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H-L Lei, L-H Li, W-S Chen, W-N Song, Y He, F-Y Hu, X-J Chen, W-P Cai, X-P Tang
Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) can cause talaromycosis, a fatal systemic mycosis, in patients with AIDS. With the increasing number of talaromycosis cases in Guangdong, China, we aimed to investigate the susceptibility of 189 T. marneffei clinical strains to eight antifungal agents, including three echinocandins (anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin), four azoles (posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and fluconazole), and amphotericin B, with determining minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) by Sensititre YeastOne™ YO10 assay in the yeast phase...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Mahdi Abastabar, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Mohammad Vafaei Moghaddam, G Sybren de Hoog, Iman Haghani, Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Roshanak Daie Ghazvini, Reza Kachuei, Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Koichi Makimura, Jacques F Meis, Hamid Badali
A collection of clinical (n=47) and environmental (n=79) Fusarium isolates were tested against 10 antifungal drugs, including two novel imidazoles. Luliconazole and lanoconazole demonstrated very low GM MIC values of 0.005 μg/ml and 0.013 μg/ml, respectively, in comparison with 0.51 μg/ml for micafungin, 0.85 μg/ml for efinaconazole, 1.12 μg/ml for natamycin, 1.18 μg/ml for anidulafungin, 1.31 μg/ml for voriconazole, 1.35 μg/ml for caspofungin, 1.9 μg/ml for amphotericin B and 4.08 μg/ml for itraconazole...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, José F Espinosa-Pérez, Hiram Villanueva-Lozano, Alexandra M Montoya, Angel Andrade, Alexandro Bonifaz, Gloria M González
Candida bracarensis is an emerging cryptic species within the Candida glabrata clade. To date, little is known about its epidemiology, virulence, and antifungal susceptibility. This study documents the occurrence of C. bracarensis for the first time in Mexico and focuses on its in vitro production of hydrolytic enzymes, as well as antifungal susceptibility to echinocandins. This strain was isolated from a vaginal swab of a female with vulvovaginal candidosis; exhibited a very strong activity of aspartyl proteinase, phospholipase, and hemolysin; and was susceptible to caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin (MIC = 0...
February 27, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Amelia K Sofjan, Ardath Mitchell, Dhara N Shah, Tam Nguyen, Mui Sim, Ashley Trojcak, Nicholas D Beyda, Kevin W Garey
BACKGROUND: Rezafungin (CD101) is a novel echinocandin currently under development. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of published evidence on CD101 and an antimicrobial stewardship audit of real-world use of echinocandins to determine areas of unmet medical need and potential places in therapy for rezafungin. METHODS: A systematic literature review on rezafungin identified eight peer-reviewed manuscripts and 19 separate abstracts...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Melanie T Cushion, Alan Ashbaugh, Keeley Hendrix, Michael J Linke, Nikeya Tisdale, Steven G Sayson, Aleksey Porollo
The echinocandins are a class of anti-fungal agents that target β-1,3-D-glucan (BG) biosynthesis. In the ascigerous Pneumocystis species, treatment with these drugs deplete the asci life cycle stage which contain BG, but large numbers of forms which do not express BG remain in the infected lungs. In the present study, the gene expression profiles of Pneumocystis murina were compared between infected untreated mice and those treated with anidulafungin for 2 weeks to understand the metabolism of the persisting forms...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Joseph Meletiadis, Maria Siopi, Athanassios Tsakris, Johan W Mouton, Spyros Pournaras
The lack of a quantifiable marker for echinocandins activity hinders in vitro PK/PD studies for Aspergillus spp. We developed an in vitro PK/PD model simulating anidulafungin pharmacokinetics and assessing its pharmacodynamics against A. fumigatus with a new easily quantifiable, sensitive and reproducible marker. Two clinical A. fumigatus isolates previously used in animals (AZN8196,V52-35) with identical anidulafungin EUCAST (0.03 μg/ml) and CLSI (0.015 μg/ml) MEC and one (AFU79728) with MEC>16 μg/ml were tested in a two-compartment PK/PD dialysis/diffusion closed model containing a dialysis membrane tube (DM) inoculated with 103 cfu/mL...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
R Welte, P Eller, I Lorenz, M Joannidis, R Bellmann
Anidulafungin concentrations were quantified with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV detection in ascites and in pleural effusion of ten adult critically ill patients. Samples were collected from ascites and from pleural drains or during paracentesis and thoracentesis, respectively. Anidulafungin levels in ascites (0.12-0.99 μg/ml) and in pleural effusion (0.32-2.02 μg/ml) were below the simultaneous plasma levels (1.04-7.70 and 2.48-13.36 μg/ml, respectively) and below the MIC values of several pathogenic Candida strains...
