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Antisense oncology

A Robert MacLeod, Stanley T Crooke
RNA-based therapeutic technologies represent a rapidly expanding class of therapeutic opportunities with the power to modulate cellular biology in ways never before possible. With RNA-targeted therapeutics, inhibitors of previously undruggable proteins, gene expression modulators, and even therapeutic proteins can be rationally designed based on sequence information alone, something that is not possible with other therapeutic modalities. The most advanced RNA therapeutic modalities are antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and small interfering RNAs...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Xiaoxing Lv, Meiru Zhao, Yuting Yi, Lucheng Zhang, Yanfang Guan, Tao Liu, Ling Yang, Rongrong Chen, Jianhui Ma, Xin Yi
The analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) using next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become a valuable tool for the development of clinical oncology. However, the application of this method is challenging due to its low sensitivity in analyzing the trace amount of ctDNA in the blood. Furthermore, the method may generate false positive and negative results from this sequencing and subsequent analysis. To improve the feasibility and reliability of ctDNA detection in the clinic, here we present a technique which enriches rare mutations for sequencing, Enrich Rare Mutation Sequencing (ER-Seq)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sharad S Singhal, Lokesh Nagaprashantha, Preeti Singhal, Sulabh Singhal, Jyotsana Singhal, Sanjay Awasthi, David Horne
Refractory and relapsed neuroblastoma (NB) present with significant challenges in clinical management. Though primary NBs largely with wild-type p53 respond well to interventions, dysfunctional signaling in the p53 pathways in a MYCN oncogene driven background is found in a number of children with NB. The p53-mutant NB is largely unresponsive to available therapies and p53-independent targeted therapeutics represents a vital need in pediatric oncology. We analyzed the findings on mercapturic acid pathway (MAP) transporter RLIP76, which has broad and critical effects on multiple pathways as essential for carcinogenesis, oxidative stress and drug-resistance, is over-expressed in NB...
August 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Alena Y Edwards, Anna Elgart, Colm Farrell, Ofra Barnett-Griness, Laura Rabinovich-Guilatt, Ofer Spiegelstein
AIMS: Custirsen (OGX-011/TV-1011), a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide that reduces clusterin production, is under investigation with chemotherapy in prostate and lung cancer. This meta-analysis evaluated the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of custirsen in cancer patients and healthy subjects. METHODS: The population PK analysis used custirsen plasma concentrations from five Phase 1 studies, one Phase 1/2 study, and one Phase 3 study in two stages. Cancer patients received multiple doses of custirsen (40-640 mg intravenously over 120 min) with chemotherapy; healthy subjects received single or multiple doses (320-640 mg)...
September 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Chit Fang Cheok, David Philip Lane
The excitement around the entry into the clinic of the first generation of p53-specific drugs has become muted as the hoped-for dramatic clinical responses have not yet been seen. However, these pioneer molecules have become exceptionally powerful tools in the analysis of the p53 pathway and, as a result, a whole spectrum of new interventions are being explored. These include entirely novel and innovative approaches to drug discovery, such as the use of exon-skipping antisense oligonucleotides and T-cell-receptor-based molecules...
March 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Roberto Gambari, Eleonora Brognara, Demetrios A Spandidos, Enrica Fabbri
MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) therapeutics in cancer are based on targeting or mimicking miRNAs involved in cancer onset, progression, angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis. Several studies conclusively have demonstrated that miRNAs are deeply involved in tumor onset and progression, either behaving as tumor-promoting miRNAs (oncomiRNAs and metastamiRNAs) or as tumor suppressor miRNAs. This review focuses on the most promising examples potentially leading to the development of anticancer, miRNA-based therapeutic protocols...
July 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Sundas Fayyaz, Iryna Shatynska-Mytsyk, Zeeshan Javed, Saima Jabeen, Ilhan Yaylim, Maria Luisa Gasparri, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
Overwhelmingly increasing advancements in miRNA biology have opened new avenues for pharmaceutical companies to initiate studies on designing effective, safe, and therapeutically active candidates using miRNA mimetics and miRNA inhibitors. In accordance with this approach, development of miravirsen and SPC3649, an LNA-based (locked nucleic acid) antisense molecule against miR-122, to treat hepatitis C has sparked interest in identifying most efficient microRNAs for journey from bench-top toward pharmaceutical industry and breakthroughs in delivery technology will pave the way to 'final frontier'...
