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Dementia and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628597/integrating-health-promotion-into-physical-therapy-practice-to-improve-brain-health-and-prevent-alzheimer-disease
#1
Ellen McGough, Neva Kirk-Sanchez, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia, and brain pathology appears years before symptoms are evident. Primary prevention through health promotion can incorporate lifestyle improvement across the lifespan. Risk factor assessment and identifying markers of disease might also trigger preventive measures needed for high-risk individuals and groups. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: Many potential risk factors are modifiable through exercise, and may be responsive to early intervention strategies to reduce the downward slope toward disability...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628488/falls-and-physical-activity-in-persons-with-mild-to-moderate-dementia-participating-in-an-intensive-motor-training-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Tania Zieschang, Michael Schwenk, Clemens Becker, Lorenz Uhlmann, Peter Oster, Klaus Hauer
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is beneficial in people with dementia. As physical activity increases risk exposure for falls, safety concerns arise. Prior exercise trials in people with dementia have not measured physical activity. Falls in relation to exposure time rather than person-years as outcome measure has been promoted but not investigated in people with dementia. METHODS: Patients with mild to moderate dementia (n=110) were randomized to an intensive, progressive strength and functional training intervention or to a low-intensity group training for 12 weeks each...
June 16, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617071/an-endothelial-link-between-the-benefits-of-physical-exercise-in-dementia
#3
Lianne J Trigiani, Edith Hamel
The current absence of a disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) highlights the necessity for investigating the benefits of non-pharmacological approaches such as physical exercise (PE). Although evidence exists to support an association between regular PE and higher scores on cognitive function tests, and a slower rate of cognitive decline, there is no clear consensus on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the advantages of PE. This review seeks to summarize the positive effects of PE in human and animal studies while highlighting the vascular link between these benefits...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598841/effects-of-exercise-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-related-cognitive-impairment-and%C3%A2-dementia
#4
Michele Callisaya, Kazunori Nosaka
Cognitive impairment and dementia are common contributors to institutionalization and loss of quality of life in older people. Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and physical inactivity are prevalent and important modifiable risk factors for developing dementia. Physical activity is recommended in the management of T2DM, and there is growing evidence that exercise, a subgroup of physical activity, is also beneficial for maintaining and improving brain structure and function. This paper reviews the evidence for a benefit of exercise on T2DM related cognitive impairment and dementia...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593121/adherence-support-strategies-for-exercise-interventions-in-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Veronika van der Wardt, Jennie Hancox, Dawid Gondek, Pip Logan, Roshan das Nair, Kristian Pollock, Rowan Harwood
Exercise-based therapy may improve health status for people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia but cannot work without adherence, which has proven difficult. This review aimed to evaluate strategies to support adherence among people with MCI or Dementia and was completed in Nottingham/UK in 2017. A narrative synthesis was used to investigate the effectiveness or usefulness of adherence support strategies. Fifteen adherence support strategies were used including theoretical underpinning (programmes based on behavior change theories), individual tailoring, worksheets and exercise booklets, goal setting, phone calls or reminders, newsletters, support to overcome exercise barriers, information, adaptation periods, individual supervision, support for clinicians, group setting, music, accelerometers/pedometers and emphasis on enjoyable activities...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588546/neuroprotective-effects-of-physical-activity-evidence-from-human-and-animal-studies
#6
REVIEW
Sergio Chieffi, Giovanni Messina, Ines Villano, Antonietta Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Monica Salerno, Alessio Sullo, Roberto Avola, Vincenzo Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Marcellino Monda
