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Antisense cancer

Takashi Dejima, Kenjiro Imada, Ario Takeuchi, Masaki Shiota, Jeffrey Leong, Tabitha Tombe, Kevin Tam, Ladan Fazli, Seiji Naito, Martin E Gleave, Christopher J Ong
BACKGROUND: LIM and SH3 domain protein 1 (LASP1) has been implicated in several human malignancies and has been shown to predict PSA recurrence in prostate cancer. However, the anti-tumor effect of LASP1 knockdown and the association between LASP1 and the androgen receptor (AR) remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify the significance of LASP1 as a target for prostate cancer, and to test the effect of silencing LASP1 in vivo using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). METHODS: A tissue microarray (TMA) was performed to characterize the differences in LASP1 expression in prostate cancer treated after hormone deprivation therapy...
October 24, 2016: Prostate
Yi Zhang, Kaijiong Zhang, Zhenglian Luo, Lian Liu, Lichun Wu, Jinbo Liu
BACKGROUND: It is well known that HOX transcript antisense intergenic ribonucleic acid (HOTAIR) plays an important role in breast cancer (BC). However, whether circulating HOTAIR in plasma could be used for BC diagnosis and dynamic monitoring are unclear. METHODS: We tested the expression levels of HOTAIR in 30 pairs of tissue samples and 148 plasma samples from BC patients by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, and the correlation between plasma HOTAIR levels and clinical features were analyzed...
August 1, 2016: Thoracic Cancer
Ting Ma, Rui-Ping Wang, Xi Zou
BACKGROUND: As a member of non-coding RNAs family, long non-coding RNAs' functions in cancer needs to be further investigated. It has been indicated that the functions of Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (lncRNA: HOTAIR) include reprogramming chromatin organization and promoting tumor metastasis such as breast and colorectal tumor. The aim of this study is to investigate the functions of Hox in gastric cancer. METHODS: In the present study, the expression level of HOTAIR was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 20 gastric cancer tissues and 20 normal tissues was included...
September 30, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Peng Guo, Xiangpeng Xiong, Sainan Zhang, Dongxian Peng
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the malignant tumors that seriously affects women's health and chemotherapy resistance is an important reason for the poor prognosis. The present study was conducted to investigate whether microRNA-100 (miR-100) can be used to modulate the tolerance to cisplatin in EOC. Expression of miR-100 was compared between ovarian cancer cells tolerant and not tolerant to cisplatin. Mimic and antisense were used to study the roles and related mechanisms of miR-100 in cisplatin sensitivity in EOC...
October 3, 2016: Oncology Reports
Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Si-Han Huang, Hua-Rong Zhou, Cong-Jie Chen, Li-Hong Tian, Jian-Zhen Shen
HOX antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), a long non-coding RNA, plays an important role in the development of many types of cancers. Its function in acute leukemia (AL), however, has not been examined. The present study investigated the role of HOTAIR and its downstream genes in AL, and determined whether it could act as a molecular marker for prediction of leukemia development and prognosis. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to examine the expression of each gene in the HOTAIR signaling pathway in AL patients...
October 4, 2016: Oncology Reports
Tian Lan, Lei Chang, Long Wu, Yufeng Yuan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and prognosis remains poor. Previous studies have suggested that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may be key regulators of tumor development and progression in HCC. It has been determined that 61‑72% of transcribed regions contain lncRNAs in the antisense orientation (aslncRNAs). However, the function of aslncRNAs in HCC remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated the function of the aslncRNA zinc finger E‑box binding homeobox 2 antisense RNA 1 (ZEB2‑AS1) in 40 HCC tissues and 5 different human HCC cell lines using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
November 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ga Won Yim, Hee Jung Kim, Lee Kyung Kim, Sang Wun Kim, Sunghoon Kim, Eun Ji Nam, Young Tae Kim
Purpose: The biological function of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is only partially understood; therefore, in this study, we investigated the expression of the novel HOXA11 antisense (HOXA11as) lncRNA and its oncogenic role in serous ovarian cancer (SOC). Materials and Methods: HOXA11as expression was examined in 129 serous ovarian cancer tissue samples by real time RT-PCR. Clinicopathological factors and patient survival were compared between the high (N = 27) and low HOXA11as expression group (N = 102)...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Sebastien J Hotte
Despite the significant survival benefit of taxane therapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), all patients inevitably develop treatment resistance. An understanding of resistance mechanisms has led to new therapies for prostate cancer (cabazitaxel, abiraterone and enzalutamide), all of which have improved survival following first-line docetaxel. Another treatment, currently in development, targets the prosurvival molecule clusterin. Custirsen, an antisense molecule that inhibits clusterin production, has shown promise in combination with docetaxel in mCRPC patients at risk for poor outcomes...
