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M C Ferrante, G Fusco, A Monnolo, F Saggiomo, J Guccione, R Mercogliano, M T Clausi
AIM: The study aims at investigating whether, and if so, to what extent the strong presence of urban and industrial waste in a territory may cause PCB contamination in goat milk produced therein. METHODS: We compared PCB concentrations in goat milk from three different locations in the Campania region (Italy). One of the three locations, together with its surrounding area, has long suffered from illegal waste disposal and burning mainly by the so-called Ecomafia...
July 28, 2017: Chemosphere
Karim Awad, Bruce Jaffray
AIM: To describe the outcomes of oesophageal replacement using stomach in children. METHODS: All children undergoing oesophageal replacement in a regional centre were prospectively recorded in a customised database and subjected to continual follow up. Complications within 30 days were classified as early, and all other complications were classified as late. Outcomes were related to a comprehensive analysis of published experience where studies were classified as having long-term follow up if the median duration exceeded 5 years...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Yoshihiro Asano
Airborne radioactivity induced by high-energy electrons from 6 to 10 GeV is estimated by using analytical methods and the Monte Carlo codes PHITS and FLUKA. Measurements using a gas monitor with a NaI(Tl) scintillator are carried out in air from a dump room at SACLA, an x-ray free-electron laser facility with 7.8-GeV electrons and are compared to the simulations.
August 7, 2017: Health Physics
Charles Bou-Nader, Cornu David, Vincent Guerineau, Marc Fontecave, Djemel Hamdane
To facilitate production of functional enzymes and to study their mechanisms, especially in the complex cases of coenzyme-dependent systems, activation of an inactive apoenzyme preparation with a catalytically competent coenzyme intermediate is an attractive strategy. This is illustrated with the simple chemical synthesis of a flavin-methylene iminium compound previously proposed as a key intermediate in the catalytic cycle of several important flavoenzymes involved in nucleic acids metabolism. Reconstitution of both flavin-dependent RNA methyltransferase and thymidylate synthase apoproteins with this synthetic compound led to active enzymes for the C5-uracil methylation within their respective transfer RNA and dUMP substrate...
August 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Paul E Converse, Shawn R Kuchta, J Susanne Hauswaldt, Willem M Roosenburg
Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) were a popular food item in early twentieth century America, and were consumed in soup with sherry. Intense market demand for terrapin meat resulted in population declines, notably along the Atlantic seaboard. Efforts to supply terrapins to markets resulted in translocation events, as individuals were moved about to stock terrapin farms. However, in 1920 the market for turtle soup buckled with the enactment of the eighteenth amendment to the United States' Constitution-which initiated the prohibition of alcoholic drinks-and many terrapin fisheries dumped their stocks into local waters...
2017: PloS One
Astrid Müller, Ross D Crosby, Janine Selle, Alexandra Osterhus, Hinrich Köhler, Julian W Mall, Thorsten Meyer, Martina de Zwaan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Even though health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is considered an important component of bariatric surgery outcome, there is a lack of HRQOL measures relevant for preoperative and postoperative patients. The objective of the current study was to develop a new instrument assessing HRQOL prior to and following bariatric surgery, entitled Quality of Life for Obesity Surgery (QOLOS) Questionnaire. METHODS: Topics for the QOLOS were initially generated via open-ended interviews and focus groups with 19 postoperative bariatric surgery patients...
August 8, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Magella Guillemette, Elias T Polymeropoulos, Steven J Portugal, David Pelletier
The large amount of energy expended during flapping flight is associated with heat generated through the increased work of the flight muscles. This increased muscle work rate can manifest itself in core body temperature (Tb) increase of 1-2°C in birds during flight. Therefore, episodic body cooling may be mandatory in migratory birds. To elucidate the thermoregulatory strategy of a short-distance migrant, common eiders (Somateria mollissima), we implanted data loggers in the body cavity of wild birds for 1 year, and report information on Tb during their entire migration for 19 individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Pawel Sikora, Adrian Augustyniak, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Elzbieta Horszczaruk, Teresa Rucinska, Pawel Nawrotek, Ewa Mijowska
The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass...
August 18, 2016: Materials
Romina D Farías, Carmen Martínez García, Teresa Cotes Palomino, Myriam Martínez Arellano
This study investigates the effects of sieved wastes generated from the brewing industry on lightweight aggregates manufactured with clay. Sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, bagasse and diatomaceous earth were used to obtain the samples. These wastes are usually dumped in landfills, but the current increase in restrictions on dumping and interest in improving the environment make our proposal for gaining value from these wastes a significant contribution. Laboratory tests show that the new aggregate has low bulk density and increased water absorption and porosity...
