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Stem cell plasticity and neurodegenerative diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879349/ncam1-polysialylation-the-prion-protein-s-elusive-reason-for-being
#1
REVIEW
Mohadeseh Mehrabian, Herbert Hildebrandt, Gerold Schmitt-Ulms
Much confusion surrounds the physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). It is, however, anticipated that knowledge of its function will shed light on its contribution to neurodegenerative diseases and suggest ways to interfere with the cellular toxicity central to them. Consequently, efforts to elucidate its function have been all but exhaustive. Building on earlier work that uncovered the evolutionary descent of the prion founder gene from an ancestral ZIP zinc transporter, we recently investigated a possible role of PrP(C) in a morphogenetic program referred to as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
December 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876573/stem-cell-therapies-in-age-related-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Yuan Wang, Xunming Ji, Rehana K Leak, Fenghua Chen, Guodong Cao
Aging, a complex process associated with various structural, functional and metabolic changes in the brain, is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. These diseases share similar neuropathological changes, such as the formation of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, loss of neurons and synapses, dysfunction of the neurovascular unit (NVU), reduction of self-repair capacity, and motor and/or cognitive deficiencies. In addition to gray matter dysfunction, the plasticity and repair capacity of white matter also decrease with aging and contribute to neurodegenerative diseases...
November 19, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815842/neurotrophin-signaling-and-stem-cells-implications-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-stem-cell-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Subrata Pramanik, Yanuar Alan Sulistio, Klaus Heese
Neurotrophins (NTs) are members of a neuronal growth factor protein family whose action is mediated by the tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) receptor family receptors and the p75 NT receptor (p75NTR), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Although NTs were first discovered in neurons, recent studies have suggested that NTs and their receptors are expressed in various types of stem cells mediating pivotal signaling events in stem cell biology. The concept of stem cell therapy has already attracted much attention as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs)...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651755/trpv1-may-increase-the-effectiveness-of-estrogen-therapy-on-neuroprotection-and-neuroregeneration
#4
REVIEW
Ricardo Ramírez-Barrantes, Ivanny Marchant, Pablo Olivero
Aging induces physical deterioration, loss of the blood brain barrier, neuronal loss-induced mental and neurodegenerative diseases. Hypotalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis aging precedes symptoms of menopause or andropause and is a major determinant of sensory and cognitive integrated function. Sexual steroids support important functions, exert pleiotropic effects in different sensory cells, promote regeneration, plasticity and health of the nervous system. Their diminution is associated with impaired cognitive and mental health and increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases...
August 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598108/recent-advances-in-neurogenic-small-molecules-as-innovative-treatments-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Clara Herrera-Arozamena, Olaia Martí-Marí, Martín Estrada, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco
The central nervous system of adult mammals has long been considered as a complex static structure unable to undergo any regenerative process to refurbish its dead nodes. This dogma was challenged by Altman in the 1960s and neuron self-renewal has been demonstrated ever since in many species, including humans. Aging, neurodegenerative, and some mental diseases are associated with an exponential decrease in brain neurogenesis. Therefore, the controlled pharmacological stimulation of the endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) niches might counteract the neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other pathologies, opening an exciting new therapeutic avenue...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547709/human-stem-cell-derived-astrocytes-specification-and-relevance-for-neurological-disorders
#6
Giulia Tyzack, Andras Lakatos, Rickie Patani
Astrocytes abound in the human central nervous system (CNS) and play a multitude of indispensable roles in neuronal homeostasis and regulation of synaptic plasticity. While traditionally considered to be merely ancillary supportive cells, their complex yet fundamental relevance to brain physiology and pathology have only become apparent in recent times. Beyond their myriad canonical functions, previously unrecognised region-specific functional heterogeneity of astrocytes is emerging as an important attribute and challenges the traditional perspective of CNS-wide astrocyte homogeneity...
2016: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505014/neural-stem-progenitor-cells-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Gizem Tincer, Violeta Mashkaryan, Prabesh Bhattarai, Caghan Kizil
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and a worldwide health challenge. Different therapeutic approaches are being developed to reverse or slow the loss of affected neurons. Another plausible therapeutic way that may complement the studies is to increase the survival of existing neurons by mobilizing the existing neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) - i.e. "induce their plasticity" - to regenerate lost neurons despite the existing pathology and unfavorable environment. However, there is controversy about how NSPCs are affected by the unfavorable toxic environment during AD...