March 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Frank Jaschinski, Hanna Korhonen, Michel Janicot
Transforming growth factor beta isoforms (TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3) are cytokines associated with a wide range of biological processes in oncology including tumor cell invasion and migration, angiogenesis, immunosuppression, as well as regulation of tumor stem cell properties. Hence, blocking the TGF-β signaling pathways may have a multifold therapeutic benefit for the treatment of solid tumors. Here, we describe the identification and selection processes for the development of highly potent and selective chemically modified antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (fully phosphorothioate locked nucleic acid gapmers) allowing effective and selective suppression of TGF-β isoform expression in cell-based assays and in vivo preclinical models...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ronald Natale, Fiona Blackhall, Dariusz Kowalski, Rodryg Ramlau, Gerold Bepler, Francesco Grossi, Christian Lerchenmüller, Mary Pinder-Schenck, Jörg Mezger, Sarah Danson, Shirish M Gadgeel, Yvonne Summers, Sophie Callies, Valérie André, Mayukh Das, Michael Lahn, Denis Talbot
Chemoresistance is mediated, in part, by the inhibition of apoptosis in tumor cells. Survivin is an antiapoptotic protein that blocks chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. To investigate whether blocking survivin expression enhances docetaxel-induced apoptosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we compared the antitumor activity of the survivin inhibitor LY2181308 plus docetaxel with docetaxel alone. We used change in tumor size (CTS) as a primary endpoint to assess its use in early decision-making for this and future studies of novel agents in NSCLC...
November 2014: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Zia Ur Rehman, Jordi Muntane
There is increasing progress in translational oncology and tremendous breakthroughs have been made as evidenced by preclinical and clinical trials. Data obtained from high-throughput technologies are deepening our understanding about the molecular and gene network in cancer cells and rapidly emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence is highlighting the role of antisense agents as specific inhibitors of the expression of target genes, thus modulating the response of cancer cells to different therapeutic strategies...
2014: OncoTargets and Therapy
Paloma Del C Monroig, Lu Chen, Shuxing Zhang, George A Calin
One of the most fascinating discoveries in molecular oncology has been that cancer represents a disease in which genetic alterations in protein-coding, but also in non-coding genes complement each other. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts that can regulate gene expression primarily by disrupting messenger RNA (mRNA) translation and/or stability, or alternatively by modulating the transcription of target mRNAs. For the last decade, miRNAs have shown to be pivotal characters of every single one of the cancer hallmarks...
January 2015: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Enrico P Spugnini, Alfonso Baldi
Electroporation is a delivery technique that is gaining popularity among the veterinary community due to its low cost, ease of application, and flexibility. It combines the administration of pharmaceutical compounds such as chemotherapy agents, antisense, and plasmids to the application of permeabilizing pulses. This chapter reviews the veterinary results obtained through the delivery of anticancer drugs (electrochemotherapy) and genes (electro-gene therapy).
2014: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sebastien A Burel, So-Ri Han, Hong-Soo Lee, Daniel A Norris, Byoung-Seok Lee, Todd Machemer, Shin-Young Park, Tianyuan Zhou, Guobin He, Youngsoo Kim, A Robert MacLeod, Brett P Monia, Shirley Lio, Tae-Won Kim, Scott P Henry
ISIS 481464 is a constrained ethyl (cEt) modified phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) studied in mice and monkey to support oncology clinical trials. Six-week toxicology studies were performed in mice and cynomolgus monkey (up to 70 and 30 mg/kg/week respectively). Reduction in STAT3 protein up to 90% of control was observed in monkey. Cynomolgus monkey was considered the most relevant species to human with respect to pharmacokinetic properties, but mice are useful in their relative sensitivity to the potential proinflammatory and hepatic effects of oligonucleotides...
