Read by QxMD icon Read


W Michael Dismuke, Mikael Klingeborn, W Daniel Stamer
Exosomes are emerging as important mediators of cell-matrix interactions by means of specific adhesion proteins. Changes in the tissue-specific exosomal protein expression may underlie pathological conditions whereby extracellular matrix turnover and homeostasis is disrupted. Ocular hypertension due to extracellular matrix accumulation in the trabecular meshwork is a hallmark of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma. In the trabecular meshwork, exosomal fibronectin mediates cell matrix interactions at cellular structures called "invadosomes"...
2016: PloS One
Eileen K Jaffe
Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), also known as 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase, is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of all tetrapyrroles, which function in respiration, photosynthesis, and methanogenesis. Throughout evolution, PBGS adapted to a diversity of cellular niches and evolved to use an unusual variety of metal ions both for catalytic function and to control protein multimerization. With regard to the active site, some PBGSs require Zn(2+); a subset of those, including human PBGS, contain a constellation of cysteine residues that acts as a sink for the environmental toxin Pb(2+)...
October 26, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Mira Tout, Anne-Laure Gagez, Stéphane Leprêtre, Valérie Gouilleux-Gruart, Nicolas Azzopardi, Alain Delmer, Mélanie Mercier, Loïc Ysebaert, Kamel Laribi, Hugo Gonzalez, Gilles Paintaud, Guillaume Cartron, David Ternant
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody approved in the first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Rituximab pharmacokinetics shows a time dependency possibly related to changes in the target antigen amount over time. The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of both CD20 antigenic mass and the FcγRIIIA genetic polymorphism on rituximab pharmacokinetics in CLL. METHODS: Rituximab pharmacokinetics was described in 118 CLL patients using a semi-mechanistic model including a latent target antigen turnover, which allowed the estimation of rituximab target-mediated elimination in addition to the endogenous clearance...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Burcin Yavuz, Uday B Kompella
Although the eye is an accessible organ for direct drug application, ocular drug delivery remains a major challenge due to multiple barriers within the eye. Key barriers include static barriers imposed by the cornea, conjunctiva, and retinal pigment epithelium and dynamic barriers including tear turnover and blood and lymphatic clearance mechanisms. Systemic administration by oral and parenteral routes is limited by static blood-tissue barriers that include epithelial and endothelial layers, in addition to rapid vascular clearance mechanisms...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Roger F Loring
Optically detected single-turnover measurements of biological and inorganic catalysts provide a detailed picture of structural and dynamical influences on catalytic activity. Measurement at the single-molecule level of catalysis of a fluorogenic reaction (or its reverse) yields a stochastic fluorescence trajectory reflecting the statistics of individual reaction and product dissociation events. Analysis of time correlations displayed by this trajectory reveals reaction details inaccessible in a bulk measurement of averaged dynamics...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zhihui Shao, Shaomin Fu, Mufeng Wei, Shaolin Zhou, Qiang Liu
Herein, we describe a selective cobalt-catalyzed chemodivergent transfer hydrogenation of nitriles to synthesize primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. The solvent effect plays a key role for the selectivity control. The general applicability of this procedure was highlighted by the synthesis of more than 70 amine products bearing various functional groups in high chemoselectivity. Moreover, this mild system achieved >2000 TONs (turnover numbers) for the transfer hydrogenation of nitriles.
October 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
M Migalska, A Sebastian, M Konczal, P Kotlík, J Radwan
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a central role in the adaptive immune response and is the most polymorphic gene family in vertebrates. Although high-throughput sequencing has increasingly been used for genotyping families of co-amplifying MHC genes, its potential to facilitate early steps in the characterisation of MHC variation in nonmodel organism has not been fully explored. In this study we evaluated the usefulness of de novo transcriptome assembly in characterisation of MHC sequence diversity...