February 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Meng Xiao, Xin Fan, Xin Hou, Sharon Ca Chen, He Wang, Fanrong Kong, Zi-Yong Sun, Yun-Zhuo Chu, Ying-Chun Xu
Echinocandin antifungal agents have become the first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis (IC) in many countries. Despite their increasing use, resistance to this class of drug is, overall, still uncommon. Here, we report two patients from the People's Republic of China with IC, one with infection caused by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and the other by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata. We also describe the mechanisms of drug resistance of these isolates. The echinocandin-resistant C...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Ratna Mohd Tap, Teck Choon Lim, Nur Amalina Kamarudin, Stephanie Jane Ginsapu, Mohd Fuat Abd Razak, Norazah Ahmad, Fairuz Amran
We report a fatal case of Candida auris that was involved in mixed candidemia with Candida tropicalis, isolated from the blood of a neutropenic patient. Identification of both isolates was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 domain of large subunit in rRNA gene. Antifungal susceptibility test by E-test method revealed that C. auris was resistant to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. On the other hand, C. tropicalis was sensitive to all antifungal tested...
January 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Marcelo Ernesto Fernández-Rivero, José L Del Pozo, Amparo Valentín, Araceli Molina de Diego, Javier Pemán, Emilia Cantón
We evaluated the activity of (1) amphotericin-B (AMB), combined with rifampicin (RIF), clarithromycin (CLA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and farnesol (FAR) (1000, 1000, 1000, 4000, and 30,000 mg/L, and 300 µM, respectively), against Candida tropicalis biofilms formed on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and (2) anidulafungin (ANF) combined with the same compounds at 8, 10, 5, 40, and 30 mg/L, and 30 µM, respectively, against biofilms formed on titanium. Biofilm growth kinetics were performed in a CDC Biofilm Reactor (CBR)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Manfredi Gagliano, Costanza Marchiani, Giulia Bandini, Paolo Bernardi, Nicolas Palagano, Elisa Cioni, Martina Finocchi, Silvia Bellando Randone, Alberto Moggi Pignone
BACKGROUND: Spondylodiscitis are vertebral column infections whose incidence is rising due to an increase of the susceptible population and improved ascertainment. They have been associated with a wide range of microorganisms. Fungal spondylodiscitis is uncommon (0.5%-1.6%) and strongly associated with immunodepression and diabetes (Gouliouris et al., 2010). We present a rare case of Candida glabrata spondylodiscitis in a non neutropenic diabetic patient with the review of the literature...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Christopher L Hager, Emily L Larkin, Lisa Long, Fatima Z Abidi, Karen J Shaw, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that has been responsible for invasive infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. C. auris strains often demonstrate high fluconazole and amphotericin B minimum inhibitory concentration values, and some strains are resistant to all 3 major antifungal classes. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of 16 C. auris clinical strains, isolated from a wide geographical area, to 10 antifungal agents including APX001A, a novel agent that inhibits the fungal protein Gwt1 (GPI-anchored wall transfer protein 1)...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
María Ángeles Bordallo-Cardona, Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Carlos Sánchez-Carrillo, Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Rafael Cantón, Emilio Bouza, Pilar Escribano, Jesús Guinea
Background: We report the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and mutant selection window (MSW) for micafungin and anidulafungin administered to treat Candida glabrata We also determine the mutation frequency.Methods: We studied 20 echinocandin-susceptible, fluconazole-intermediate, and FKS wild-type C. glabrata isolates. Adjusted inocula were stroked directly onto Sabouraud agar plates containing different concentrations of micafungin or anidulafungin and visually inspected daily for up to 5 days of incubation...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Narges Aslani, Ghasem Janbabaei, Mahdi Abastabar, Jacques F Meis, Mahasti Babaeian, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Teun Boekhout, Hamid Badali