In the present article, we provide a review of current knowledge regarding the role played by physical activity (PA) in preventing age-related cognitive decline and reducing risk of dementia. The cognitive benefits of PA are highlighted by epidemiological, neuroimaging and behavioral studies. Epidemiological studies identified PA as an influential lifestyle factor in predicting rates of cognitive decline. Individuals physically active from midlife show a reduced later risk of cognitive impairment. Neuroimaging studies documented attenuation of age-related brain atrophy, and also increase of gray matter and white matter of brain areas, including frontal and temporal lobes...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579942/voluntary-exercise-promotes-glymphatic-clearance-of-amyloid-beta-and-reduces-the-activation-of-astrocytes-and-microglia-in-aged-mice
#7
Xiao-Fei He, Dong-Xu Liu, Qun Zhang, Feng-Ying Liang, Guang-Yan Dai, Jin-Sheng Zeng, Zhong Pei, Guang-Qing Xu, Yue Lan
Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the interstitial fluid (ISF). A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575566/-adaptation-to-intermittent-hypoxia-hyperoxia-improves-cognitive-performance-and-exercise-tolerance-in-elderly
#8
U Bayer, O S Glazachev, R Likar, M Burtscher, W Kofler, G Pinter, H Stettner, S Demschar, B Trummer, S Neuwersch
For improvements in exercise tolerance and cognitive function in geriatric patients Multimodal training programs (MTP) are used as combination of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and cardiovascular training. Intermittent Hypoxic-Hyperoxic Training (IHHT), a modified type of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) is proposed to be included in MTP to elicit more pronounced beneficial effects in exercise tolerance and cognitive functions of geriatric patients likely by an additional pathway than a single MTP. Thirty four patients of the Geriatric Day Clinic aged between 64 and 92 years participated in the placebo controlled clinical trial...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558714/feasibility-and-efficacy-of-a-multi-factorial-intervention-to-prevent-falls-in-older-adults-with-cognitive-impairment-living-in-residential-care-prof-cog-a-feasibility-and-pilot-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Julie Whitney, Stephen H D Jackson, Finbarr C Martin
BACKGROUND: Falls are common in people with dementia living in residential care. The ProF-Cog intervention was developed to address fall risk factors specific to this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, acceptability, and feasibility of the intervention and provide an estimate of its efficacy. METHODS: This was a cluster randomised controlled pilot study undertaken in care homes in London, UK. All permanent residents living in participating homes who were not terminally ill were invited to participate...
May 30, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542742/exercise-or-social-intervention-for-nursing-home-residents-with-dementia-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Philipe de Souto Barreto, Matteo Cesari, Philippe Denormandie, Didier Armaingaud, Bruno Vellas, Yves Rolland
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of exercise with those of a structured nonphysical intervention on ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and physical and cognitive function of persons with dementia (PWDs) living in nursing homes (NH). DESIGN: Cluster-randomized pilot-controlled trial. SETTING: Seven French NHs. PARTICIPANTS: PWDs living in NHs. MEASUREMENTS: NHs were randomized to an exercise group (4 NHs, n = 47) or structured social activity group (3 NHs, n = 50) for a 24-week intervention performed twice per week for 60 minutes per session...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535241/management-of-depression-in-older-adults-a-review
#11
Rob M Kok, Charles F Reynolds
Importance: Depression in older adults is a common psychiatric disorder affecting their health-related quality of life. Major depression occurs in 2% of adults aged 55 years or older, and its prevalence rises with increasing age. In addition, 10% to 15% of older adults have clinically significant depressive symptoms, even in the absence of major depression. Observations: Depression presents with the same symptoms in older adults as it does in younger populations...
May 23, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514669/the-relationship-between-cognition-and-depressive-symptoms-and-factors-modifying-this-association-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-multivariate-multilevel-model
#12
Bei Yang, Hongmei Yu, Min Xing, Runlian He, Ruifeng Liang, Liye Zhou
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether there was a bidirectional association between cognition and depressive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to explore the role of socio-demographic factors and daily performance in this association. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of 104 community-dwelling patients with confirmed AD from Taiyuan, China. We assessed cognition and depressive symptoms (dependent variables) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS-30), respectively...