October 7, 2016: Future Oncology
Z H Wang, W W Sun, Y L Han, Z Ma
In the present study, we evaluated the effects of four solutions [Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), sodium lactate Ringer's injection (SLRI), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and NaCl] on the transfection of the human protein kinase C-a antisense oligonucleotide (PKC-a ASO) aprinocarsen in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Specifically, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as the growth solutions for A549 cells, and OPTI-MEM was used as the PKC-a ASO diluent for transfection. Additionally, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as both the growth solutions and diluents for transfection...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Marco M Candeias, Masatoshi Hagiwara, Michiyuki Matsuda
Wild-type p53 functions as a tumour suppressor while mutant p53 possesses oncogenic potential. Until now it remains unclear how a single mutation can transform p53 into a functionally distinct gene harbouring a new set of original cellular roles. Here we show that the most common p53 cancer mutants express a larger number and higher levels of shorter p53 protein isoforms that are translated from the mutated full-length p53 mRNA. Cells expressing mutant p53 exhibit "gain-of-function" cancer phenotypes, such as enhanced cell survival, proliferation, invasion and adhesion, altered mammary tissue architecture and invasive cell structures...
October 4, 2016: EMBO Reports
Nailiang Zhai, Yongfu Xia, Rui Yin, Jinping Liu, Fuquan Gao
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, and the 5-year survival rate is still low despite advances in diagnosis and therapeutics. A long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOX antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) has been revealed to play important roles in NSCLC carcinogenesis but the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the regulation between the lncRNA HOTAIR and p53 in the NSCLC patient samples and cell lines. Our results showed that HOTAIR expression was significantly higher in the cancer tissues than that in the adjacent normal tissue, and was negatively correlated with p53 functionality rather than expression...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Sarah D Diermeier, Kung-Chi Chang, Susan M Freier, Junyan Song, Osama El Demerdash, Alexander Krasnitz, Frank Rigo, C Frank Bennett, David L Spector
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent the largest and most diverse class of non-coding RNAs, comprising almost 16,000 currently annotated transcripts in human and 10,000 in mouse. Here, we investigated the role of lncRNAs in mammary tumors by performing RNA-seq on tumor sections and organoids derived from MMTV-PyMT and MMTV-Neu-NDL mice. We identified several hundred lncRNAs that were overexpressed compared to normal mammary epithelium. Among these potentially oncogenic lncRNAs we prioritized a subset as Mammary Tumor Associated RNAs (MaTARs) and determined their human counterparts, hMaTARs...
September 27, 2016: Cell Reports
Cielito C Reyes-Gibby, Jian Wang, Mary Rose T Silvas, Robert K Yu, Ehab Y Hanna, Sanjay Shete
Pain is often one of the first signs of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). Pain at diagnosis is an important prognostic marker for the development of chronic pain, and importantly, for the overall survival time. To identify variants influencing severe pre-treatment pain in 1,368 patients newly diagnosed with HNSCC, we conducted a genome-wide association study based on 730,525 tagging SNPs. The patients were all previously untreated for cancer. About 15% of the patients had severe pre-treatment pain, defined as pain score ≥7 (0 = "no pain" and 10 = "worst pain")...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Iris Sze Ue Luk, Raunak Shrestha, Hui Xue, Yuwei Wang, Fang Zhang, Dong Lin, Anne Haegert, Rebecca Wu, Xin Dong, Colin C Collins, Amina Zoubeidi, Martin E Gleave, Peter W Gout, Yuzhuo Wang
PURPOSE: Enzalutamide (ENZ) resistance has emerged as a major problem in the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Research on therapy resistance of CRPCs has primarily focussed on the androgen receptor pathway. In contrast, there is limited information on anti-apoptotic mechanisms that may facilitate the treatment resistance. The Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family is well recognized for its role in promoting treatment resistance of cancers by inhibiting drug-induced apoptosis...
