efficacy of CD101 at various dose levels. CD101 was stable to biotransformation in rat/monkey/human liver microsomes and rat/monkey/dog/human hepatocytes. In vitro studies suggest minimal interaction with recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes (IC50 values >10 μM)...
September 12, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543657/in-vitro-activity-of-anidulafungin-in-combination-with-amphotericin-b-or-voriconazole-against-biofilms-of-five-candida-species
#18
A Valentín, E Cantón, J Pemán, M E Fernandez-Rivero, M A Tormo-Mas, J P Martínez
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of anidulafungin combined with amphotericin B or voriconazole against Candida spp. biofilms. METHODS: Four Candida albicans, four Candida tropicalis, four Candida glabrata, two Candida parapsilosis and two Candida orthopsilosis blood isolates were tested by the microdilution chequerboard method combined with the XTT metabolic assay. Biofilm MIC was defined as the lowest concentration producing 50% metabolic inhibition with respect to control (BMIC50)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507631/cd101-a-novel-echinocandin-with-exceptional-stability-properties-and-enhanced-aqueous-solubility
#19
B Radha Krishnan, Kenneth D James, Karen Polowy, B J Bryant, Anu Vaidya, Steve Smith, Christopher P Laudeman
: The echinocandins are an important class of antifungal agents. However, instability and, in some cases, lack of solubility have restricted their use to situations in which daily infusions are acceptable. CD101 is a novel echinocandin in development for topical and weekly i.v. administration that exhibits prolonged stability in plasma and aqueous solutions up to 40 °C. After incubation for 44 h in rat, dog, monkey and human plasma at 37 °C, the percent of CD101 remaining (91%, 79%, 94% and 93%, respectively) was consistently greater than that of anidulafungin (7%, 15%, 14% and 7%, respectively)...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494912/dose-optimization-of-voriconazole-anidulafungin-combination-against-aspergillus-fumigatus-using-an-in-vitro-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-and-response-surface-analysis-clinical-implications-for-azole-resistant-aspergillosis
#20
Maria Siopi, Nikolaos Siafakas, Sophia Vourli, Johan W Mouton, Loukia Zerva, Joseph Meletiadis
BACKGROUND: Combination therapy of voriconazole with an echinocandin is often employed in order to increase the efficacy of voriconazole monotherapy. METHODS: Four clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates with different in vitro susceptibilities to voriconazole (MIC 0.125-2 mg/L) and anidulafungin (MEC 0.008-0.016 mg/L) were tested in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model simulating human serum concentrations of standard dosages of voriconazole and anidulafungin...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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