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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742981/increased-precipitation-accelerates-soil-organic-matter-turnover-associated-with-microbial-community-composition-in-topsoil-of-the-alpine-grassland-on-the-eastern-tibetan-plateau
#1
Conghai Han, Zongli Wang, Guicai Si, Tianzhu Lei, Yanli Yuan, Gengxin Zhang
Large quantities of carbon are stored in the alpine grassland of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), where is extremely sensitive to climate change. However, it remains unclear whether soil organic matter (SOM) in different layers responds to climate change analogously, and whether microbial communities play vital roles in SOM turnover of topsoil. In this study we measured and collected SOM turnover by <sup>14</sup>C method in the alpine grassland to test climatic effects on SOM turnover in soil profiles...
July 25, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742795/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-promote-bone-invasion-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
A A Elmusrati, A E Pilborough, S A Khurram, D W Lambert
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms involved in the invasion of bone by oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are poorly understood, and little is known about the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), the presence of which confers a poor prognosis. METHODS: Clinicopathological data from 277 OSCC cases involving bone resections were reviewed, and 32 cases thoroughly analysed histologically. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine αSMA, RANKL and OPG. Western blotting and qPCR were used to assess myofibroblast (CAF-like) differentiation, RANKL and OPG expression in vitro, and RANKL secretion was analysed by ELISA...
July 25, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742257/dynamic-carboniferous-tropical-forests-new-views-of-plant-function-and-potential-for-physiological-forcing-of-climate
#3
REVIEW
Jonathan P Wilson, Isabel P Montañez, Joseph D White, William A DiMichele, Jennifer C McElwain, Christopher J Poulsen, Michael T Hren
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: The Carboniferous, the time of Earth's penultimate icehouse and widespread coal formation, was dominated by extinct lineages of early-diverging vascular plants. Studies of nearest living relatives of key Carboniferous plants suggest that their physiologies and growth forms differed substantially from most types of modern vegetation, particularly forests. It remains a matter of debate precisely how differently and to what degree these long-extinct plants influenced the environment...
July 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742217/the-inflammatory-cytokine-interferon-gamma-inhibits-sortilin-1-expression-in-hepatocytes-via-the-jak-stat-pathway
#4
John Pirault, Konstantinos A Polyzos, Marcelo H Petri, Daniel Fj Ketelhuth, Magnus Bäck, Göran K Hansson
Sortilin-1, a receptor of the VPS10p family, has been associated with cardiovascular disease in genome-wide association studies. It is implicated in lipoprotein metabolism, secretion of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. However, its own regulation remains unclear. Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of atherosclerosis and absence of regulatory T (Treg) cells is associated with reduced protein expression of sortilin-1 in the liver. Therefore, we postulated that mediator(s) of inflammation known to be downregulated by regulatory T cells may modulate sortilin-1 expression...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741929/putidaredoxin-binds-to-the-same-site-on-cytochrome-p450cam-in-the-open-and-closed-conformation
#5
Shu-Hao Liou, William K Myers, Jason D Oswald, R David Britt, David B Goodin
Cytochrome P450 CYP101A1 (P450cam) hydroxylates camphor by receiving two distinct electrons from its unique reductase, putidaredoxin (Pdx). Upon binding ferric P450cam, Pdx is now known to trigger a conformational change in the enzyme. This Pdx-induced conversion may provide the trigger to coordinate enzyme turnover and protect the enzyme from oxidative damage, so the interactions responsible for this conversion are of significant current interest. This proposed role for Pdx requires that its interactions with P450cam are different for the open and closed conformations...
July 25, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741320/differential-intensity-dependent-effects-of-pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-on-rankl-induced-osteoclast-formation-apoptosis-and-bone-resorbing-ability-in-raw264-7-cells
#6
Pan Wang, Juan Liu, Yuefan Yang, Mingming Zhai, Xi Shao, Zedong Yan, Xuhui Zhang, Yan Wu, Lu Cao, Bingdong Sui, Erping Luo, Da Jing
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been proven to be effective for promoting bone mass and regulating bone turnover both experimentally and clinically. However, the exact mechanisms for the regulation of PEMF on osteoclastogenesis as well as optical exposure parameters of PEMF on inhibiting osteoclastic activities and functions remain unclear, representing significant limitations for extensive scientific application of PEMF in clinics. In this study, RAW264.7 cells incubated with RANKL were exposed to 15 Hz PEMF (2 h/day) at various intensities (0...
