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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531917/assessing-phytotoxicity-of-trace-element-contaminated-soils-phytomanaged-with-gentle-remediation-options-at-ten-european-field-trials
#1
Celestino Quintela-Sabarís, Lilian Marchand, Petra S Kidd, Wolfgang Friesl-Hanl, Markus Puschenreiter, Jurate Kumpiene, Ingo Müller, Silke Neu, Jolien Janssen, Jaco Vangronsveld, Ioannis Dimitriou, Grzegorz Siebielec, Rafał Gałązka, Valérie Bert, Rolf Herzig, Andrew B Cundy, Nadège Oustrière, Aliaksandr Kolbas, William Galland, Michel Mench
Gentle remediation options (GRO), i.e. in situ stabilisation, (aided) phytoextraction and (aided) phytostabilisation, were implemented at ten European sites contaminated with trace elements (TE) from various anthropogenic sources: mining, atmospheric fallout, landfill leachates, wood preservatives, dredged-sediments, and dumped wastes. To assess the performance of the GRO options, topsoil was collected from each field trial, potted, and cultivated with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for 48days. Shoot dry weight (DW) yield, photosynthesis efficiency and major element and TE concentrations in the soil pore water and lettuce shoots were measured...
May 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530587/trace-elements-in-raw-milk-of-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-from-campania-italy
#2
Mauro Esposito, Oto Miedico, Stefania Cavallo, Roberta Pellicanò, Guido Rosato, Loredana Baldi, A Eugenio Chiaravalle
The profile of 18 trace elements was traced in 68 milk samples collected from buffalo farms in the territory known as the "Land of Fires" in the Campania region (Italy). This area has been polluted by the illegal dumping in fields of industrial or domestic waste, wich is sometimes then burned spreading toxic contaminants. Milk from buffaloes raised on rural farms might be a good indicator of environmental contamination risk in the human food chain. Trace element analysis in milk was performed using mass spectrometry...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521776/solid-medical-waste-a-cross-sectional-study-of-household-disposal-practices-and-reported-harm-in-southern-ghana
#3
Emilia Asuquo Udofia, Gabriel Gulis, Julius Fobil
BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported...
May 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516245/municipal-solid-waste-derived-biochar-for-the-removal-of-benzene-from-landfill-leachate
#4
Yohan Jayawardhana, S S Mayakaduwa, Prasanna Kumarathilaka, Sewwandi Gamage, Meththika Vithanage
The potential of biochar, produced from fibrous organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW), for remediation of benzene, one of the frequently found toxic volatile organic compounds in landfill leachate, was investigated in this study based on various environmental conditions such as varying pH, benzene concentration, temperature and time. At the same time, landfill leachate quality parameters were assessed at two different dump sites in Sri Lanka: Gohagoda and Kurunegala. MSW biochar (MSW-BC) was produced by slow temperature pyrolysis at 450 °C, and the physiochemical characteristics of the MSW-BC were characterized...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506258/health-care-waste-management-in-community-based-care-experiences-of-community-health-workers-in-low-resource-communities-in-south-africa
#5
Lydia Hangulu, Olagoke Akintola
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, community health workers (CHWs) working in community-based care (CBC) programmes provide care to patients most of whom are living with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). Although studies have shown that the caregiving activities provided by the CHWs generate health care waste (HCW), there is limited information about the experiences of CHWs on health care waste management (HCWM) in CBC. This study explored HCWM in CBC in Durban, South Africa from the perspectives CHWs...
May 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497296/preferential-flow-characteristics-of-reclaimed-mine-soils-in-a-surface-coal-mine-dump
#6
Lv Gang, Li Jun, Li Yexin, Wang Ting, Liu Yazhuo, Fu Xinyang
There are a large number of macropores/tubular channels of a few centimeters and plant roots in reclaimed dump soils, which are the main reasons for the formation of soil macropores and soil preferential flow. To systematically study the morphological characteristics and variation of soil preferential flow for different reclaimed vegetations in a dump, a dye-staining experiment and physical and chemical analysis were carried out to investigate the formation mechanism and influencing factors of soil preferential flow in the vegetation restoration process...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494628/probabilistic-risk-assessment-of-emerging-materials-case-study-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles
#7
Michael P Tsang, Danail Hristozov, Alex Zabeo, Antti Joonas Koivisto, Alexander Christian Østerskov Jensen, Keld Alstrup Jensen, Chengfang Pang, Antonio Marcomini, Guido Sonnemann
The development and use of emerging technologies such as nanomaterials can provide both benefits and risks to society. Emerging materials may promise to bring many technological advantages but may not be well-characterized in terms of their production volumes, magnitude of emissions, behavior in the environment and effects on living organisms. This uncertainty can present challenges to scientists developing these materials and persons responsible for defining and measuring their adverse impacts. Human health risk assessment is a method of identifying the intrinsic hazard of and quantifying the dose-response relationship and exposure to a chemical, to finally determine the estimation of risk...