October 26, 2016: Heredity
Ali Ebrahim, Elizabeth Brunk, Justin Tan, Edward J O'Brien, Donghyuk Kim, Richard Szubin, Joshua A Lerman, Anna Lechner, Anand Sastry, Aarash Bordbar, Adam M Feist, Bernhard O Palsson
Rapid growth in size and complexity of biological data sets has led to the 'Big Data to Knowledge' challenge. We develop advanced data integration methods for multi-level analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, ribosomal profiling, proteomic and fluxomic data. First, we show that pairwise integration of primary omics data reveals regularities that tie cellular processes together in Escherichia coli: the number of protein molecules made per mRNA transcript and the number of ribosomes required per translated protein molecule...
October 26, 2016: Nature Communications
Cheau Yuaan Tan, Hidehiko Hirakawa, Risa Suzuki, Tomoaki Haga, Fumiya Iwata, Teruyuki Nagamune
Bacterial cytochrome P450s (P450s), which catalyze regio- and stereoselective oxidations of hydrocarbons with high turnover rates, are attractive biocatalysts for fine chemical production. Enzyme immobilization is needed for cost-effective industrial manufacturing. However, immobilization of P450s is difficult because electron-transfer proteins are involved in catalysis and anchoring these can prevent them from functioning as shuttle molecules for carrying electrons. We studied a heterotrimeric protein-mediated co-immobilization of a bacterial P450, and its electron-transfer protein and reductase...
October 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Angelika Drynda, Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz, Ewa Zaczyńska, Michał Zimecki, Stanisław Ryng, Marcin Mączyński
OBJECTIVES: Immunoregulatory properties of 06K derivative (4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(5-amino-3-methylisoxazole-4-carbonyl)-thiosemicarbazide) in mouse in vivo models were investigated. METHODS: Several in vivo models were used: humoral and cellular immune response, carrageenan inflammatory reaction and determination of lymphocyte subsets in non-immunized mice. KEY FINDINGS: The compound administered before or after immunization with sheep erythrocytes (sheep red blood cell (SRBC)) elevated the number of plaque-forming cells (PFC), and this effect was stronger at lower doses...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
B Hirschmugl, G Desoye, P Catalano, I Klymiuk, H Scharnagl, S Payr, E Kitzinger, C Schliefsteiner, U Lang, C Wadsack, S Hauguel-de Mouzon
BACKGROUND: Obesity before pregnancy is associated with impaired metabolic status of the mother and the offspring later in life. These adverse effects have been attributed to epigenetic changes in utero, but little is known about the role of placental metabolism and its contribution to fetal development. OBJECTIVES: We examined the impact of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on the expression of genes involved in placental lipid metabolism in lean and obese women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventy-three lean and obese women with healthy pregnancy were recruited at term elective cesarean delivery...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Tathyana Mar Amorim Franco, Subray S Hegde, John S Blanchard
The biosynthetic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids is essential for M. tuberculosis growth and survival. We report here the kinetic and chemical mechanism of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent branched-chain aminotransferase, IlvE, from M. tuberculosis (MtIlvE). This enzyme is responsible for the final step of the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine and valine. As seen in other aminotransferases, MtIlvE displays a ping-pong kinetic mechanism. pK values were identified from the pH dependence on V as well as V/K, indicating that the phosphate ester of the PLP cofactor, as well as the α-amino group from L-glutamate and the active site Lys204, play roles in acid-base catalysis and binding, respectively...
