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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352327/limk-cofilin-pathway-and-slingshot-are-implicated-in-human-colorectal-cancer-progression-and-chemoresistance
#1
Helen Aggelou, Panagiota Chadla, Sofia Nikou, Sofia Karteri, Ioannis Maroulis, Haralabos P Kalofonos, Helen Papadaki, Vasiliki Bravou
Cofilin phospho-regulation is important for actin filament turnover and is implicated in cancer. Phosphorylation of cofilin is mediated by LIM kinases (LIMKs) and dephosphorylation by Slingshot phosphatases (SSH). LIMKs and SSH promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis and represent novel anti-cancer targets. However, little is known regarding LIMK/cofilin and SSH in human colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we aimed to address their expression and significance in human CRC. We evaluated expression of non-phosphorylated (active) and phosphorylated cofilin, LIMK1, LIMK2, and SSH1 by immunohistochemistry in 143 human CRC samples in relation to clinicopathologic parameters, response of metastatic disease to chemotherapy, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers β-catenin, E-cadherin, and ZEB...
January 19, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352197/phylogenetic-and-functional-structure-of-wintering-waterbird-communities-associated-with-ecological-differences
#2
Xianli Che, Min Zhang, Yanyan Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Qing Quan, Anders Møller, Fasheng Zou
Ecological differences may be related to community component divisions between Oriental (west) and Sino-Japanese (east) realms, and such differences may result in weak geographical breaks in migratory species that are highly mobile. Here, we conducted comparative phylogenetic and functional structure analyses of wintering waterbird communities in southern China across two realms and subsequently examined possible climate drivers of the observed patterns. An analysis based on such highly migratory species is particularly telling because migration is bound to reduce or completely eliminate any divergence between communities...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352023/monoamine-abnormalities-in-the-sapap3-knockout-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-related-behaviour
#3
Jesse Wood, Zoe LaPalombara, Susanne E Ahmari
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of illness-related disability, but the neural mechanisms underlying OCD symptoms are unclear. One potential mechanism of OCD pathology is monoamine dysregulation. Because of the difficulty of studying monoamine signalling in patients, animal models offer a viable alternative to understanding this aspect of OCD pathophysiology. We used HPLC to characterize post-mortem monoamine levels in lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial OFC, medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal and ventral striatum of SAPAP-3 knockout (KO) mice, a well-validated model of compulsive-like behaviours in OCD...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351963/the-exon-junction-complex-structural-insights-into-a-faithful-companion-of-mammalian-mrnps
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer V Gerbracht, Niels H Gehring
During splicing, the exon junction complex (EJC) is deposited upstream of exon-exon boundaries. The EJC and its peripheral bound proteins play an essential role in mediating mRNA export, translation and turnover. However, the exact sequence of EJC assembly and the involved factors during splicing remain elusive. Recently published structures of the human C* spliceosome clarified the position of the EJC at this phase of splicing and have given insight into previously unidentified interactions between the EJC and spliceosomal proteins...
January 19, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351906/edc-impact-molecular-effects-of-developmental-fm-550-exposure-in-wistar-rat-placenta-and-fetal-forebrain
#5
Kylie R Baldwin, Brian Horman, Allison L Phillips, Susan L McRitchie, Scott Watson, Jocelin Deese-Spruill, Dereje Jima, Susan Sumner, Heather Stapleton, Heather Patisaul
Firemaster 550 (FM 550) is a flame retardant (FR) mixture that has become one of the most commonly used FRs in foam-based furniture and baby products. Human exposure to this commercial mixture, comprised of brominated and organophosphate components, is widespread. We have repeatedly shown that developmental exposure can lead to sex-specific behavioral effects in rats. Accruing evidence of endocrine disruption and potential neurotoxicity have raised concerns regarding the neurodevelopmental effects of FM 550 exposure, but the specific mechanisms of action remains unclear...
