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Adela Martin-Vicente, Javier Capilla, Josep Guarro
Clinical and experimental data have shown discrepancies on the efficacy of combinations between triazoles and echinocandins. In this study, anidulafungin plus posaconazole have shown efficacy against a murine systemic infection by three strains of Aspergillus fumigatus The combination increased mice survival and reduced burden in the kidneys over the corresponding monotherapies and voriconazole. Clearance of kidneys was observed in 62% to 100% of animals (strain dependant). We observed good in vitro- in vivo correlation when a cutoff < 1 was indicative of synergy...
October 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Pedro Llinares, Isabel Ruiz, Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Santiago Grau
BACKGROUND: Although in the past decade the management of invasive fungal infections has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding empirical antifungal treatment in critically-ill hematology patients. AIMS: To identify key clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations, with a high level of consensus, necessary for the approach to fungal infections in critically-ill hematology patients. METHODS: A Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists in fungal invasive infections from six scientific national societies; intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases...
October 14, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
He Wang, Ying-Chun Xu, Po-Ren Hsueh
In the Asia-Pacific region, Candida albicans is the predominant Candida species causing invasive candidiasis/candidemia in Australia, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand whereas C. tropicalis is the most frequently encountered Candida species in Pakistan and India. Invasive isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis complex and C. tropicalis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole (>90% susceptible). Fluconazole resistance (6.8-15%), isolates with the non-wild-type phenotype for itraconazole susceptibility (3...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Elena M Marín Martínez, Ana Isabel Aller García, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) has increased in recent years due to there being a greater number of risk factors. IFI caused by Candida is the most frequent, and although Candida albicans is the most isolated species, there is currently a decrease of C. albicans and an increase of other species of the genus. AIMS: To analyse the epidemiology, risk factors, and antifungal susceptibility of blood culture isolates of non-C.albicans Candida species in our hospital in the last 12years...
October 13, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
João Paulo Zen Siqueira, Deanna A Sutton, Dania García, Josepa Gené, Pamela Thomson, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro
Aspergillus section Versicolores includes species of clinical relevance and many others that have been poorly studied but are occasionally found in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a multilocus phylogenetic approach, the spectrum of species of the section Versicolores and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. The study was based on a set of 77 clinical isolates from different USA medical centres, which had been previously identified as belonging to this section...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Sumanun Suwunnakorn, Hironao Wakabayashi, Elena Rustchenko
Candida albicans is an important fungal pathogen with a diploid genome that can adapt to caspofungin, a major drug from the echinocandin class, by a reversible loss of one copy of chromosome 5 (Ch5). Here we explore a hypothesis that more than one gene for negative regulation of echinocandin tolerance is carried on Ch5. We constructed C. albicans strains that each lacked one of the following Ch5 genes: CHT2 for chitinase; PGA4 for glucanosyltransferase, and CSU51, a putative transcription factor. We demonstrate that independent deletion of each of these genes increased caspofungin and anidulafungin, another echinocandin, tolerance...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Zi-Li Zhou, Chih-Chao Lin, Wen-Li Chu, Yun-Liang Yang, Hsiu-Jung Lo
The species distribution and drug susceptibilities of 1106 Candida isolates collected in Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY) in 2014 were determined. Candida albicans is still the dominant species, accounting for 35.9%, followed by 28.3% C. glabrata, 26.6% C. tropicalis, 5.2% C. parapsilosis, 1.0% C. krusei, and 3.0% of 13 other species. Interestingly, the prevalence of candidemia caused by C. glabrata in the present study is significantly higher than that in previous three surveys (39/220 vs...
September 17, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Soraya Eugenia Morales-López, Constanza G Taverna, María Eugenia Bosco-Borgeat, Ivana Maldonado, Walter Vivot, Wanda Szusz, Guillermo Garcia-Effron, Susana B Córdoba
The presence of the cryptic species belonging to the Candida glabrata complex has not been studied in Argentina. We analyzed a collection of 117 clinical isolates of C. glabrata complex belonging to a National Culture Collection of Instituto Nacional de Microbiología "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" from Argentina (40 isolates from blood samples, 18 from other normally sterile sites, 20 from vagina, 14 from urine, 7 from oral cavity, 3 from catheter, 1 from a stool sample and 14 isolates whose clinical origin was not recorded)...
September 28, 2016: Mycopathologia
Patrick J van der Geest, Nicole G M Hunfeld, Sophie E Ladage, A B Johan Groeneveld
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients the incidence of invasive fungal infections caused by Candida spp. has increased remarkably. Echinocandins are recommended as initial treatment for invasive fungal infections. The safety and efficacy of micafungin compared to caspofungin is similar, but no comparison is made between anidulafungin and micafungin concerning safety and efficacy. We therefore performed a retrospective study to assess these aspects in critically ill patients with invasive candidiasis...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yi-Chun Chen, Shu-Fang Kuo, Fang-Ju Chen, Chen-Hsiang Lee
The Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) revised the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for the azoles and echinocandins against Candida species in 2012. We aimed to report the epidemiology of candidemia and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species and evaluate the impact of new CBPs on antifungal susceptibility in our region. All blood isolates of Candida species were obtained from 2007 to 2012. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, echinocandins and flucytosine against Candida isolates were determined by Sensititre YeastOne system...
