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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775879/catalytic-degradation-of-organophosphorous-nerve-agent-simulants-by-polymer-beads-graphene-oxide-with-organophosphorus-hydrolase-like-activity-based-on-rational-design-of-functional-bimetallic-nuclear-ligand
#1
Xuejuan Ma, Lin Zhang, Mengfan Xia, Xiaohong Zhang, Yaodong Zhang
The degradation of organophosphorous nerve agents is of primary concern due to the severe toxicity of these agents. Based on the active center of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH), a bimetallic nuclear ligand, (5-vinyl-1,3-phenylene)bis(di(1H-imidazol-2-yl) methanol) (VPIM), was designed and synthesized, which contains four imidazole groups to mimic the four histidines at OPH active center. By grafting VPIM on graphene oxide (GO) surface via polymerization, the VPIM-polymer beads@GO was produced. The obtained OPH mimics has an impressive activity in dephosphorylation reactions (turnover frequency (TOF) towards paraoxon: 2...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775843/transfer-of-radionuclides-and-dose-assessment-to-ants-and-anthills-in-a-swedish-forest-ecosystem
#2
K Rosén, L Lenoir, K Stark, M Vinichuk, S Sundell-Bergman
In forest ecosystems soil organisms are important for immobilization, translocation and recycling of radionuclides. Still, there is a lack of studies on the role of insects such as ants in the turnover of radionuclides and how radioactivity affects an ant community. In this study seven anthills were sampled in an area that was heavily contaminated after the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Samples of ant and anthill materials were taken from different depths of the anthills as well as from the surrounding soil and the activity concentrations of 137 Cs were determined...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775762/aortic-vascular-calcification-is-inversely-associated-with-the-trabecular-bone-score-in-patients-receiving-dialysis
#3
Jasna Aleksova, Samantha Kurniawan, Mirna Vucak-Dzumhur, Peter Kerr, Peter R Ebeling, Frances Milat, Grahame J Elder
INTRODUCTION: Progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) confers a marked increase in risk for vascular calcification, cardiovascular disease, fracture and mortality, with likely contributing factors including dysregulated bone metabolism and mineral homeostasis. In general population studies, increased vascular calcification is directly related to mortality and inversely related to bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In patients with CKD, abnormalities in turnover, mineralization and bone volume, reduce the ability of DXA to predict fracture...
May 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775750/the-effects-of-capn1-gene-inactivation-on-the-differential-expression-of-genes-in-skeletal-muscle
#4
William T Olive, Brittney N Keel, Amanda K Lindholm-Perry, Justyna Horodyska, Andrew P Foote
Protein turnover is required for muscle growth and regeneration and several proteolytic enzymes, including the calpains, degrade myofibrillar proteins during this process. In a previous experiment, phenotypic differences were observed between μ-calpain knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice, including nutrient accretion and fiber type differences. These changes were particularly evident as the animals aged. Thus, we utilized 18 mice (9 KO and 9 WT) to compare transcript abundance to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 52 wk of age...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775732/il4-10-fusion-protein-has-chondroprotective-anti-inflammatory-and-potentially-analgesic-effects-in-the-treatment-of-osteoarthritis
#5
C Steen-Louws, J Popov-Celeketic, S C Mastbergen, K Coeleveld, C E Hack, N Eijkelkamp, M Tryfonidou, S Spruijt, J A G van Roon, F P J G Lafeber
OBJECTIVE: Effective disease-modifying drugs for osteoarthritis (DMOAD) should preferably have chondroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity combined in a single molecule. We developed a fusion protein of IL4 and IL10 (IL4-10 FP), in which the biological activity of both cytokines is preserved. The present study evaluates the chondroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity of IL4-10 FP in in vitro and in vivo models of osteoarthritis. METHODS: Human osteoarthritic cartilage tissue and synovial tissue were cultured with IL4-10 FP...
May 15, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775458/species-turnover-drives-%C3%AE-diversity-patterns-across-multiple-spatial-scales-of-plant-galling-interactions-in-mountaintop-grasslands
#6
Marcel Serra Coelho, Marco Antônio Alves Carneiro, Cristina Alves Branco, Rafael Augusto Xavier Borges, Geraldo Wilson Fernandes
This study describes differences in species richness and composition of the assemblages of galling insects and their host plants at different spatial scales. Sampling was conducted along altitudinal gradients composed of campos rupestres and campos de altitude of two mountain complexes in southeastern Brazil: Espinhaço Range and Mantiqueira Range. The following hypotheses were tested: i) local and regional richness of host plants and galling insects are positively correlated; ii) beta diversity is the most important component of regional diversity of host plants and galling insects; and iii) Turnover is the main mechanism driving beta diversity of both host plants and galling insects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774978/n-heterocyclic-carbene-protected-ag-nanoparticles-immobilized-on-polyacrylonitrile-fiber-as-efficient-catalysts-for-a-three-component-coupling-reaction
#7
Jian Cao, Hongqi Tian
Metal nanoparticles (NPs) are routinely stabilized by the introduction of capping agents or their distribution on supports. In this context, we report the preparation and characterization of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-stabilized silver NPs supported on polyacrylonitrile fiber (PANF). As a result, Ag loadings of up to 8 % and particle sizes of 11.0±3.2 nm were achieved. This novel nanocomposite catalyst demonstrated high activity in addition to excellent stability and reusability in the three-component reaction between alkynes, haloalkanes, and amines...