May 10, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513238/exercise-and-dementia-in-nursing-homes-views-of-staff-and-family-carers
#13
Lindsey Brett, Victoria Traynor, Paul Stapley, Shahla Meedya
This paper reports the qualitative component of a randomized controlled trial which evaluated the impact and feasibility of a physical exercise intervention on individuals living with dementia in nursing homes. Interviews were conducted with 10 staff and nine family carers about their views and opinions of physical exercise (n=19). Thematic content analysis revealed both benefits and barriers to physical exercise for individuals living with dementia in nursing homes. Another theme was the influences of knowledge and understanding on individuals' views of physical exercise...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505971/lipid-peroxidation-markers-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-possible-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Ivonne Suridjan, Nathan Herrmann, Alex Adibfar, Mahwesh Saleem, Ana Andreazza, Paul I Oh, Krista L Lanctôt
This study examined associations between lipid peroxidation markers and cognition, and associations between these markers and cognitive response to an exercise intervention program, in adults with coronary artery disease at risk of dementia. Lipid peroxidation products were measured in serum in 118 patients (29 possible vascular mild cognitive impairment and 89 controls). Ratios of early- (lipid hydroperoxides, LPH) to late-stage (8-isoprostane, 8-ISO; 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 4-HNE) lipid peroxidation products were calculated...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492999/physical-activity-improves-cognition-possible-explanations
#15
REVIEW
Blanka Koščak Tivadar
Good cognitive abilities (CA) enable autonomy, improve social inclusion and act preventively. Regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and, at the same time, it reduces the decline of CA and stimulates neurogenesis. So PA in connection with cognitive training, nutrition and social interaction has a positive effect on general CA and the central nervous system, the central executor, memory and attention, and reduces the likelihood of developing dementia. Our objective was to examine which sort and intensity of PA is preferred...
May 10, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488889/experiencing-place-younger-people-with-dementia-facing-aged-care
#16
Sally Rimkeit, Jacqueline McIntosh
OBJECTIVES: There are currently few facilities for people with younger onset dementia and they are placed by default into dementia care facilities designed for the elderly. There is limited understanding of how people with younger onset dementia and their care givers anticipate or experience aged residential care. This qualitative study has used semi-structured interviews to give voice to the opinions and perspectives of nine people with younger onset dementia and 11 care givers. METHOD: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used for idiographic analysis, allowing examination of the lived experience of younger people with dementia and an iterative exploration of what their experiences mean...
May 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482008/the-microcirculation-a-key-player-in-obesity-associated-cardiovascular-disease
#17
Oana Sorop, T Dylan Olver, Jens van de Wouw, Ilkka Heinonen, Richard W van Duin, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
It is increasingly recognized that obesity is a risk factor for microvascular disease, i.e. results in structural and functional changes in the microvasculature. This review aims to describe how obesity impacts the microvasculature of visceral adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, brain, kidneys and lungs. These changes involve endothelial dysfunction, which in turn impacts control of vascular tone, contributes to development of microvascular insulin resistance, alters secretion of paracrine factors like nitric oxide and endothelin, but also influences vascular structure and perivascular inflammation...
May 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473006/aquatic-exercise-for-residential-aged-care-adults-with-dementia-benefits-and-barriers-to-participation
#18
Timothy Henwood, Christine Neville, Chantelle Baguley, Elizabeth Beattie
BACKGROUND: Pilot work by our group has demonstrated that aquatic exercise has valuable functional and psychosocial benefits for adults living in the residential aged care setting with dementia. The aim of the currents study was to advance this work by delivering the Watermemories Swimming Club aquatic exercise program to a more representative population of older, institutionalized adults with dementia. METHODS: The benefits of 12 weeks of twice weekly participation in the Watermemories Swimming Club aquatic exercise program were assessed among an exercise and usual care control group of residential aged care adults with advanced dementia...
May 5, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469588/exercise-dependent-bdnf-as-a-modulatory-factor-for-the-executive-processing-of-individuals-in-course-of-cognitive-decline-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Gilmara G de Assis, Katie Moraes de Almondes
Background: Aging naturally triggers a decline in cognition as result of deterioration in cerebral circuits, thus the executive functions (EFs) suffer changes that progress from mild to severe states of impairment. Exercise instead, works as a strategy for cognitive enhancement by modulating neuronal plasticity through the regulation of BDNF. However, whether the exercise-dependent BDNF may improve higher complexity processes such as the EFs is still in a studying process. Results: Current data on exercise-dependent BDNF changes for aging individuals in a course of cognitive impairment was summarized to investigate whether the exercise regulation of BDNF is effective to pronounce long term changes on executive controls...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466271/exercise-as-a-positive-modulator-of-brain-function
#20
REVIEW
Karim A Alkadhi
Various forms of exercise have been shown to prevent, restore, or ameliorate a variety of brain disorders including dementias, Parkinson's disease, chronic stress, thyroid disorders, and sleep deprivation, some of which are discussed here. In this review, the effects on brain function of various forms of exercise and exercise mimetics in humans and animal experiments are compared and discussed. Possible mechanisms of the beneficial effects of exercise including the role of neurotrophic factors and others are also discussed...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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