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently in cancer patients because of their inherent immunosuppression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of yeast species from the oral cavity of patients during treatment for oncological and haematological malignancies. METHODS: MALDI-TOF was performed to identify yeasts isolated from the oral cavity of 350 cancer patients. Moreover, antifungal susceptibility testing was performed in according to CLSI guidelines (M27-A3)...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Justin C Bader, Sujata M Bhavnani, David R Andes, Paul G Ambrose
First-line antifungal therapies are limited to azoles, polyenes and echinocandins, the former two of which are associated with high occurrences of severe treatment-emergent adverse events or frequent drug interactions. Among antifungals, echinocandins present a unique value proposition given their lower rates of toxic events as compared with azoles and polyenes. However, with the emergence of echinocandin-resistant Candida species and the fact that a pharmacometric approach to the development of anti-infective agents was not a mainstream practice at the time these agents were developed, we question whether echinocandins are being dosed optimally...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
James M Kidd, Lindsay M Avery, Tomefa E Asempa, David P Nicolau, Joseph L Kuti
PURPOSE: Meropenem/vaborbactam is a novel intravenous antibiotic combining the carbapenem, meropenem, with a novel β-lactamase inhibitor, vaborbactam. Meropenem/vaborbactam is administered as a 3-hour infusion given every 8 hours, thereby potentially restricting an intravenous line for 9 h/d. Intravenous medications may be given concurrently via Y-site when compatibility data are available. Herein, physical compatibility was determined for the identification which medications can be coadministered with meropenem/vaborbactam via Y-site...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
Marguerite L Monogue, Safa S Almarzoky Abuhussain, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
PURPOSE: The results of a study to determine the physical compatibility of ZTI-01 (fosfomycin for injection) in 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose during simulated Y-site administration with 37 i.v. antimicrobials and 58 nonantimicrobials are reported. METHODS: Fosfomycin, an epoxide antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria, is marketed in the United States only in an oral formulation with limited bioavailability, but an i.v...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
María Ángeles Bordallo-Cardona, Pilar Escribano, Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Judith Díaz-García, Elia Gómez de la Pedrosa, Rafael Cantón, Emilio Bouza, Jesús Guinea
We studied the ability of five echinocandin-susceptible C. glabrata isolates to acquire in vitro resistance to anidulafungin and micafungin. All isolates became phenotypically resistant after 2-4 days of exposure to low and constant micafungin concentrations (P < .05). Mutations in the HS1 region of the FKS2 gene were found in all isolates. The acquisition of resistance was not related to the previous use of antifungal treatment in the patients or the presence of mutations at MSH2 gene. We found differences (P < ...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Yaolin Chen, Jaideep Mallick, Alaa Maqnas, Yuan Sun, Baharul I Choudhury, Pierre Côte, Lan Yan, Ting-Jun-Hong Ni, Yan Li, Dazhi Zhang, Roberto Rodríguez-Ortiz, Quan-Zhen Lv, Yuan-Ying Jiang, Malcolm Whiteway
There is currently a small number of classes of antifungal drugs, and these drugs are known to target a very limited set of cellular functions. We derived a set of approximately 900 nonessential, transactivator-defective disruption strains from the tetracycline-regulated GRACE collection of strains of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans This strain set was screened against classic antifungal drugs to identify gene inactivations that conferred either enhanced sensitivity or increased resistance to the compounds...
February 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Indira Berrio, Natalia Maldonado, Catalina De Bedout, Karen Arango, Luz Elena Cano, Yorlady Valencia, Cristina Jiménez-Ortigosa, David S Perlin, Beatriz L Gómez, Carlos Robledo, Jaime Robledo
INTRODUCTION: Invasive candidiasis has high impact on morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Accurate and timely methods for identification of Candida species and determination of equinocandins susceptibility become a priority for laboratories of clinical microbiology. METHODS: A study was performed to compare MALDI-TOF MS identification to sequencing of D1/D2 region of rRNA gene complex 28 subunit, in 147 isolates obtained from patients with candidemia...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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