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R T van der Kaaij, J P van Kessel, J M van Dieren, P Snaebjornsson, O Balagué, F van Coevorden, L E van der Kolk, K Sikorska, A Cats, J W van Sandick
BACKGROUND: Patients with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and a CDH1 mutation have a 60-80 per cent lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer. Total prophylactic gastrectomy eliminates this risk, but is associated with considerable morbidity. The effectiveness (removal of all gastric mucosa) and outcomes of this procedure were evaluated retrospectively. METHODS: All consecutive individuals undergoing a prophylactic gastrectomy for a CDH1 mutation or gastric signet ring cell foci at the authors' institute between 2005 and 2017 were included...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
D Bolkenius, C Dumps, E Halbeck
In a series of articles dealing with hypnotics for induction of anesthesia, this article describes the development and current value of propofol. Its significance far exceeds that of a pure induction hypnotic (sedation in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and on the intensive care unit). Propofol is also used for sedation in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and on the intensive care unit. In the field of induction of anesthesia, the alternatives are barely used. Some contraindications are still controversial whereas others are no longer sufficiently anchored in the users' awareness (widespread off-label use)...
January 15, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Qian Xiang, Qing-Lin Chen, Dong Zhu, Xin-Li An, Xiao-Ru Yang, Jian-Qiang Su, Min Qiao, Yong-Guan Zhu
With the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization, the peri-urban areas are often the sites for waste dumps, which may exacerbate the occurrence and spread of antibiotic resistance from waste to soil bacteria. However, the profiles of antibiotic resistomes and the associated factors influencing their dissemination in peri-urban areas have not been fully explored. Here, we characterized the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in peri-urban arable and pristine soils in four seasons at the watershed scale, by using high-throughput qPCR...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Alfredo Mazza, Prisco Piscitelli, Andrea Falco, Maria Lucia Santoro, Manuela Colangelo, Giovanni Imbriani, Adele Idolo, Antonella De Donno, Leopoldo Iannuzzi, Annamaria Colao
The area of Naples and Campania region, in Italy, are experiencing the dramatic consequences of diffuse and illegal waste dumping, resulting in possible threats to human health. This area has been referred to as the "Land of Fires" because of the common practice of waste burning. International interest in the Campania "waste emergency" has triggered several epidemiological studies. This article is aimed at highlighting the body of evidence available concerning human and environmental contamination in the Campania region, and considers the possible lack of comparable knowledge about the situation in other areas suffering from high environmental pollution...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Courtney Carlson, Nitin K Singh, Mohit Bibra, Rajesh K Sani, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
We have characterized a broad collection of extremophilic bacterial isolates from a deep subsurface mine, compost dumping sites, and several hot spring ecosystems. Spore-forming strains isolated from these environments comprised both obligate thermophiles/thermotolerant species (growing at > 55 °C; 240 strains) and mesophiles (growing at 15 to 40 °C; 12 strains). An overwhelming abundance of Geobacillus (81.3%) and Bacillus (18.3%) species was observed among the tested isolates. 16S rRNA sequence analysis documented the presence of 24 species among these isolates, but the 16S rRNA gene was shown to possess insufficient resolution to reliably discern Geobacillus phylogeny...
January 5, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Katarzyna Turzańska-Pietras, Justyna Chachulska, Ludmiła Polechońska, Marta Borowiec
Anthropogenic pollution results in high concentrations of heavy metals in the environment. Due to their persistence and a high potential for bioaccumulation, metals are a real threat for birds breeding in industrial areas. The aim of the present study has been to explore the contents of heavy metals (arsenic As, cadmium Cd, chromium Cr, copper Cu, iron Fe, nickel Ni, lead Pb and zinc Zn) in the excreta of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings living in polluted environment and to investigate the relationship between these contents and the nestlings' condition...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yahya Jani, William Hogland
Old glassworks sites have been always associated with contamination by different trace elements like Pb, Cd, As, Zn and others. The mixture of soil and waste glass of particle sizes <2 mm at one of the oldest Swedish glassworks (the Pukeberg) was studied by analyzing the trace elements content, organic content (3.6%) and pH (7.4). The results showed hazardous concentrations of Pb (1525 mg/kg), Ba (1312 mg/kg), Sb (128 mg/kg), Cd (36 mg/kg), As (118 mg/kg), Zn (1154 mg/kg) and Co (263 mg/kg) exceeded the Swedish guidelines of contaminated soil...