January 19, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351301/investigation-of-the-proton-relay-system-operative-in-human-cystosolic-aminopeptidase-p
#6
Hui-Chuan Chang, Camy C-H Kung, Tzu-Ting Chang, Shu-Chuan Jao, Yu-Ting Hsu, Wen-Shan Li
Aminopeptidase P, a metalloprotease, targets Xaa-Proline peptides for cleavage [1-4]. There are two forms of human AMPP, a membrane-bound form (hmAMPP) and a soluble cytosolic form (hcAMPP)[5]. Similar to the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, AMPP plays an important role in the catabolism of inflammatory and vasoactive peptides, known as kinins. The plasma kinin, bradykinin, was used as the substrate to conduct enzymatic activity analyses and to determine the Michaelis constant (Km) of 174 μM and the catalytic rate constant (kcat) of 10...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350781/effects-of-work-environment-and-job-characteristics-on-the-turnover-intention-of-experienced-nurses-the-mediating-role-of-work-engagement
#7
Qiaoqin Wan, Zhaoyang Li, Weijiao Zhou, Shaomei Shang
AIM: To assess turnover intention among experienced nurses and explore the effects of work environment, job characteristics and work engagement on turnover intention. BACKGROUND: The nursing shortage is an urgent concern in China. A high turnover rate of experienced nurses could have serious effects on the quality of care, costs and the efficiency of hospitals. It is crucial to explore the predictors of turnover intention and develop strategies tailored to experienced nurses...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350770/the-effects-of-work-factors-on-nurses-job-satisfaction-quality-of-care-and-turnover-intentions-in-oncology
#8
Nicolas Gillet, Evelyne Fouquereau, Hélène Coillot, Baptiste Cougot, Leïla Moret, Sophie Dupont, Franck Bonnetain, Philippe Colombat
AIMS: We examined the effects of perceived supervisor support, value congruence and hospital nurse staffing on nurses' job satisfaction through the satisfaction of the three psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. Then, we examined the links between job satisfaction and quality of care as well as turnover intentions from the workplace. BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the relationships between work factors and nurses' job satisfaction...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350069/new-and-developing-pharmacotherapy-for-osteoporosis-in-men
#9
Luigi Gennari, John P Bilezikian
Osteoporosis represents a major health and societal burden in men, as well as in women. However, only a minority of men are screened and treated for osteoporosis and fracture prevention, even after first fracture. Areas covered: This article provides a comprehensive summary of the currently available drugs for osteoporosis in men as well as insights into new and developing pharmacotherapy. Expert opinion: To date, therapeutic approaches to osteoporosis in men remain not as well defined as in women, since antifracture efficacy data are lacking for most approved pharmaceuticals...
January 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349685/solute-transport-in-the-bone-lacunar-canalicular-system-lcs
#10
REVIEW
Liyun Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Solute transport in the lacunar-canalicular system (LCS) plays important roles in osteocyte metabolism and cell-cell signaling. This review will summarize recent studies that establish pericellular matrix (PCM), discovered inside the LCS, as a crucial regulator of solute transport in bone. RECENT FINDINGS: Utilizing confocal imaging and mathematical modeling, recent studies successfully quantified molecular diffusion and convection in the LCS as well as the size-dependent sieving effects of the PCM, leading to the quantification of the effective PCM fiber spacing (10 to 17 nm) in murine adult bones...
January 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349573/mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-manf-elevates-stimulus-evoked-release-of-dopamine-in-freely-moving-rats
#11
Juho-Matti Renko, Susanne Bäck, Merja H Voutilainen, T Petteri Piepponen, Ilkka Reenilä, Mart Saarma, Raimo K Tuominen
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) hold potential as disease-modifying therapies for neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) have shown neuroprotective and restorative effects on nigral dopaminergic neurons in various animal models of Parkinson's disease. To date, however, their effects on brain neurochemistry have not been compared using in vivo microdialysis...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349232/health-and-well-being-at-work-the-key-role-of-supervisor-support
#12
Oliver Hämmig
This study aims to explore whether and in what way social support from different sources and domains makes an additional or different and independent contribution to various health and work-related outcomes. Cross-sectional data were used from an employee survey among the workforces of four service companies from different industries in Switzerland. The study sample covered 5,877 employees of working age. The lack of social support from a spouse, relatives, friends, direct supervisors, closest colleagues at work and other co-workers in case of problems at work and at home were assessed and studied individually and jointly as risk factors with respect to a total number of eight outcomes...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348648/specific-cyclic-adp-ribose-phosphohydrolase-obtained-by-mutagenic-engineering-of-mn2-dependent-adp-ribose-cdp-alcohol-diphosphatase
#13
João Meireles Ribeiro, José Canales, Alicia Cabezas, Joaquim Rui Rodrigues, Rosa María Pinto, Iralis López-Villamizar, María Jesús Costas, José Carlos Cameselle
Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a messenger for Ca2+ mobilization. Its turnover is believed to occur by glycohydrolysis to ADP-ribose. However, ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase (ADPRibase-Mn) acts as cADPR phosphohydrolase with much lower efficiency than on its major substrates. Recently, we showed that mutagenesis of human ADPRibase-Mn at Phe37, Leu196 and Cys253 alters its specificity: the best substrate of the mutant F37A + L196F + C253A is cADPR by a short difference, Cys253 mutation being essential for cADPR preference...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348571/high-resolution-time-series-reveals-cohesive-but-short-lived-communities-in-coastal-plankton
#14
Antonio M Martin-Platero, Brian Cleary, Kathryn Kauffman, Sarah P Preheim, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Eric J Alm, Martin F Polz
Because microbial plankton in the ocean comprise diverse bacteria, algae, and protists that are subject to environmental forcing on multiple spatial and temporal scales, a fundamental open question is to what extent these organisms form ecologically cohesive communities. Here we show that although all taxa undergo large, near daily fluctuations in abundance, microbial plankton are organized into clearly defined communities whose turnover is rapid and sharp. We analyze a time series of 93 consecutive days of coastal plankton using a technique that allows inference of communities as modular units of interacting taxa by determining positive and negative correlations at different temporal frequencies...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348497/rna-binding-proteins-control-gene-expression-and-cell-fate-in-the-immune-system
#15
REVIEW
Martin Turner, Manuel D Díaz-Muñoz
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are essential for the development and function of the immune system. They interact dynamically with RNA to control its biogenesis and turnover by transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which RBPs allow gene expression changes to occur at different speeds and to varying degrees, and which RBPs regulate the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. These proteins are nodes for integration of transcriptional and signaling networks and are intimately linked to intermediary metabolism...