October 25, 2016: Biochemistry
Aviram Kogot-Levin, Ann Saada, Gil Leibowitz, Devorah Soiferman, Liza Douiev, Itamar Raz, Sarah Weksler-Zangen
Cytochrome-c-oxidase (COX) deficiency is a frequent cause of mitochondrial disease and is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. We studied mitochondrial function and biogenesis in fibroblasts derived from the Cohen (CDs) rat, an animal model of COX deficiency. COX activity in CDs-fibroblasts was 50% reduced compared to control rat fibroblasts (P<0.01). ROS-production in CDs fibroblasts increased, along with marked mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased mitochondrial membrane-potential, indicating mitochondrial dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
Christophe von Garnier, Fabian Blank, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Joachim R Goethert, Patrick G Holt, Philip A Stumbles, Deborah H Strickland
The pulmonary parenchymal and mucosal microenvironments are constantly exposed to the external environment and thus require continuous surveillance to maintain steady-state immunological homeostasis. This is achieved by a mobile network of pulmonary dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (mø) that constantly sample and process microenvironmental antigens into signals that can initiate or dampen inflammation, either locally or after onward migration to draining lymph nodes. The constant steady-state turnover of pulmonary DC and mø requires replenishment from bone-marrow precursors, however the nature of the pulmonary precursor cell remains unclear, although recent studies suggest that subsets of pulmonary DC may derive from circulating monocytic precursors...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Christopher Selleck, James A Larrabee, Jeffrey Harmer, Luke W Guddat, Nataša Mitić, Waleed Helweh, David L Ollis, Whitney R Craig, David L Tierney, Marcelo Monteiro Pedroso, Gerhard Schenk
Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a major threat to global health care. This is largely due to the fact that many pathogens have developed strategies to acquire resistance to antibiotics. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) have evolved to inactivate most of the commonly used β-lactam antibiotics. AIM-1 is one of only a few MBLs from the B3 subgroup that is encoded on a mobile genetic element in a major human pathogen. Here, its mechanism of action was characterised with a combination of spectroscopic and kinetic techniques and compared to that of other MBLs...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Akimitsu Miyauchi
Teriparatide(recombinant human PTH1-34, 20 μg daily subcutaneous injection)has been approved for osteoporosis patients at high risk of fracture in many countries including Japan. Teriparatide daily injection therapy has been reported to increase BMD, improve microarchitecture of bone, and reduce the risk of new vertebral fractures and that of non-vertebral fractures. Pharmakokinetic(PK)study after a single Teriparatide injection of the daily dose in healthy Japanese postmenopausal women(n=18)revealed very rapid achievement of peak blood level(median of tmax=0...
2016: Clinical Calcium
François Courcy, Alexandre J S Morin, Isabelle Madore
Exposure to workplace violence has been identified as a serious and universal issue facing modern organizations. The present study focuses more specifically on exposure to psychological violence, and its association with turnover intentions as mediated by workplace affective commitment. In addition, we also explore the moderating role of various facets of job demands (role stressors) and resources (social support) on the aforementioned relations. Data collected from 1,228 university employees indicated that experiencing psychological violence at work was associated with lower levels of workplace affective commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions, and that the relation between psychological violence and turnover intentions was partially mediated by commitment...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Soo Im Chung, Su Noh Ryu, Mi Young Kang
The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group...
October 21, 2016: Nutrients
Athanassios Panagiotopoulos, Antonios M Douvas, Panagiotis Argitis, Athanassios G Coutsolelos
Hydrogen evolution using photocatalytic systems based on artificial photosynthesis is a major approach toward solar energy conversion and storage. In the polyoxometalate-based photocatalytic systems proposed in the past, middle/near UV light irradiation and noble-metal catalysts were mainly used. Although recently polyoxometalates were sensitized in visible light, photosensitizers or catalysts based on noble metals, and/or poor activity of polyoxometalates were generally obtained. Here we show the highly efficient [turnover number (TON)=215] hydrogen evolution induced by the zinc(II) mesotetrakis(N-methyl-pyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (ZnTMPyP(4+) ) sensitization of a series of polyoxometalate catalysts (two Dawson type, P2 Mo18 O62(6-) and P2 W18 O62(6-) anions, and one Keplerate {Mo132 } cluster) in a visible-light-driven, noble-metal-free, and fully water-soluble system...
October 24, 2016: ChemSusChem
Nisha Durand, Ligia I Bastea, Jason Long, Heike Döppler, Kun Ling, Peter Storz
Focal adhesions (FAs) are highly dynamic structures that are assembled and disassembled on a continuous basis. The balance between the two processes mediates various aspects of cell behavior, ranging from cell adhesion and spreading to directed cell migration. The turnover of FAs is regulated at multiple levels and involves a variety of signaling molecules and adaptor proteins. In the present study, we show that in response to integrin engagement, a subcellular pool of Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) localizes to the FAs...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"