Read by QxMD icon Read


Mateja Hajdinjak, Qiaomei Fu, Alexander Hübner, Martin Petr, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Steffi Grote, Pontus Skoglund, Vagheesh Narasimham, Hélène Rougier, Isabelle Crevecoeur, Patrick Semal, Marie Soressi, Sahra Talamo, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Ivan Gušić, Željko Kućan, Pavao Rudan, Liubov V Golovanova, Vladimir B Doronichev, Cosimo Posth, Johannes Krause, Petra Korlević, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Montgomery Slatkin, Nick Patterson, David Reich, Kay Prüfer, Matthias Meyer, Svante Pääbo, Janet Kelso
Although it has previously been shown that Neanderthals contributed DNA to modern humans, not much is known about the genetic diversity of Neanderthals or the relationship between late Neanderthal populations at the time at which their last interactions with early modern humans occurred and before they eventually disappeared. Our ability to retrieve DNA from a larger number of Neanderthal individuals has been limited by poor preservation of endogenous DNA and contamination of Neanderthal skeletal remains by large amounts of microbial and present-day human DNA...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Kathrin Theil, Margareta Herzog, Nikolaus Rajewsky
In mRNA sequences, 3' UTRs are thought to contain most elements that specifically regulate localization, turnover, and translation. Although high-throughput experiments indicate that many RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) also bind 5' UTRs, much less is known about specific post-transcriptional control exerted by 5' UTRs. GLD-1 is a conserved RBP and a translational repressor with essential roles in Caenorhabditis elegans germ cell development. Previously, we showed that GLD-1 binds highly conserved sites in both 3' and 5' UTRs...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Joanna X Wu, Chad B Wilsey, Lotem Taylor, Gregor W Schuurman
Birds in U.S. national parks find strong protection from many longstanding and pervasive threats, but remain highly exposed to effects of ongoing climate change. To understand how climate change is likely to alter bird communities in parks, we used species distribution models relating North American Breeding Bird Survey (summer) and Audubon Christmas Bird Count (winter) observations to climate data from the early 2000s and projected to 2041-2070 (hereafter, mid-century) under high and low greenhouse gas concentration trajectories, RCP8...
2018: PloS One
Pradeep Phadnis, Purnima Dey Sarkar, Mithun Singh Rajput
BACKGROUND: Initial evidences have shown that diabetes mellitus occurs concomitantly with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology. Serotonergic psychiatric therapy posits that serotonin is a central character in the management of OCD. Hence, it is worth investigating novel chemical entities affecting the serotonergic system for targeting OCD. An isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, genistein, has been recognized as of great pharmacological value especially for protecting neurodegeneration, depression (serotonin regulation), and diabetes...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Koichi Ojima, Emi Ichimura, Takahiro Suzuki, Mika Oe, Susumu Muroya, Takanori Nishimura
Myosin is a major myofibrillar component in skeletal muscles. In myofibrils, approximately 300 myosin molecules form a single thick filament in which there is constant turnover of myosin. Our previous study demonstrated that the myosin replacement rate is reduced by inhibition of protein synthesis (Ojima K. et al. 2015 Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 309, C669-679); however, additional factors influencing myosin replacement were unknown. Here, we showed that rapid myosin replacement requires heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) activity...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Nesibe Peker, Vinay Donipadi, Mridula Sharma, Craig McFarlane, Ravi Kambadur
Parkinson's Disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by tremors, muscle stiffness and muscle weakness. Molecular genetic analysis confirmed that mutations in PARKIN and PINK1 genes, which play major roles in mitochondrial quality control and mitophagy, are frequently associated with Parkinson's Disease. PARKIN is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that translocates to mitochondria during loss of mitochondrial membrane potential to increase mitophagy. Although muscle dysfunction is noted in Parkinson's Disease, little is known about the involvement of PARKIN in the muscle phenotype of Parkinson's Disease...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Oda Benthien, Matthias Braun, Jana C Riemann, Caroline Stolter
Semi-natural dry grassland sites are of great importance for nature conservation because they support high species diversity and the abundance of "Red-List" species. Grazing has proved to be a successful management tool in terms of maintenance and restoration of biodiversity. For a deeper understanding of the effects of different grazers on species biodiversity in dry grasslands, it is necessary to study the long-term effects of major changes in grazing management. In a semi-natural dry grassland habitat, which was formerly grazed by cattle, we investigated the changes in plant species composition due to long term grazing by sheep and goats...
