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P Zoriy, M Schläger, K Murtazaev, J Pillath, M Zoriy, B Heuel-Fabianek
The water contamination near ecologically problematic objects was investigated between 2009 and 2014 in North-West Tajikistan as a part of a joint project between Forschungszentrum Jülich and Khujand State University. The main part of this work was the determination of uranium in water samples collected near the Degmay tailings dump, the Taboshar pit lake and the Syr Darya river. More than 130 water samples were collected and analyzed to monitor the uranium concentration near the investigated areas. Two different mass spectrometers and an ion chromatograph were used for element concentration measurements...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Tanaya Sarmah, Sutapa Das
Guwahati, the capital city of Assam and the gateway to the seven north-eastern Indian states, is located in the Brahmaputra valley-one of the most flood prone regions of the world. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1688 mm and is highly vulnerable towards frequent urban floods because of uncontrolled dumping of solid waste and siltation have choked the natural water channels. This coupled with the absence of an integrated drainage network and rapid urbanisation causes floods in many parts of the city, after a quick downpour...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Bradley A Gross, Ashutosh P Jadhav, Tudor G Jovin, Brian Thomas Jankowitz
INTRODUCTION: Syringe aspiration for manual aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) is a cost- and time-efficient alternative to an aspiration pump with likely similar efficacy. It is counterintuitive to expect the pump to perform better than direct vacuum with a syringe, as the pump must deliver vacuum additionally through a canister and meters of tubing. OBJECTIVE: To present in vitro and clinical results of MAT with a syringe. METHODS: An in vitro analysis was performed comparing vacuum pressures generated by syringe aspiration and with pump aspiration...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Mauro Esposito, Antonella De Roma, Stefania Cavallo, Gianfranco Diletti, Loredana Baldi, Giampiero Scortichini
The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known "Land of Fires" area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011-2.26 ng g(-1) for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0...
November 10, 2017: Toxics
Michał Czub, Lech Kotwicki, Thomas Lang, Hans Sanderson, Zygmunt Klusek, Miłosz Grabowski, Marta Szubska, Jaromir Jakacki, Jan Andrzejewski, Daniel Rak, Jacek Bełdowski
The Baltic Sea is a severely disturbed marine ecosystem that has previously been used as a dumping ground for Chemical Warfare Agents (CW). The presence of unexploded underwater ordnance is an additional risk factor for offshore activities and an environmental risk for the natural resources of the sea. In this paper, the focus is on descriptions of the marine habitat based on the observations arising from studies linked to the CHEMSEA, MODUM and DAIMON projects. Investigated areas of Bornholm, Gotland and Gdańsk Deeps are similarly affected by the Baltic Sea eutrophication, however, at depths greater than 70m several differences in local hydrological regimes and pore-water heavy metal concentrations between those basins were observed...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Obidjon Kodirov, Michael Kersten, Nosir Shukurov, Francisco José Martín Peinado
The assessment of potential trace metal(loid) contamination in tailing dumps and soils was characterized in the Chadak mining area (Uzbekistan). Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Pb) were determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis and compared with background and intervention values (IV). The concentrations of As, Zn, Sb, and Pb were higher in the abandoned than in the active tailing dump, ranging from 42-1689mg/kg for As, 73-332mg/kg for Zn, 14-1507mg/kg for Sb, and 27-386mg/kg for Pb...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Chris Hartmann
The modernization (i.e. mechanization, formalization, and capital intensification) and enclosure of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems threaten waste picker livelihoods. From 2009 to 2013, a major development project, embodying traditional neoliberal policies with inclusive social policies, transformed the Managua, Nicaragua, municipal solid waste site from an open-air dump where as many as 2,000 informal waste pickers toiled to a sanitary landfill. To investigate waste pickers' social and economic condition, including labor characteristics, household income, and poverty incidence, after the project's completion, 146 semi-structured survey questionnaires were administered to four communities adjacent to the landfill and 45 semi-structured interviews were completed with key stakeholders...
October 26, 2017: Waste Management
A I Malov
The specific objectives of the study are to clarify the sources and characteristics of groundwater in the aquifers along the coast of the White Sea in northwestern Russia, and on this basis to perform a broad (14)C and (234)U/(238)U dating of all their types, taking into account the mixing processes. Investigation of an evolution of the groundwater chemistry revealed that the main evolutionary trends are the following: (1) Mixing Late Pleistocene brackish water end member (brackish1) and Mikulino seawater end member with strongly brackish and salty water in the Vpd aquifer (salty Vpd) formation...
October 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ramkrishna Nirola, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Avudainayagam Subramanian, Palanisami Thavamani, Kavitha Ramadass, Rupak Aryal, Christopher Saint
Chromium from tannery waste dump site causes significant environmental pollution affecting surrounding flora and fauna. The primary aims of this study were to survey vegetation, investigate the degree of soil pollution occurring near tannery waste dump site and make a systematic evaluation of soil contamination based on the chromium levels found in plants and earthworms from the impacted areas. This paper presents the pollution load of toxic heavy metals, and especially chromium, in 10 soil samples and 12 species of plants...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wentao Wu, Xudong Li, Renpeng Yan, Yiping Zhou, Yufei Ma, Rongwei Fan, Zhiwei Dong, Deying Chen
We demonstrated a cavity-dumped burst-mode 1.06 μm side-pumped Nd:YAG laser and its dual-stage dual-pass amplified laser performance. The cavity dumping process has been theoretically studied and the output performance has been experimentally investigated. At the pumping duration of 2 ms and pumping frequency of 10 Hz, burst energy, peak power and pulse width of the amplified laser reached 1.89 J, 2.87 MW and 3.1 ± 0.3 ns, respectively, at the Q-switch repetition rate of 100 kHz. The maximum energy extraction efficiency reaches to 30%...