May 18, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774972/temperature-response-of-permafrost-soil-carbon-is-attenuated-by-mineral-protection
#8
Norman Gentsch, Birgit Wild, Robert Mikutta, Petr Čapek, Katka Diáková, Marion Schrumpf, Stephanie Turner, Cynthia Minnich, Frank Schaarschmidt, Olga Shibistova, Jörg Schnecker, Tim Urich, Antje Gittel, Hana Šantrůčková, Jiři Bárta, Nikolay Lashchinskiy, Roland Fuß, Andreas Richter, Georg Guggenberger
Climate change in Arctic ecosystems fosters permafrost thaw and makes massive amounts of ancient soil organic carbon (OC) available to microbial breakdown. However, fractions of the organic matter (OM) may be protected from rapid decomposition by their association with minerals. Little is known about the effects of mineral-organic associations (MOA) on the microbial accessibility of OM in permafrost soils and it is not clear which factors control its temperature sensitivity. In order to investigate if and how permafrost soil OC turnover is affected by mineral controls, the heavy fraction (HF) representing mostly MOA was obtained by density fractionation from 27 permafrost soil profiles of the Siberian Arctic...
May 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774535/physiology-and-molecular-biology-of-barrier-mechanisms-in-the-fetal-and-neonatal-brain
#9
Norman R Saunders, Katarzyna M Dziegielewska, Kjeld Møllgård, Mark D Habgood
Properties of the local internal environment of the adult brain are tightly controlled providing a stable milieu essential for its normal function. The mechanisms involved in this complex control are structural, molecular and physiological (influx and efflux transporters) frequently referred to as the "blood-brain barrier". These mechanisms include regulation of ion levels in brain interstitial fluid essential for normal neuronal function, supply of nutrients, removal of metabolic products and prevention of entry or elimination of toxic agents...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774401/high-levels-of-serum-sclerostin-and-dkk1-in-a-case-of-klippel-tr%C3%A3-naunay-syndrome
#10
P Muto, A Lo Gullo, G Mandraffino, S Loddo, M Atteritano
Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS) is described as a complex syndrome characterized by various combinations of capillary, venous, and lymphatic malformations associated with bone and soft tissue hypertrophy. We report a case of a 67-year-old postmenopausal Caucasian women with KTS that shows elevated levels of sclerostin and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) BMD T-scores at lumbar spine and femur were normal. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were consistently normal, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) < 30 ng/mL, and normal parathyroid hormone (PTH)...
May 17, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774238/chitinase-genes-chia-s-provide-genomic-footprints-of-a-post-cretaceous-dietary-radiation-in-placental-mammals
#11
Christopher A Emerling, Frédéric Delsuc, Michael W Nachman
The end-Cretaceous extinction led to a massive faunal turnover, with placental mammals radiating in the wake of nonavian dinosaurs. Fossils indicate that Cretaceous stem placentals were generally insectivorous, whereas their earliest Cenozoic descendants occupied a variety of dietary niches. It is hypothesized that this dietary radiation resulted from the opening of niche space, following the extinction of dinosaurian carnivores and herbivores. We provide the first genomic evidence for the occurrence and timing of this dietary radiation in placental mammals...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773891/assessing-the-feasibility-of-neutralizing-osteopontin-with-various-therapeutic-antibody-modalities
#12
Vahid Farrokhi, Jeffrey R Chabot, Hendrik Neubert, Zhiyong Yang
Osteopontin is a secreted glycophosphoprotein that is highly implicated in many physiological and pathological processes such as biomineralization, cell-mediated immunity, inflammation, fibrosis, cell survival, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Antibodies against osteopontin have been actively pursued as potential therapeutics for various diseases by pharmaceutical companies and academic laboratories. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of osteopontin inhibition in a variety of preclinical models of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but clinical utility has not yet been demonstrated...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772751/what-we-do-not-know-about-fungal-cell-adhesion-molecules
#13
REVIEW
Peter N Lipke
There has been extensive research on structure and function of fungal cell adhesion molecules, but the most of the work has been about adhesins in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These yeasts are members of a single ascomycete order, and adhesion molecules from the six other fungal phyla are only sparsely described in the literature. In these other phyla, most of the research is at the cellular level, rather than at the molecular level, so there has been little characterization of the adhesion molecules themselves...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772642/pilot-study-examining-the-influence-of-potassium-bicarbonate-supplementation-on-nitrogen-balance-and-whole-body-ammonia-and-urea-turnover-following-short-term-energy-restriction-in-older-men
#14
Lee M Margolis, Lisa Ceglia, Donato A Rivas, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Roger A Fielding
With aging there is a chronic low-grade metabolic-acidosis that may exacerbate negative protein balance during weight loss. The objective of this randomized pilot study was to assess the impact of 90 mmol∙day-1 potassium bicarbonate (KHCO₃) versus a placebo (PLA) on 24-h urinary net acid excretion (NAE), nitrogen balance (NBAL), and whole-body ammonia and urea turnover following short-term diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen (KHCO₃; n = 8, PLA; n = 8) older (64 ± 4 years) overweight (BMI: 28.5 ± 2.1 kg∙day-1 ) men completed a 35-day controlled feeding study, with a 7-day weight-maintenance phase followed by a 28-day 30% energy-restriction phase...