March 2018: Heliyon
Ponarulselvam Sekar, Duen-Yi Huang, Shwu-Fen Chang, Wan-Wan Lin
Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern and contributes to inflammation associated diseases including cancer. Extracellular acidosis is a novel danger signal in the inflammatory sites, where it can modulate inflammation, immunity and tumor growth. Extracellular acidification was shown to inhibit P2X7-mediated channel currents, while it remains unknown how acidification and P2X7 together affect cellular responses. Here, we treated BV-2 microglial cells with ATP in a short period (<15 min) or a sustained acidified condition...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Xaver Feichtinger, Christian Muschitz, Patrick Heimel, Andreas Baierl, Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer, Heinz Redl, Heinrich Resch, Elisabeth Geiger, Susanna Skalicky, Rainer Dormann, Fabian Plachel, Peter Pietschmann, Johannes Grillari, Matthias Hackl, Roland Kocijan
The assessment of bone quality and the prediction of fracture risk in idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) are complex prospects as bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) do not indicate fracture-risk. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising new biomarkers for bone diseases, but the current understanding of the biological information contained in the variability of miRNAs is limited. Here, we investigated the association between serum-levels of 19 miRNA biomarkers of idiopathic osteoporosis to bone microstructure and bone histomorphometry based upon bone biopsies and µCT (9...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sallu Jabati, Jawed Fareed, Jeffrey Liles, Abigail Otto, Debra Hoppensteadt, Jack Bontekoe, Trung Phan, Amanda Walborn, Mushabbar Syed
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are any differences in the levels of inflammatory, thrombotic, and collagen turnover biomarkers between individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) and healthy volunteers. Circulating plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), CD40-ligand (CD40-L), nucleosomes (which are indicators of cell death), C-reactive protein (CRP), procollagen III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), procollagen III C-terminal propeptide (PIIICP), procollagen I N-terminal propeptide, tissue plasminogen activator, and von Willebrand factor were analyzed as potential biomarkers of AF...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Andrew Kaufman, Ezen Choo, Anna Koh, Robin Dando
Despite evidence that the ability to taste is weakened by obesity and can be rescued with weight loss intervention, few studies have investigated the molecular effects of obesity on the taste system. Taste bud cells undergo continual turnover even in adulthood, exhibiting an average life span of only a few weeks, tightly controlled by a balance of proliferation and cell death. Recent data reveal that an acute inflammation event can alter this balance. We demonstrate that chronic low-grade inflammation brought on by obesity reduces the number of taste buds in gustatory tissues of mice-and is likely the cause of taste dysfunction seen in obese populations-by upsetting this balance of renewal and cell death...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
Isabelle Yee Shan Chan, Mei-Yung Leung, Qi Liang
Driven by fast-growing economies worldwide, the number of international construction projects is booming, and employing expatriates has inevitably become a strategy used by construction firms. However, stress arising from expatriate assignments can lead to early return, assignment failure, and staff turnover, causing in significant losses to an organisation. Extensive research has focused on the effectiveness of coping behaviours in relation to stress. However, studies investigating the antecedents of coping are rare...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
George R Wendt, Julie Nr Collins, Jimin Pei, Mark S Pearson, Hayley M Bennett, Alex Loukas, Matthew Berriman, Nick V Grishin, James J Collins
Schistosomes infect more than 200 million people. These parasitic flatworms rely on a syncytial outer-coat called the tegument to survive within the vasculature of their host. Although the tegument is pivotal for their survival, little is known about maintenance of this tissue during the decades schistosomes survive in the bloodstream. Here, we demonstrate that the tegument relies on stem cells (neoblasts) to specify fusogenic progenitors that replace tegumental cells lost to turnover. Molecular characterization of neoblasts and tegumental progenitors led to the discovery of two flatworm-specific zinc finger proteins that are essential for tegumental cell specification...