March 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501706/effect-of-laminin-on-neurotrophic-factors-expression-in-schwann-like-cells-induced-from-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in-vitro
#8
Giti Zarinfard, Mina Tadjalli, Shahnaz Razavi, Mohammad Kazemi
The Schwann-like cells can be considered as promising in stem cell therapies, at least in experimental models. Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are induced into Schwann-like cells (SC-like cells) and are cultured on either a plastic surface or laminin-coated plates. The findings here reveal that laminin is a critical component in extracellular matrix (ECM) of SC-like cells at in vitro. The survival rate of SC-like cells on a laminin matrix are measured through MTT assay and it is found that this rate is significantly higher than that of the cells grown on a plastic surface (P < 0...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468233/a-new-look-at-an-old-drug-neuroprotective-effects-and-therapeutic-potentials-of-lithium-salts
#9
REVIEW
Liliana Dell'Osso, Claudia Del Grande, Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi, Laura Musetti
Increasing evidence highlights bipolar disorder as being associated with impaired neurogenesis, cellular plasticity, and resiliency, as well as with cell atrophy or loss in specific brain regions. This has led most recent research to focus on the possible neuroprotective effects of medications, and particularly interesting findings have emerged for lithium. A growing body of evidence from preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies has in fact documented its neuroprotective effects from different insults acting on cellular signaling pathways, both preventing apoptosis and increasing neurotrophins and cell-survival molecules...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389601/-cellular-replacement-strategies-and-adult-neurogenesis-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#10
F Marxreiter, A Storch, J Winkler
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common age-related movement disorder and characterized by slowly progressive neurodegeneration resulting in motor symptoms, such as bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. Moreover, non-motor symptoms, such as hyposmia, anxiety and depression reduce the quality of life in PD. Motor symptoms are associated with a distinct striatal dopaminergic deficit resulting from axonal dysfunction and neuronal loss in the substantia nigra (SN). Recent progress in stem cell technology allows the optimization of cellular transplantation strategies in order to alleviate the motor deficit, which potentially leads to a reactivation of this therapeutic strategy...
August 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318257/the-link-between-long-noncoding-rnas-and-depression
#11
REVIEW
Xiao Huang, Yan-Li Luo, Yue-Shi Mao, Jian-Lin Ji
The major depressive disorder (MDD) is a relatively common mental disorder from which that hundreds of million people have suffered, leading to displeasing life quality, which is characterized by health damage and even suicidal thoughts. The complicated development and functioning of MDD is still under exploration. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNAs) are highly expressed in the brain, could affect neural stem cell maintenance, neurogenesis and gliogenesis, brain patterning, synaptic and stress responses, and neural plasticity...
February 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236670/protocols-for-in-vitro-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-osteogenic-chondrogenic-and-adipogenic-lineages
#12
Maria Chiara Ciuffreda, Giuseppe Malpasso, Paola Musarò, Valentina Turco, Massimiliano Gnecchi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) possess high plasticity and the potential to differentiate into several different cell types; this characteristic has implications for cell therapy and reparative biotechnologies. MSC have been originally isolated from the bone marrow (BM-MSC), but they have been found also in other tissues such as adipose tissue, cord blood, synovium, skeletal muscle, and lung. MSC are able to differentiate in vitro and in vivo into several cell types such as bone, osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and skeletal myocytes, just to name a few...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194744/grafted-subventricular-zone-neural-stem-cells-display-robust-engraftment-and-similar-differentiation-properties-and-form-new-neurogenic-niches-in-the-young-and-aged-hippocampus
#13
Ashok K Shetty, Bharathi Hattiangady
UNLABELLED: : As clinical application of neural stem cell (NSC) grafting into the brain would also encompass aged people, critical evaluation of engraftment of NSC graft-derived cells in the aged hippocampus has significance. We examined the engraftment and differentiation of alkaline phosphatase-positive NSCs expanded from the postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ), 3 months after grafting into the intact young or aged rat hippocampus. Graft-derived cells engrafted robustly into both young and aged hippocampi...