July 24, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740850/the-role-of-dog-population-management-in-rabies-elimination-a-review-of-current-approaches-and-future-opportunities
#7
REVIEW
Louise H Taylor, Ryan M Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M Lindenmayer, Douglas C Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, Louis H Nel
Free-roaming dogs and rabies transmission are integrally linked across many low-income countries, and large unmanaged dog populations can be daunting to rabies control program planners. Dog population management (DPM) is a multifaceted concept that aims to improve the health and well-being of free-roaming dogs, reduce problems they may cause, and may also aim to reduce dog population size. In theory, DPM can facilitate more effective rabies control. Community engagement focused on promoting responsible dog ownership and better veterinary care could improve the health of individual animals and dog vaccination coverage, thus reducing rabies transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739429/llex-paraguariensis-decreases-oxidative-stress-in-bone-and-mitigates-the-damage-in-rats-during-perimenopause
#8
Camila Scacco Pereira, Camila Tami Stringhetta-Garcia, Lilian da Silva Xavier, Keny Gonçalves Tirapeli, Ariana Aparecida Ferreira Pereira, GiselIi Mitsuy Kayahara, José Marcelo Tramarim, Marcelo Macedo Crivelini, Karina Stringhetta Padovani, Andréia Machado Leopoldino, Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada, Adriane Belló-Klein, Susana Francisca Llesuy, Edilson Ervolino, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles, Antonio Hernandes Chaves-Neto, Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato Nakamune
During perimenopause, oxidative stress increases, which may result in disruption of bone turnover, and consequently in osteoporosis. The use of antioxidants may be an effective nutritional approach to reducing osteoporosis in this period of life. Mate tea (MT) (Ilex paraguariensis), a typical and inexpensive beverage consumed in the Brazilian south-east, Argentina and Uruguay, increases antioxidant defense. Our hypothesis was that MT would decrease oxidative stress and mitigate bone deterioration. To test this, we analyzed oxidative stress markers of bone turnover, and local and systemic markers of bone metabolism of rats during natural perimenopause...
July 21, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737397/conformational-nonequilibrium-enzyme-kinetics-generalized-michaelis-menten-equation
#9
D Evan Piephoff, Jianlan Wu, Jianshu Cao
In a conformational nonequilibrium steady state (cNESS), enzyme turnover is modulated by the underlying conformational dynamics. On the basis of a discrete kinetic network model, we use an integrated probability flux balance method to derive the cNESS turnover rate for a conformation-modulated enzymatic reaction. The traditional Michaelis-Menten (MM) rate equation is extended to a generalized form, which includes non-MM corrections induced by conformational population currents within combined cyclic kinetic loops...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736564/characterization-of-an-animal-model-to-study-risk-factors-and-new-therapies-for-the-cardiorenal-syndrome-a-major-health-issue-in-our-aging-population
#10
Anja Verhulst, Ellen Neven, Patrick C D'Haese
BACKGROUND: The cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a major health problem in our aging population. The term was introduced to cover disorders of the kidneys and heart, whereby dysfunction of one organ may induce dysfunction of the other. As the natural history of the CRS is mostly slow, hence difficult to explore in clinical trials, adequate animal models combining cardiovascular and renal disease are required. Therefore, we developed and characterized a usable model for CRS type 4, i.e. chronic kidney disease (CKD) causing cardiac dysfunction...
June 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736169/protein-interaction-analysis-provides-a-map-of-the-spatial-and-temporal-organization-of-the-ciliary-gating-zone
#11
Daisuke Takao, Liang Wang, Allison Boss, Kristen J Verhey
The motility and signaling functions of the primary cilium require a unique protein and lipid composition that is determined by gating mechanisms localized at the base of the cilium. Several protein complexes localize to the gating zone and may regulate ciliary protein composition; however, the mechanisms of ciliary gating and the dynamics of the gating components are largely unknown. Here, we used the BiFC (bimolecular fluorescence complementation) assay and report for the first time on the protein-protein interactions that occur between ciliary gating components and transiting cargoes during ciliary entry...
July 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735898/genome-wide-single-molecule-footprinting-reveals-high-rna-polymerase-ii-turnover-at-paused-promoters
#12
Arnaud R Krebs, Dilek Imanci, Leslie Hoerner, Dimos Gaidatzis, Lukas Burger, Dirk Schübeler
Transcription initiation entails chromatin opening followed by pre-initiation complex formation and RNA polymerase II recruitment. Subsequent polymerase elongation requires additional signals, resulting in increased residence time downstream of the start site, a phenomenon referred to as pausing. Here, we harnessed single-molecule footprinting to quantify distinct steps of initiation in vivo throughout the Drosophila genome. This identifies the impact of promoter structure on initiation dynamics in relation to nucleosomal occupancy...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735600/evidence-for-increasing-digestive-and-metabolic-efficiency-of-energy-utilization-with-age-of-dairy-cattle-as-determined-in-two-feeding-regimes
#13
F Grandl, J O Zeitz, M Clauss, M Furger, M Kreuzer, A Schwarm
The changes taking place with age in energy turnover of dairy cattle are largely unknown. It is unclear whether the efficiency of energy utilization in digestion (characterized by faecal and methane energy losses) and in metabolism (characterized by urine and heat energy losses) is altered with age. In the present study, energy balance data were obtained from 30 lactating Brown Swiss dairy cows aged between 2 and 10 years, and 12 heifers from 0.5 to 2 years of age. In order to evaluate a possible dependence of age effects on diet type, half of the cattle each originated from two herds kept at the same farm, which were fed either on a forage-only diet or on the same forage diet but complemented with 5 kg/day of concentrate since their first calving...