June 2013: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Sohaib Al-Asaaed, Eric Winquist
Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is the most common cancer in men in the Western Hemisphere. This diagnosis includes a clinicopathologically diverse collection of disease entities, encompassing a spectrum from early localized disease to advanced-stage castration-sensitive and ultimately metastatic, castration-resistant states. Although early-stage disease is treatable and potentially curable, treatment options for castration-resistant prostate cancer, the common pathway to prostate cancer death, remain limited and palliative in nature...
April 2013: Current Oncology Reports
Erin C Connolly, Julia Freimuth, Rosemary J Akhurst
Many advanced tumors produce excessive amounts of Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) which, in normal epithelial cells, is a potent growth inhibitor. However, in oncogenically activated cells, the homeostatic action of TGF-β is often diverted along alternative pathways. Hence, TGF-β signaling elicits protective or tumor suppressive effects during the early growth-sensitive stages of tumorigenesis. However, later in tumor development when carcinoma cells become refractory to TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition, the tumor cell responds by stimulating pathways with tumor progressing effects...
2012: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Dario C Altieri
With almost 4000 citations in Medline in a little over 10 years, survivin has certainly kept scores of investigators busy worldwide. Tangible progress has been made in revealing the multiple functions of survivin, uncovering their wirings as integrated cellular networks, and mapping their exploitation in virtually every human tumor, in vivo. Considering the normally long and excruciating timeline of oncology drug discovery, it is clearly a resounding success that a better understanding of survivin biology has led to several clinical trials of survivin-based therapeutics in cancer patients...
May 28, 2013: Cancer Letters
V Baylot, C Andrieu, M Katsogiannou, D Taieb, S Garcia, S Giusiano, J Acunzo, J Iovanna, M Gleave, C Garrido, P Rocchi
Despite many advances in oncology, almost all patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) die of the disease. Molecularly targeted agents are offering hope for their potential role in helping translate the improved activity of combination chemotherapy into improved survival. Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a chaperone implicated in several pathological processes such as cancer. Further, Hsp27 expression becomes highly upregulated in cancer cells after chemotherapy. Recently, a modified antisense oligonucleotide that is complementary to Hsp27 (OGX-427) has been developed, which inhibits Hsp27 expression and enhances drug efficacy in cancer xenograft models...
2011: Cell Death & Disease
Pooja P Advani, Aneel Paulus, Ayesha Masood, Taimur Sher, Asher Chanan-Khan
INTRODUCTION: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of leukemia in the western hemisphere. Developing new therapies remains a priority as present treatment options do not offer a cure. BCL-2 overexpression in CLL is associated with aggressive disease features and resists chemotherapy. Oblimersen sodium (G3139) is a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide antisense drug targeting the BCL-2 mRNA and is the first antisense to reach advanced clinical testing in oncology. Preclinical evaluation has demonstrated good antineoplastic effect in B-cell cancers; several clinical trials have confirmed its safety and efficacy both alone and in combination with other therapeutics...
June 2011: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Isabel Heidegger, Andreas Pircher, Helmut Klocker, Petra Massoner
During the last decades, changes in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling have been related to the pathogenesis of cancer. Therefore, IGFs became highly attractive therapeutic cancer targets. Several drugs including monoclonal antibodies (mAB), small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs), anti-sense oligonucleotids (ASOs) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) targeting the IGF axis were developed. With over 60 ongoing clinical trials, the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) is currently one of the most studied molecular targets in the field of oncology...
April 15, 2011: Cancer Biology & Therapy
F Rödel, S Reichert, T Sprenger, U S Gaipl, J Mirsch, T Liersch, S Fulda, C Rödel
Alterations in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, like the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family, display a pivotal pathway by which cancer cells acquire resistance to therapeutic treatment. Among this family, survivin, the smallest and structural unique member, deserves growing attention due to its universal over-expression in human tumors, and its prominent role in disparate networks of cellular division, intracellular signaling and apoptosis. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated that targeting survivin expression by the use of small interfering RNAs, dominant negative mutants, antisense-oligonucleotides and small molecule repressors sensitized tumor cells towards chemotherapy and irradiation and reduced tumor growth potential...
2011: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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