December 26, 2017: Chemosphere
Bayandy Dikhanbaev, Chandima Gomes, Aristan Bayandievich Dikhanbaev
Dumps of a mining-metallurgical complex of post-Soviet Republics have accumulated a huge amount of technogenic waste products. Out of them, Kazakhstan alone has preserved about 20 billion tons. In the field of technogenic waste treatment, there is still no technical solution that leads it to be a profitable process. Recent global trends prompted scientists to focus on developing energy-saving and a highly efficient melting unit that can significantly reduce specific fuel consumption. This paper reports, the development of a new technological method-smelt layer of inversion phase...
2017: PloS One
Trang Thuy Soriano, Guy Eslick, Thiru Vanniasinkam
Long term health related quality of life (HRQL) and nutritional outcome of patients following esophagectomy for cancer has become increasingly significant as the 5-year survival rate in this patient group is increasing. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the HRQOL, nutritional impact symptoms and nutritional outcomes of patients following an esophagectomy at greater than 12 months after surgery. In studies reporting on HRQL as an outcome, global QOL score at 6-month compare to greater than 12-month showed no statistically significant difference (65...
December 27, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
Rishi Rana, Rajiv Ganguly, Ashok Kumar Gupta
Dumping of solid waste in a non-engineered landfill site often leads to contamination of ground water due to leachate percolation into ground water. The present paper assesses the pollution potential of leachate generated from three non-engineered landfill sites located in the Tricity region (one each in cities of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula) of Northern India and its possible effects of contamination of groundwater. Analysis of physico-chemical properties of leachate from all the three landfill sites and the surrounding groundwater samples from five different downwind distances from each of the landfill sites were collected and tested to determine the leachate pollution index (LPI) and the water quality index (WQI)...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xiuwei Wang, Zhen Guan, Yanting Dong, Zhiqiang Zhu, Jianhua Wang, Bo Niu
Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is a key enzyme in the de novo synthesis of 2'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP) from 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP). Our aim was to investigate the role of dTMP dysmetabolism via inhibition of TYMS by an inhibitor, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs). We found that a high incidence of NTDs occurred after treatment with 5-FU at 12.5 mg/kg body weight. TYMS activity was significantly inhibited with decreased dTMP and accumulation of dUMP after 5-FU injection...
December 16, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Aditya Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Nancy George, Prince Sharma, Naveen Gupta
Disposal of chitinaceous waste is a major problem of seafood industry. Most of the known chitinolytic organisms have been studied with respect to pure chitin as substrate. Use of these organisms for degradation of seafood waste has not been explored much. In present study a marine bacterium capable of proficiently degrading shrimp waste with co-production of value added products like chitinase and chitin oligosaccharides was isolated from seafood waste dumping sites. On 16s rRNA and biochemical analysis bacterium was found to be a novel species of genus Paenibacillus...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
L Y Zhang, H T Jing, J Y Tang, Q Li, X C Ruan, J Ren, C J Ning, Y J Yu, Z X Tan, P C Wang, Y C He, X Q Wang
A white neutron beam line using back-streaming neutrons from the spallation target is under construction at China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). Different spectrometers, to be installed in the so-called Back-n beam line for nuclear data measurements, are also being developed in phases. The physical design of the beam line is carried out with the help of a complicated collimation system and a sophisticated neutron dump, taking the overview of the neutron beam characteristics into account. This includes energy spectrum, flux and time structure, the optimizations of neutron beam spots and in-hall background...