October 30, 2017: Optics Express
José Ignacio Barquero, Sofía Rojas, José María Esbrí, Eva M García-Noguero, Pablo Higueras
The use of trees for biomonitoring of mercury (Hg) and other atmospheric pollutants is of increasing importance today. Leaves from different species have been the most widely used plant organ for this purpose, but only pine bark, and not leaves, was used to monitor Hg pollution. In Almadén (South Central Spain), the largest cinnabar (HgS) deposits in the world have been mined for over 2000 years to obtain metallic Hg and this activity has caused the widespread dispersion of this toxic element in the local environment...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Matheus Sanitá Lima, David Roy Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: EMBO Reports
Chih-Feng Chen, Chiu-Wen Chen, Yun-Ru Ju, Chih-Ming Kao, Cheng-Di Dong
Kaohsiung Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (KODMDS) that located in the southwest offshore of Taiwan, has been annually disposed about 500,000 ton dredged sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor from 2003 to 2012. Five sediment cores collected from KODMDS and three from nearby reference sites were analyzed to evaluate their sedimentation rates, vertical profiles of heavy metal, and heavy metal pollution indices to assess the impact of dumping harbor dredged sediments into the ocean on the sediment quality in KODMDS...
October 17, 2017: Chemosphere
Ettore Trulli, Navarro Ferronato, Vincenzo Torretta, Massimiliano Piscitelli, Salvatore Masi, Ignazio Mancini
Landfill is still the main technological facility used to treat and dispose municipal solid waste (MSW) worldwide. In developing countries, final dumping is applied without environmental monitoring and soil protection since solid waste is mostly sent to open dump sites while, in Europe, landfilling is considered as the last option since reverse logistic approaches or energy recovery are generally encouraged. However, many regions within the European Union continue to dispose of MSW to landfill, since modern facilities have not been introduced owing to unreliable regulations or financial sustainability...
October 21, 2017: Waste Management
Pooja Yadav, Sukha Ranjan Samadder
The goal of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) tool to assess possible environmental impacts of different municipal solid waste management (MSWM) scenarios on various impact categories for the study area Dhanbad City, India. The scenarios included in the present study are collection and transportation (denoted as S1); baseline scenario consisting of recycling, open burning, open dumping, and finally unsanitary landfilling without energy recovery (denoted by S2); composting and landfilling (denoted by S3); and recycling and composting followed by landfilling of inert waste without energy recovery (denoted by S4)...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M Villa-Alfageme, E Chamizo, F J Santos-Arévalo, J M López-Gutierrez, I Gómez-Martínez, S Hurtado-Bermúdez
There are very few data available of (236)U in marine sediment cores. In this study we present the results from the first oceanic depth profile of (236)U in a sediment core sampled in the North Atlantic Ocean, at the PAP site (4500 m depth, Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) site, 49°0' N, 16°30' W). Additionally, the sediment core was radiologically characterized through the measurement of anthropogenic (137)Cs, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (129)I and (14)C and natural (210)Pb, (40)K and (226)Ra. The measured (236)U concentrations decrease from about 90·10(6) at g(-1) at the seafloor down to 0...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
E I Nep, M H Mahdi, A O Adebisi, N C Ngwuluka, B R Conway, A M Smith, K Asare-Addo
Concomitant ingestion of alcohol and medications can greatly affect drug plasma concentrations as dose dumping or failure may occur as a result of the fact that formulation excipients may not always be resistant to alcohol. In this study, a natural polysaccharide (Sesamum radiatum gum) (SG) was extracted, characterized and used to formulate sustained release theophylline compacts to study the effect of varying alcohol concentrations (v/v) in dissolution media on drug release from these compacts. X-ray powder diffraction showed that the extracted gum was amorphous in nature with the powder having excellent compaction properties as observed with its compact being significantly harder than those prepared with pure hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M...
October 23, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Fred Bernard, Jean-Antoine Lepesant, Antoine Guichet
Both types of Drosophila egg chamber germ cells, i.e. oocyte and nurse cells, have to control their nucleus positions in order to produce a viable gamete. Interestingly, while actin microfilaments are crucial to position the nuclei in nurse cells, these are the microtubules that are important for oocyte nucleus to migrate and adopt the correct position. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying these positioning processes in the two cell types with respect to the organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule skeleton...
October 19, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Yann Méar, Emmanuel Poizot, Anne Murat, Khadija Beryouni, Noémie Baux, Jean-Claude Dauvin
Dredged sediments have different physical and chemical characteristics compared with the sediments in place, which generates multiple effects on the environment. In this study, we show that the sampling strategy used to monitor the effects of dredge spoil deposition on the surrounding environment can lead to different interpretations. It appears that sediment sample replicates may or may not be necessary, depending on the studied area, the prevailing environmental forcings before sediment sampling and the combination of these two factors...
October 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Mayuko Nakamaru, Hayato Shimura, Yoko Kitakaji, Susumu Ohnuma
The evolution of cooperation is an unsolved research topic and has been investigated from the viewpoint of not only biology and other natural sciences but also social sciences. Much extant research has focused on the evolution of cooperation among peers. While, different players belonging to different organizations play different social roles, and players playing different social roles cooperate together to achieve their goals. We focus on the evolution of cooperation in linear division of labor that is defined as follows: a player in the i-th role interacts with a player in the i + 1-th role, and a player in the n-th role achieves their goal (1 ≤ i < n) if there are n roles in the division of labor...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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