May 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772599/a-contextual-work-life-experiences-model-to-understand-nurse-commitment-and-turnover
#15
Dilmi Aluwihare-Samaranayake, Ian Gellatly, Greta Cummings, Linda Ogilvie
AIMS: To present a discussion and model depicting most effecting work life experience contextual factors that influence commitment and turnover intentions for nurses in Sri Lanka. BACKGROUND: Increasing demand for nurses has made the retention of experienced, qualified nursing staff a priority for health care organizations and highlights the need to capture contextual work-life experiences that influence nurses' turnover decisions. DESIGN: Discussion paper...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772415/highly-efficient-polymer-supported-monodisperse-ruthenium-nickel-nanocomposites-for-dehydrocoupling-of-dimethylamine-borane
#16
Betul Sen, Esra Kuyuldar, Buse Demirkan, Tugba Onal Okyay, Aysun Şavk, Fatih Sen
In the present study, highly effective and reusable monodisperse ruthenium-nickel (Ru-Ni) nanomaterials supported on poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (Ru-Ni@PVP) were synthesized (3.51 ± 0.38 nm) by a facile sodium-hydroxide-assisted reduction method; Ru and Ni reduction in PVP solution was accomplished. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by TEM, HRTEM, XRD, and XPS and performed as a catalyst for dehydrocoupling of dimethylamine-borane (DMAB). It was found that Ru-Ni nanomaterials are one of the most active catalysts at low concentrations and temperature for dehydrocoupling of DMAB...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772087/environmental-change-and-predator-diversity-drive-alpha-and-beta-diversity-in-freshwater-macro-and-microorganisms
#17
Pablo Augusto P Antiqueira, Owen L Petchey, Viviane Piccin Dos Santos, Valéria Maia de Oliveira, Gustavo Quevedo Romero
Global biodiversity is eroding due to anthropogenic causes such as climate change, habitat loss, and trophic simplification of biological communities. Most studies address only isolated causes within a single group of organisms; however, biological groups of different trophic levels may respond in particular ways to different environmental impacts. Our study used natural microcosms to investigate the predicted individual and interactive effects of warming, changes in top predator diversity, and habitat size on the alpha and beta diversity of macrofauna, microfauna and bacteria...
May 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770595/repair-potential-of-non-surgically-delivered-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-chondrocytes-in-a-rat-osteochondral-defect-model
#18
Yeri Alice Rim, Yoojun Nam, Narae Park, Jennifer Lee, Sung-Hwan Park, Ji Hyeon Ju
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are thought to be an alternative cell source for future regenerative medicine. hiPSCs may allow unlimited production of cell types that have low turnover rates and are difficult to obtain such as autologous chondrocytes. In this study, we generated hiPSC-derived chondrogenic pellets and chondrocytes were isolated. To confirm the curative effects, chondrogenic pellets and isolated chondrocytes were transplanted into rat joints with osteochondral defects. Isolated hiPSC-derived chondrocytes were delivered in the defect by a single intra-articular injection...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770510/scf-sniper-4-controls-the-turnover-of-two-redundant-traf-proteins-in-plant-immunity
#19
Jianhua Huang, Chipan Zhu, Xin Li
In mammals, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factors (TRAFs) are signaling adaptors that regulate diverse physiological processes, including immunity and stress responses. In Arabidopsis, MUSE13 and MUSE14 are redundant TRAF proteins serving as adaptors in the SCFCRP 1 complex to facilitate the turnover of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats (NLR) immune receptors. Degradation of MUSE13 is inhibited by proteasome inhibitor, suggesting that the MUSE13 stability is controlled by the 26S proteasome...
May 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770424/anion-induced-3d-4f-luminescent-coordination-clusters-structural-characteristics-and-chemical-fixation-of-co-2-under-mild-conditions
#20
Ruilian Zhang, Li Wang, Cong Xu, Huan Yang, Wanmin Chen, Guoshu Gao, Weisheng Liu
Two series of anion-induced 3d-4f luminescent clusters ZnII2LnIII2L4 (LnIII = Eu3+, Tb3+, Er3+, Yb3+, Nd3+) and ZnII4LnIII2L4 (LnIII = Tb3+, Nd3+) based on μ3-OH group were synthesized and characterized. The difference in anions not only leads to significant structural changes, but also changes the luminescent properties of the 3d-4f coordination clusters. These complexes show excellent catalytic performance for CO2 conversion to obtain cyclic carbonates with wide substrate scopes and high selectivity under mild conditions...
May 17, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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