November 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Subhendu Mazumdar, Dipankar Ghose, Goutam Kumar Saha
Although Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) serve as major scavenging raptor in most of the urban areas, scientific studies on this important ecosystem service provider are almost non-existent in Indian context. The present study was carried out in a metropolis in eastern India to find out the factors influencing relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites. Separate generalized linear models (GLMs) were performed considering encounter rate and roosting Black Kite abundance as response variables...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Alessia Lazzari, Peter Kleinebudde, Klaus Knop
The vulnerability of controlled release formulations when co-ingested with alcohol represents a current major concern of regulatory agencies. Dose dumping might occur when drugs and/or excipients exhibit higher solubility in ethanolic solutions compared to water. In this study, xanthan gum was chosen as rate-controlling polymer for the development of alcohol resistant matrix formulations and theophylline as model drug. Two polymer particle sizes (75 and 180 µm) and concentrations (30 and 60% w/w) were used to assess their influence on the in-vitro drug release from directly compressed tablets and mini-tablets, in 0% and 40% ethanol for 2 hours (pH 1...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Paromita Chakraborty, Sakthivel Selvaraj, Masafumi Nakamura, Balasubramanian Prithiviraj, Alessandra Cincinelli, John J Bang
Growth of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sector is an emerging problem for India. The presence of halogenated compounds in e-wastes may result in the formation of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during recycling processes. We therefore investigated PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface soils explicitly from the informal e-waste recycling sites and nearby open dumpsites of major metropolitan cities from four corners of India, viz...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Andrey V Mardanov, Alexey V Beletsky, Denis A Ivasenko, Olga V Karnachuk, Nikolai V Ravin
The metagenome of a microbial community of the sediments from a highly acidic iron-rich puddle at the tailings dump of the Komsomolskaya gold mine in the Kuzbass area, Siberia, Russia, was sequenced. Binning of contigs yielded a near-complete genome of the dominant bacterium, representing a novel deep lineage of Deltaproteobacteria.
December 7, 2017: Genome Announcements
Henrik Tünnermann, Akira Shirakawa
Ultrafast fiber amplifiers are usually limited in terms of pulse energy and peak power due to fiber damage and nonlinearities. On the other hand, fiber amplifiers are very energy efficient. To take advantage of this efficiency, but still scale the pulse energy, coherent combining and pulse stacking have become the method of choice. Here we show how to directly and symmetrically stack up the pulses from an oscillator chain, using delay lines and phase preshaping of a 48 MHz, 1.5 μm master oscillator. This method avoids the need for high-power low-loss dumpers as in passive stack and dump cavities and, compared to divided pulse amplification (DPA), it eliminates the need for splitting pulses and pulse picking and, thus, optimally utilizes the available seed power...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Kotomi Kurihara, Anna Tamai, Yoko Yoshida, Yosuke Yakushiji, Hiroki Ueno, Mariko Fukumoto, Masayuki Hosoi
An 83-year-old man developed hypoglycemia after undergoing total gastrectomy for gastric cancer in 200X-4. The patient was admitted to our hospital in May 200X and placed on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Glycemic excursions were examined while on 3-meal/day (1700kcal) and 6-meal/day (1800kcal) diets. Oxyhyperglycemia followed about 2h later by a sudden drop in glucose levels was seen with both regimens. These findings were consistent with late dumping syndrome. CGM was continued, oral miglitol at 150mg/day or sitagliptin at 50mg/day was started, and glycemic excursions were compared...
November 29, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Zhiyong Han, Yong Liu, Min Zhong, Guozhong Shi, Qibin Li, Dan Zeng, Yu Zhang, Yongqiang Fei, Yanhua Xie
Waste management in rural areas has become a major challenge for governments of developing countries. The success of waste management decisions directly lies in the accuracy and reliability of the data on which choices are based; many factors influence these data. Here, we examined the factors influencing domestic waste in rural areas of developing countries (RADIC), using both field surveys and by reviewing previous literature. The social factors included population, education and culture. There was a positive linear relationship between waste generation amount and population size (R2 = 0...
November 29, 2017: Waste Management
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