March 20, 2018: ELife
Toshinobu Korenaga, Kaoru Nitatori, Hiroki Muraoka, Satoshi Ogawa, Kazuaki Shimada
The oxidative homo-coupling reaction of Grignard reagents in the presence of atmospheric oxygen molecules proceeded in the presence of heptafluorotolyl-substituted perfluorocyclopentadienyl radical. The turnover number (TON) was over 30 for the coupling reactions of PhMgBr to give biphenyl. The organocatalyst could couple thienylmagnesium compounds to give bithiophene derivatives in up to 94% yield. Furthermore, gram-scale synthesis of 6,6'-dimethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl-bis(phosphonic acid diethyl ester) was demonstrated...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
J Aleksova, S Kurniawan, G J Elder
Fracture risk increases in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), but bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is less predictive of risk than in the general population. In this study of patients with ESKD, a lower trabecular bone score (TBS), indicative of microarchitectural deterioration, was associated with higher bone turnover markers and prevalent non-vertebral fracture. INTRODUCTION: Declining renal function carries increased fracture risks, but BMD is less predictive of fracture for dialysis patients than the general population...
March 19, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Laura A Hug, Rebecca Co
An enduring theme in microbial ecology is the interdependence of microbial community members. Interactions between community members include provision of cofactors, establishment of redox gradients, and turnover of key nutrients to drive biogeochemical cycles. Pathways canonically conducted by isolated organisms in laboratory cultures are instead collective products of diverse and interchangeable microbes in the environment. Current sequence-based methods provide unprecedented access to uncultivated microorganisms, allowing prediction of previously cryptic roles in biogeochemical cycles and interactions within communities...
March 2018: MSystems
Luminita Labusca, Florin Zugun-Eloae
Intra-articular adipose tissue deposits known as articular fat pads (AFPs) are described to exist within synovial joints. Their assumed role in normal joint biomechanics is increasingly objectivized by means of advanced methods of functional imaging. AFPs possess structural similarity with body subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), however, seems to be regulated by independent metabolic loops. AFP dimension are conserved during extreme WAT states: obesity, metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophy, and cachexia...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Danka Grčević, Marina Sironi, Sonia Valentino, Livija Deban, Hrvoje Cvija, Antonio Inforzato, Nataša Kovačić, Vedran Katavić, Tomislav Kelava, Ivo Kalajzić, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara Bottazzi
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator acting as a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and playing an essential role in innate immunity and matrix remodeling. Inflammatory mediators also contribute to skeletal homeostasis, operating at multiple levels in physiological and pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate the role of PTX3 in physiological skeletal remodeling and bone healing. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry of distal femur showed that PTX3 gene-targeted female and male mice ( ptx3-/- ) had lower trabecular bone volume than their wild-type ( ptx3+/+ ) littermates (BV/TV by μCT: 3...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Harinarayanan Janakiraman, Reniqua P House, Vamsi K Gangaraju, J Alan Diehl, Philip H Howe, Viswanathan Palanisamy
RNA-binding proteins (RBP) and noncoding RNAs (ncRNA), such as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA), control co- and posttranscriptional gene regulation (PTR). At the PTR level, RBPs and ncRNAs contribute to pre-mRNA processing, mRNA maturation, transport, localization, turnover, and translation. Deregulation of RBPs and ncRNAs promotes the onset of cancer progression and metastasis. Both RBPs and ncRNAs are altered by signaling cascades to cooperate or compete with each other to bind their nucleic acid targets...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Syazrah Salam, Orla Gallagher, Fatma Gossiel, Margaret Paggiosi, Arif Khwaja, Richard Eastell
Background Renal osteodystrophy is common in advanced CKD, but characterization of bone turnover status can only be achieved by histomorphometric analysis of bone biopsy specimens (gold standard test). We tested whether bone biomarkers and high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT) parameters can predict bone turnover status determined by histomorphometry. Methods We obtained fasting blood samples from 69 patients with CKD stages 4-5, including patients on dialysis, and 68 controls for biomarker analysis (intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH], procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide [PINP], bone alkaline phosphatase [bALP], collagen type 1 crosslinked C-telopeptide [CTX], and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b [TRAP5b]) and scanned the distal radius and tibia of participants by HR-pQCT...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"