January 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348455/programmed-cell-death-can-increase-the-efficacy-of-microbial-bet-hedging
#16
Eric Libby, William W Driscoll, William C Ratcliff
Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. While PCD plays a key role in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, explaining why single-celled organisms would evolve to actively commit suicide has been far more challenging. Here, we explore the potential for PCD to act as an accessory to microbial bet-hedging strategies that utilize stochastic phenotype switching. We consider organisms that face unpredictable and recurring disasters, in which fitness depends on effective phenotypic diversification...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347870/incorporating-living-from-the-heart-into-medical-education
#17
Miranda K Boggild, Wayne L Gold, Lisa Richardson, Kanae Kinoshita
Medical training poses many challenges to trainees' wellbeing. To address the impact of learning in a high turnover, high volume, acute care setting in the General Internal Medicine Clinical Teaching Unit, the Chief Medical Resident, in this personal account, shares how she and the Spiritual Care Practitioner united to form an innovative partnership. The introduction of the skills of spiritual care practitioners, generally referred to patients and families, to support medical students and residents resulted in the co-development and co-implementation of a unique, reflective, one-hour session...
January 18, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347565/formation-and-evolution-of-target-patterns-in-cahn-hilliard-flows
#18
Xiang Fan, P H Diamond, L Chacón
We study the evolution of the concentration field in a single eddy in the two-dimensional (2D) Cahn-Hilliard system to better understand scalar mixing processes in that system. This study extends investigations of the classic studies of flux expulsion in 2D magnetohydrodynamics and homogenization of potential vorticity in 2D fluids. Simulation results show that there are three stages in the evolution: (A) formation of a "jelly roll" pattern, for which the concentration field is constant along spirals; (B) a change in isoconcentration contour topology; and (C) formation of a target pattern, for which the isoconcentration contours follow concentric annuli...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346804/trabodenoson-an-adenosine-mimetic-with-a1-receptor-selectivity-lowers-intraocular-pressure-by-increasing-conventional-outflow-facility-in-mice
#19
Guorong Li, Karen Y Torrejon, Andrea M Unser, Feryan Ahmed, Iris D Navarro, Rudolf A Baumgartner, David S Albers, W Daniel Stamer
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the IOP-lowering effect of trabodenoson and the associated structural and functional changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Methods: Six independent cohorts of young and aged mice were exposed to three different topical once-a-day formulations of trabodenoson and eyes were compared to those treated with placebo drops. IOP was measured daily just before drug administration using rebound tonometry. Outflow facility was measured in enucleated eyes...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346771/rapid-turnover-of-cortical-ncam1-regulates-synaptic-reorganization-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#20
Hyoung-Gon Ko, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Dong Ik Park, SukJae Joshua Kang, Chae-Seok Lim, Su-Eon Sim, Jaehoon Shim, Ji-Il Kim, Siyong Kim, Tae-Hyeok Choi, Sanghyun Ye, Jaehyun Lee, Pojeong Park, Somi Kim, Jeehaeh Do, Jihye Park, Md Ariful Islam, Hyun Jeong Kim, Christoph W Turck, Graham L Collingridge, Min Zhuo, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Peripheral nerve injury can induce pathological conditions that lead to persistent sensitized nociception. Although there is evidence that plastic changes in the cortex contribute to this process, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here, we find that activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) induced by peripheral nerve injury increases the turnover of specific synaptic proteins in a persistent manner. We demonstrate that neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) is one of the molecules involved and show that it mediates spine reorganization and contributes to the behavioral sensitization...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
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