May 12, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492512/aldosterone-and-mineralocorticoid-receptors-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#8
John W Funder
Aldosterone is a uniquely terrestrial hormone, first appearing in lungfish, which have both gills and lungs. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), on the other hand, evolved much earlier, and are found in cartilaginous and bony fish, presumptive ligand cortisol. MRs have equivalent high affinity for aldosterone, progesterone, and cortisol; in epithelia, despite much higher cortisol circulating levels, aldosterone selectively activates MRs by co-expression of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Type 11...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491101/geospatial-assessment-of-cholera-in-a-rapidly-urbanizing-environment
#9
Olajumoke Esther Olanrewaju, Kayode Adewale Adepoju
This study mapped out and investigated the spatial relationship between cholera incidences and environmental risk factors in the study area. The study area was stratified into eight zones. Water samples from each zone were collected and analyzed to determine the colony forming units. GIS layers including housing density, digitized roads, rivers, buildings, and cholera incidence data from hospital archives were also collected and analyzed using ArcGIS 10.1. It was observed that there was an association between the ERFs (p < 0...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489160/nutritional-aspects-and-the-use-of-nutritional-supplements-by-women-who-underwent-gastric-bypass
#10
Elisangela Mara Trindade, Telma Souza E Silva Gebara, Maria Paula Carlini Cambi, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso Baretta
Background: Bariatric surgery is deemed one of the most effective procedures for the treatment of obesity and it aims at the reduction and maintenance of weight loss in long term, as the control of the related comorbidities. Aim: Quantify the occurrence of alterations of the gastrointestinal tract, suggestive signs of nutritional deficiencies and the use of supplements in a group of women undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods: The sample consisted of women aged 20-65 years submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with monitoring equal to or higher than 24 months...
January 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485472/relevance-of-the-main-postharvest-handling-operations-on-the-development-of-brown-rot-disease-on-stone-fruits
#11
M Bernat, J Segarra, C Casals, N Teixidó, R Torres, J Usall
BACKGROUND: Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is one of the most important postharvest diseases of stone fruit. The aim of this study was evaluate the relevance of the main postharvest operations of fruit; hydrocooling, cold room, water dump, sorting and cooling tunnel in the development of M. laxa on peaches and nectarines artificially infected 48, 24 or 2 hours before postharvest operations. RESULTS: Commercial hydrocooling operation reduced incidence to 10 % in 'Pp 100' nectarine inoculated 2 and 24 hours before this operation however in 'Fantasia' nectarine incidence was not reduced, although lesion diameter was decreased in all studied varieties...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473681/pregnancy-and-dumping-syndrome-post-bariatric-surgery-a-case-report
#12
D E Edawati, J Abigail, K Mardiana, C Ming-Cheng, N S Harris
This case report discusses dumping syndrome in the postbariatric mother. Diagnostically a challenge, the symptoms of postprandial hypoglycaemia mimic common early gestation complaints and may go undiagnosed, thus requiring a high index of suspicion. As weight-loss surgery gains traction, it is pertinent to note at booking and followups. The pregnancy is at-risk and multidisciplinary team management is central. The mainstay of management remains diet modification. There have been case reports of successful medical treatment of dumping syndrome in pregnancy with good maternal and fetal outcomes...
April 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451743/environmental-metabarcoding-reveals-contrasting-belowground-and-aboveground-fungal-communities-from-poplar-at-a-hg-phytomanagement-site
#13
Alexis Durand, François Maillard, Julie Foulon, Hyun S Gweon, Benoit Valot, Michel Chalot
Characterization of microbial communities in stressful conditions at a field level is rather scarce, especially when considering fungal communities from aboveground habitats. We aimed at characterizing fungal communities from different poplar habitats at a Hg-contaminated phytomanagement site by using Illumina-based sequencing, network analysis approach, and direct isolation of Hg-resistant fungal strains. The highest diversity estimated by the Shannon index was found for soil communities, which was negatively affected by soil Hg concentration...
April 27, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439748/duodenal-switch-is-superior-to-gastric-bypass-in-patients-with-super-obesity-when-evaluated-with-the-bariatric-analysis-and-reporting-outcome-system-baros
#14
Martin L Skogar, Magnus Sundbom
BACKGROUND: It is not clear which bariatric procedure that gives the best outcome for patients with super obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 50 kg/m(2)). This study aims to compare outcomes in patients with super obesity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and duodenal switch (BPD/DS) using the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) and a local questionnaire for gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: A retrospective mail survey including 211 patients, 98 RYGB and 113 BPD/DS, with a mean follow-up time of 4 years for both groups...