September 23, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Hongxing Zhao, Wengen Hou, Jingang Tao, Yilei Zhao, Guang Wan, Chao Ma, Haibin Xu
HNF1A-antisense 1 (HNF1A-AS1), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), is associated with metastasis and is an independent prognostic factor for lung cancer. Recent studies demonstrated that HNF1A-AS1 play important roles in cacinogenesis. However, the exact effects and molecular mechanisms of HNF1A-AS1 in osteosarcoma (OS) progression is still unclear. In the present study, we found that HNF1A-AS1 was markedly up-regulated in OS tissues compared to their adjacent non-tumor tissues. HNF1A-AS1 expression levels were positively associated with the clinical stage, distant metastasis, and reduced overall survival of OS patients...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Satomi Ueki, Yuko Murakami, Shoji Yamada, Masaki Kimura, Yoshimasa Saito, Hidetsugu Saito
BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that the energy resources of cancer cells rely on anaerobic metabolism or the glycolytic system, even if they have sufficient oxygen. This is known as the Warburg effect. The cells skillfully survive under hypoglycemic conditions when their circumstances change, which probably at least partly involves microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation. METHODS: To determine how cancer cells exploit miRNA-mediated epigenetic mechanisms to survive in hypoglycemic conditions, we used DNA microarray analysis to comprehensively and simultaneously compare the expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line and in cultured normal human hepatocytes...
2016: BMC Cancer
Pedro Barata, Anil K Sood, David S Hong
Recent advances in RNA delivery and target selection provide unprecedented opportunities for cancer treatment, especially for cancers that are particularly hard to treat with existing drugs. Small interfering RNAs, microRNAs, and antisense oligonucleotides are the most widely used strategies for silencing gene expression. In this review, we summarize how these approaches were used to develop drugs targeting RNA in human cells. Then, we review the current state of clinical trials of these agents for different types of cancer and outcomes from published data...
August 28, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Emanuela Mari, Alessandra Zicari, Flavia Fico, Isabella Massimi, Lolli Martina, Stefania Mardente
microRNA (miR/miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting mRNAs. Aberrant expression of miRNAs is often observed in different types of cancer. Specific miRNAs function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes and interfere with various aspects of carcinogenesis, including differentiation, proliferation and invasion. Upregulation of miRNAs 221 and 222 has been shown to induce a malignant phenotype in numerous human cancers via inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression...
September 2016: Oncology Letters
Peixin Dong, Ying Xiong, Hidemichi Watari, Sharon J B Hanley, Yosuke Konno, Kei Ihira, Takahiro Yamada, Masataka Kudo, Junming Yue, Noriaki Sakuragi
BACKGROUND: In ovarian cancer (OC) cells, Snail was reported to induce the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical step in OC metastasis. At present little is known about controlling Snail expression in OC cells by using specific microRNAs (miRNAs). METHODS: We first used a computational target prediction analysis to identify 6 candidate miRNAs that bind to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) region of the Snail mRNA. Among these miRNAs, two miRNAs (miR-137 and miR-34a) with a potential to regulate Snail were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and Snail 3'-UTR reporter assays...
2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Yingchao Wang, Yuan Dang, Jingfeng Liu, Xiaojuan Ouyang
Recently, the homeobox (HOX) gene family has been reported as a factor in tumorigenesis. In the human genome, the HOX gene family contains 4 clusters with 39 genes and multiple transcripts. Mutation or abnormal expression of genes is responsible for developmental disorders. In addition, changes in the levels and activation of certain HOX genes has been associated with the development of cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have also been identified to serve critical functions in cancer. Although a limited number of lncRNAs have been previously investigated, the list of functional lncRNA genes has recently grown...
September 2016: Oncology Letters
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