September 12, 2016: Mycoses
Voon Ong, Grayson Hough, Michael Schlosser, Ken Bartizal, James M Balkovec, Kenneth D James, B Radha Krishnan
Fungal infections pose a significant public health burden with high morbidity and mortality. CD101 is a novel echinocandin under development for the treatment and prevention of systemic Candida infections. Preclinical studies were conducted to evaluate the metabolic stability, plasma protein binding, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and efficacy of CD101 at various dose levels. CD101 was stable to biotransformation in rat/monkey/human liver microsomes and rat/monkey/dog/human hepatocytes. In vitro studies suggest minimal interaction with recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes (IC50 values >10 μM)...
September 12, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
A Valentín, E Cantón, J Pemán, M E Fernandez-Rivero, M A Tormo-Mas, J P Martínez
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of anidulafungin combined with amphotericin B or voriconazole against Candida spp. biofilms. METHODS: Four Candida albicans, four Candida tropicalis, four Candida glabrata, two Candida parapsilosis and two Candida orthopsilosis blood isolates were tested by the microdilution chequerboard method combined with the XTT metabolic assay. Biofilm MIC was defined as the lowest concentration producing 50% metabolic inhibition with respect to control (BMIC50)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
B Radha Krishnan, Kenneth D James, Karen Polowy, B J Bryant, Anu Vaidya, Steve Smith, Christopher P Laudeman
: The echinocandins are an important class of antifungal agents. However, instability and, in some cases, lack of solubility have restricted their use to situations in which daily infusions are acceptable. CD101 is a novel echinocandin in development for topical and weekly i.v. administration that exhibits prolonged stability in plasma and aqueous solutions up to 40 °C. After incubation for 44 h in rat, dog, monkey and human plasma at 37 °C, the percent of CD101 remaining (91%, 79%, 94% and 93%, respectively) was consistently greater than that of anidulafungin (7%, 15%, 14% and 7%, respectively)...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Maria Siopi, Nikolaos Siafakas, Sophia Vourli, Johan W Mouton, Loukia Zerva, Joseph Meletiadis
BACKGROUND: Combination therapy of voriconazole with an echinocandin is often employed in order to increase the efficacy of voriconazole monotherapy. METHODS: Four clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates with different in vitro susceptibilities to voriconazole (MIC 0.125-2 mg/L) and anidulafungin (MEC 0.008-0.016 mg/L) were tested in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model simulating human serum concentrations of standard dosages of voriconazole and anidulafungin...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Belinda Calvo, Analy S A Melo, Armindo Perozo-Mena, Martin Hernandez, Elaine Cristina Francisco, Ferry Hagen, Jacques F Meis, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo
OBJECTIVES: Characterization of a hospital outbreak of Candida auris candidemia that involved 18 critically ill patients in Venezuela. METHOD: Bloodstream isolates of C. auris obtained from 18 patients admitted at a medical center in Maracaibo, between March, 2012 and July, 2013 were included. Species identification was confirmed by ITS rDNA sequencing. Isolates were subsequently typed by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting (AFLP). Susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI...
October 2016: Journal of Infection
Giuliana Carrega, Luca Cavagnaro, Marco Basso, Giovanni Riccio, Agostina Ronca, Carlo Salomone, Giorgio Burastero
Fungal prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a rare but severe complication of artroplasty. We report a case of PJI due to azole-resistant Candida albicans successfully treated with combination of prolonged administration of anidulafungin and two-stage joint exchange with insertion of a mega-prosthesis.
July 20, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Ratna Mohd Tap, Lee Sue Ho Betty, Nur Yasmin Ramli, Jeyanthi Suppiah, Rohaidah Hashim, Parameswari Sabaratnam, Stephanie Jane Ginsapu, Annabel Gowbei, Mohd Fuat Abd Razak, Matthias Sipiczki, Norazah Ahmad
Candida wangnamkhiaoensis is a species clustered under the Hyphopichia clade has not ever been isolated from any clinical specimens. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. wangnamkhiaoensis associated with fungaemia in immunocompromised paediatric patient. The isolate was assigned a strain name as UZ1679/14, in which the identification was confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction-sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA gene. Antifungal susceptibility pattern showed that the isolate was sensitive to anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole...
July 18, 2016: Mycoses
Matthias Sipiczki, Ratna Mohd Tap
In the taxonomic study of yeasts isolated from flowers in Cagayan de Oro, Mindenao Island, The Philippines, strains were identified representing Kabatiella microsticta, Metschnikowia koreensis and a hitherto undescribed dimorphic species. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) 26S rRNA genes, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the small subunit (SSU) 18S rRNA genes were identical in the strains of the latter group and differed from the corresponding sequences of the type strain of the closest relative species, Candida duobushaemulonii, by 4% (D1/D2), 7% (ITS) and 1% (SSU)...
July 13, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
José Ramón Azanza Perea
The echinocandins share pharmacodynamic properties, although there are some interesting differences in their pharmacokinetic behaviour in the clinical practice. They are not absorbed by the oral route. They have a somewhat special distribution in the organism, as some of them can reach high intracellular concentrations while, with some others, the concentration is reduced. They are highly bound to plasma proteins, thus it is recommended to administer a loading dose for anidulafungin and caspofungin, although this procedure is not yet clear with micafungin...
July 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Emine Kucukates, Nuh N Gultekin, Zeynep Alisan, Nur Hondur, Recep Ozturk
OBJECTIVES: To determine the species incidence and susceptibility pattern to 9 antifungal agents of yeasts isolated from various clinical specimens of colonized or infected patients treated in the coronary and surgical intensive care units (ICU).  METHODS: A total of 421 ICU patients were treated at the Cardiology Institute, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey between June 2013 and May 2014, and 44 Candida species were isolated from blood, urine, endotracheal aspiration fluid, sputum, and wounds of 16 ICU patients...
July 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
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