September 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161121/human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-treatment-normalizes-cortical-gene-expression-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Ali Darkazalli, Cynthia Vied, Crystal-Dawn Badger, Cathy W Levenson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a progressive disease state with many adverse and long-term neurological consequences. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising cytotherapy and have been previously shown to reduce secondary apoptosis and cognitive deficits associated with TBI. Consistent with the established literature, we observed that systemically administered human MSCs (hMSCs) accumulate with high specificity at the TBI lesion boundary zone known as the penumbra. Substantial work has been done to illuminate the mechanisms by which MSCs, and the bioactive molecules they secrete, exert their therapeutic effect...
June 10, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26971802/lifestyle-shapes-the-dialogue-between-environment-microglia-and-adult-neurogenesis
#15
Jorge Valero, Iñaki Paris, Amanda Sierra
Lifestyle modulates brain function. Diet, stress levels, and physical exercise among other factors influence the "brain cognitive reserve", that is, the capacity of the brain to maintain a normal function when confronting neurodegenerative diseases, injury, and/or aging. This cognitive reserve relays on several cellular and molecular elements that contribute to brain plasticity allowing adaptive responses to cognitive demands, and one of its key components is the hippocampal neurogenic reserve. Hippocampal neural stem cells give rise to new neurons that integrate into the local circuitry and contribute to hippocampal functions such as memory and learning...
April 20, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26922521/the-effect-of-lithium-on-hematopoietic-mesenchymal-and-neural-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Janusz K Rybakowski
Lithium has been used in modern psychiatry for more than 65 years, constituting a cornerstone for the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. A number of biological properties of lithium have been discovered, including its hematological, antiviral and neuroprotective effects. In this article, a systematic review of the effect of lithium on hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells is presented. The beneficial effects of lithium on the level of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and growth factors have been reported since 1970s...
April 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26609255/stem-cells-biological-update-and-cell-therapy-progress
#17
REVIEW
Mihai Girlovanu, Sergiu Susman, Olga Soritau, Dan Rus-Ciuca, Carmen Melincovici, Anne-Marie Constantin, Carmen Mihaela Mihu
In recent years, the advances in stem cell research have suggested that the human body may have a higher plasticity than it was originally expected. Until now, four categories of stem cells were isolated and cultured in vivo: embryonic stem cells, fetal stem cells, adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Although multiple studies were published, several issues concerning the stem cells are still debated, such as: the molecular mechanisms of differentiation, the methods to prevent teratoma formation or the ethical and religious issues regarding especially the embryonic stem cell research...
2015: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26490674/generation-of-primitive-neural-stem-cells-from-human-fibroblasts-using-a-defined-set-of-factors
#18
Takumi Miura, Tohru Sugawara, Atsushi Fukuda, Ryo Tamoto, Tomoyuki Kawasaki, Akihiro Umezawa, Hidenori Akutsu
In mice, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-dependent primitive neural stem cells (NSCs) have a higher neurogenic potential than bFGF-dependent definitive NSCs. Therefore, expandable primitive NSCs are required for research and for the development of therapeutic strategies for neurological diseases. There is a dearth of suitable techniques for the generation of human long-term expandable primitive NSCs. Here, we have described a method for the conversion of human fibroblasts to LIF-dependent primitive NSCs using a strategy based on techniques for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
2015: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26293123/human-neural-stem-cells-alleviate-alzheimer-like-pathology-in-a-mouse-model
#19
Il-Shin Lee, Kwangsoo Jung, Il-Sun Kim, Haejin Lee, Miri Kim, Seokhwan Yun, Kyujin Hwang, Jeong Eun Shin, Kook In Park
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an inexorable neurodegenerative disease that commonly occurs in the elderly. The cognitive impairment caused by AD is associated with abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau, which are accompanied by inflammation. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing, multipotential cells that differentiate into distinct neural cells. When transplanted into a diseased brain, NSCs repair and replace injured tissues after migration toward and engraftment within lesions...
2015: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26223802/alcar-exerts-neuroprotective-and-pro-neurogenic-effects-by-inhibition-of-glial-activation-and-oxidative-stress-via-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-parkinsonian-rats
#20
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Shubha Shukla
Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are known causative factors in progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Neural stem cells (NSCs) contribute in maintaining brain plasticity; therefore, survival of NSCs and neuroblasts during neurodegenerative process becomes important in replenishing the pool of mature neuronal population. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), present in almost all body cells, increases endogenous antioxidants and regulates bioenergetics. Currently, no information is available about the putative mechanism and neuroprotective effects of ALCAR in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of PD-like phenotypes...
September 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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