July 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735575/negotiating-the-complexities-of-exocrine-and-endocrine-dysfunction-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#14
Sinead N Duggan
Chronic pancreatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterised by irreversible morphological change and typically causing pain and/or permanent loss of function. This progressive, irreversible disease results in destruction of healthy pancreatic tissue and the development of fibrous scar tissue. Gradual loss of exocrine and endocrine function follows, along with clinical manifestations such as steatorrhoea, abdominal pain and diabetes. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis has been described as a problem area and, until recently, there was little research on the topic...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735389/the-fundamental-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-plant-stress-response
#15
Michael Liebthal, Karl-Josef Dietz
Chemical, physical, and biotic factors continuously vary in the natural environment. Such parameters are considered as stressors if the magnitude of their change exceeds the current acclimation norm of the plant. Activation of genetic programs allows for conditional expansion of the acclimation norm and depends on specific sensing mechanisms, intracellular communication, and regulation. The redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) network plays a fundamental role in directing the acclimation response. These highly reactive compounds like H2O2 are generated and scavenged under normal conditions and participate in realizing a basal acclimation level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735096/lipid-droplet-functions-beyond-energy-storage
#16
REVIEW
Michael A Welte, Alex P Gould
Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids and are critically important for energy metabolism. Their function in energy storage is firmly established and increasingly well characterized. However, emerging evidence indicates that lipid droplets also play important and diverse roles in the cellular handling of lipids and proteins that may not be directly related to energy homeostasis. Lipid handling roles of droplets include the storage of hydrophobic vitamin and signaling precursors, and the management of endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734859/provider-health-and-wellness
#17
REVIEW
Anil Nanda, Anita Wasan, James Sussman
Provider health and wellness is a significant issue and can impact patient care, including patient satisfaction, quality of care, medical errors, malpractice risk, as well as provider and office staff turnover and early retirement. Health and wellness encompasses various areas including burnout, depression, divorce, and suicide and affects providers of all specialties and at all levels of training. Providers deal with many everyday stresses, including electronic health records, office politics, insurance and billing issues, dissatisfied patients, and their own personal and family issues...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734653/amyloid-%C3%AE-concentrations-and-stable-isotope-labeling-kinetics-of-human-plasma-specific-to-central-nervous-system-amyloidosis
#18
Vitaliy Ovod, Kara N Ramsey, Kwasi G Mawuenyega, Jim G Bollinger, Terry Hicks, Theresa Schneider, Melissa Sullivan, Katrina Paumier, David M Holtzman, John C Morris, Tammie Benzinger, Anne M Fagan, Bruce W Patterson, Randall J Bateman
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and other measurements of amyloidosis, such as amyloid-binding positron emission tomography studies, are limited by cost and availability. There is a need for a more practical amyloid β (Aβ) biomarker for central nervous system amyloid deposition. METHODS: We adapted our previously reported stable isotope labeling kinetics protocol to analyze the turnover kinetics and concentrations of Aβ38, Aβ40, and Aβ42 in human plasma...
July 11, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734083/highly-selective-and-efficient-ring-hydroxylation-of-alkylbenzenes-with-h2o2-based-on-an-osmium-vi-nitrido-catalyst
#19
Tai-Chu Lau, Hoi Ki Kwong, Po Kam Lo, Shek Man Yiu, Hajime Hirao, Kai Chung Lau
The osmium(VI) nitrido complex, OsVI(N)(quin)2(OTs) (1, quin = 2-quinaldinate, OTs = tosylate), is a highly selective and efficient catalyst for the ring hydroxylation of alkylbenzenes with H2O2 under ambient conditions. Oxidation of various alkylbenzenes occurs with ring/chain oxidation ratios ranging from 96.7/3.3 to 99.9/0.1, and total product yields from 93% to 98%. Moreover, turnover numbers (TONs) up to 6360, 5670 and 3880 can be achieved for the oxidation of p-xylene, ethylbenzene and mesitylene respectively...
July 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733964/the-global-burden-of-occupational-disease
#20
REVIEW
Lesley Rushton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Burden of occupational disease estimation contributes to understanding of both magnitude and relative importance of different occupational hazards and provides essential information for targeting risk reduction. This review summarises recent key findings and discusses their impact on occupational regulation and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: New methods have been developed to estimate burden of occupational disease that take account of the latency of many chronic diseases and allow for exposure trends and workforce turnover...
July 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
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