April 24, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433765/geochemical-processes-controlling-the-distribution-and-concentration-of-metals-in-soils-from-a-patagonian-argentina-salt-marsh-affected-by-mining-residues
#15
Yanina L Idaszkin, María Del Pilar Alvarez, Eleonora Carol
Heavy metal pollution that affects salt marshes is a major environmental concern due to its toxic nature, persistence, and potential risk to organisms and to human health. Mining waste deposits originated four decades ago, by the metallurgical extraction of heavy metals, are found near to the San Antonio salt marsh in Patagonia. The aim of the work was to determine the geochemical processes that control the distribution and concentration of Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in the soils of this Patagonian salt marsh. A survey of the mining waste deposits was carried out where three dumps were identified...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433465/dumping-symptoms-is-triggered-by-fat-as-well-as-carbohydrates-in-patients-operated-with-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#16
Anna Laurenius, Malin Werling, Carel W le Roux, Lars Fändriks, Torsten Olbers
BACKGROUND: Dumping syndrome after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is traditionally associated with the consumption of refined carbohydrates, but the role of dietary fat is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study compares symptoms after consumption of a carbohydrate-rich or fat-rich beverage to determine perceived symptoms, glycemic control, and pulse rate. SETTING: University hospital. METHODS: We assessed perceived symptoms (Sigstad's Dumping Index) and glycemic control (P-glucose and S-insulin) as well as autonomic nervous system activity (reflected by arterial pulse rate) after a standardized liquid meal test (440 kcal/300 mL carbohydrates [CARB] or fat [FAT]) in a randomized crossover blinded setting...
March 1, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424046/perspectives-of-policy-makers-and-stakeholders-about-health-care-waste-management-in-community-based-care-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-study
#17
Lydia Hangulu, Olagoke Akintola
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, a new primary health care (PHC) re-engineering initiative aims to scale up the provision of community-based care (CBC). A central element in this initiative is the use of outreach teams comprising nurses and community health workers to provide care to the largely poor and marginalised communities across the country. The provision of care will inevitably lead to an increase in the amount of health care waste (HCW) generated in homes and suggests the need to pay more attention to the HCW that emanates from homes where there is care of a patient...
April 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423033/can-soda-ash-dumping-grounds-provide-replacement-habitats-for-digger-wasps-hymenoptera-apoidea-spheciformes
#18
Lucyna Twerd, Maciej Krzyżyński, Barbara Waldon-Rudzionek, Piotr Olszewski
BACKGROUND: Published sources document a loss of biodiversity at an extreme rate, mainly because natural and semi-natural ecosystems are becoming fragmented and isolated, thus losing their biological functions. These changes significantly influence biological diversity, which is a complex phenomenon that changes over time. Contemporary ecologists must therefore draw attention to anthropogenic replacement habitats and increase their conservation status. In our studies we show the positive role of soda ash dumping grounds as an alternative habitat for digger wasps, especially the thermophilic species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414357/infrared-brewster-angle-polarizing-beam-splitter-using-a-high-index-prism-with-a-small-wedge-angle
#19
R M A Azzam
Specular reflection at the Brewster angle by a planar surface of a high-refractive-index transparent substrate is an effective means of generating linearly polarized light in the infrared. However, in such a reflection linear polarizer, the refracted light beam is usually dumped. In this paper we describe a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) that uses a high-index prism with a small wedge angle to generate two orthogonally p and s linearly polarized beams that travel in orthogonal directions. A single-layer antireflection coating (ARC) at the exit face of the prism can be embedded with aligned Ag nano needles to suppress the transmission of the small, residual, s-polarized refracted component...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412097/optimization-and-characterization-of-hydrochar-produced-from-microwave-hydrothermal-carbonization-of-fish-waste
#20
Shrikalaa Kannan, Yvan Gariepy, G S Vijaya Raghavan
Fish processing results in large amounts of solid and liquid wastes that are unsustainably dumped into oceans and landfills. Alternative sustainable technologies that completely utilize seafood wastes are needed. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) that converts moisture-rich biomass into hydrochar is mostly employed for pure lignocellulosic biowaste. However, the suitability of HTC for pure non-lignocellulosic waste is unknown. Here, for the first time, a response surface design guided optimization of microwave hydrothermal carbonization (MHTC) process parameters, holding temperature (150-210°C) and time (90-120min), showed that a temperature of approximately 200°C and a time of approximately 119min yielded maximal hydrochar (∼34%)...
April 12, 2017: Waste Management
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