May 15, 2017: Materials
Muhammad Shafiq, Tahira Shaukat, Aisha Nazir, Firdaus-E- Bareen
Kasur is one of the hubs of leather industry in the Punjab, Pakistan, where chrome tanning method of leather processing is extensively being used. Chromium (Cr) accumulation levels in the irrigation water, soil, and seasonal vegetables were studied in three villages located in the vicinity of wastewater treatment plant and solid waste dumping site operated by the Kasur Tanneries Waste Management Agency (KTWMA). The data was interpreted using analysis of variance (ANOVA), clustering analysis (CA), and principal component analysis (PCA)...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jeffrey H Newcorn, Jeffrey G Stark, Sherilyn Adcock, Russ McMahen, Carolyn Sikes
PURPOSE: There is a strong association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol abuse, yet no studies have systematically assessed the effect of alcohol on the pharmacokinetics of psychostimulants such as amphetamine (AMP) in vivo. This study evaluated the effects of alcohol on the rate and extent of absorption of Adzenys™ XR-ODT*, a new extended-release orally disintegrating AMP tablet (AMP XR-ODT) for ADHD. METHODS: A Phase I single-dose, open-label study was conducted in 32 healthy adults...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
Ingela Lundin Kvalem, Irmelin Bergh, Stephanie Sogg, Tom Mala
BACKGROUND: The experience of symptoms after bariatric surgery, such as pain, dumping, and fatigue, may affect behavior, quality of life, and the need for healthcare consultations. Attention to and interpretation of symptoms are influenced by psychological and contextual factors. Prospective studies of psychological factors predicting physical symptom perception after bariatric surgery are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To explore associations of preoperative negative affect and history of stressful and traumatic events with frequency and intensity of self-reported symptoms 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)...
July 1, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Michael A Nwachukwu, Mersky Ronald, Huan Feng
In this study, United States, China, India, United Kingdom, Nigeria, Egypt, Brazil, Italy, Germany, Taiwan, Australia, Canada and Mexico were selected to represent the global community. This enabled an overview of solid waste management worldwide and between developed and developing countries. These are countries that feature most in the International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management (ICSW) over the past 20 years. A total of 1452 articles directly on solid waste management and technology were reviewed and credited to their original country of research...
July 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Amit T Kharat, Shubham Singhal
Big data is extremely large amount of data which is available in the radiology department. Big data is identified by four Vs - Volume, Velocity, Variety, and Veracity. By applying different algorithmic tools and converting raw data to transformed data in such large datasets, there is a possibility of understanding and using radiology data for gaining new knowledge and insights. Big data analytics consists of 6Cs - Connection, Cloud, Cyber, Content, Community, and Customization. The global technological prowess and per-capita capacity to save digital information has roughly doubled every 40 months since the 1980's...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
Ananya Mondal, Subhasish Das, Rajesh Kumar Sah, Pradip Bhattacharyya, Satya Sundar Bhattacharya
Coal fired brick kiln factories generate significant of brick kiln bottom ash (BKBA) that contaminate soil and water environments of areas near the dumping sites through leaching of toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn, and Cu). However, characteristics and environmental effects of BKBAs are yet unknown. We collected BKBA samples from 32 strategic locations of two rapidly developing States (West Bengal and Assam) of India. Scanning electron microscope images indicated spherical and granular structures of BKBAs produced in West Bengal (WBKBA) and Assam (ABKBA) respectively; while energy dispersive spectroscopy and analytical assessments confirmed substantial occurrence of total organic C and nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in both the BKBAs...
July 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
S Chatterjee, K Banerjee, Deepak Pandit, Pratap Roy, T Bandyopadhyay, R Ravishankar, C Bhattacharya, S Bhattacharya, D Datta, S R Banerjee
A compact and efficient beam dump shield has been designed using Monte Carlo simulation code FLUKA to facilitate low background measurement of neutron and gamma rays using K130 cyclotron at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (VECC). Iron, lead and high density Polyethylene (HDPE) were considered in the design of the beam dump shield. Representative FLUKA simulation results have been validated using in-beam experiment performed on the same beam dump constituents. Experimental neutron and gamma-rays energy spectra have been found to be in fair agreement with the simulation results...
July 14, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Hye Sup Yun, Chian Kwon
To defend against extracellular pathogens, plants primarily depend on cell-autonomous innate immunity due to the lack of the circulatory immune system including mobile immune cells. To extracellularly restrict or kill the pathogens, plant cells dump out antimicrobials. However, since antimicrobials are also toxic to plant cells themselves, they have to be safely delivered to the target sites in a separate vesicular compartment. In addition, because immune responses often requires energy otherwise used for the other metabolic processes, it is very important to properly control the duration and strength of immune responses depending on pathogen types...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Chang-Soo Chung, Ki-Hoon Song, Ki-Young Choi, Young-Il Kim, Hye-Eun Kim, Jun-Mo Jung, Chang-Joon Kim
In 2014, the concentrations of 13 heavy metals in surface sediments from 14 sampling stations were analyzed and compared to samples from previous years to evaluate the remediation effectiveness of the "rest-year" (RY) system and capping with dredged material at the Yellow Sea-Byung dumping site offshore Korea. Since the 2006 introduction of the RY system, annual variations in metal concentrations at stations within the RY zone have gradually decreased over time. Heavy metal concentrations at most stations were lower than sediment quality guidelines, indicating the success of the RY system...
July 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Thomas J McGrath, Andrew S Ball, Bradley O Clarke
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used in a broad array of polymeric materials such as plastics, foams, resins and adhesives to inhibit the spread of fires since the 1970s. The widespread environmental contamination and well documented toxic effects of PBDEs have led to bans and voluntary withdrawals in many jurisdictions. Replacement novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) have, however, exhibited many of the same toxic characteristics as PBDEs and appear to share similar environmental fate...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Rita Hirmondo, Anna Lopata, Eva Viola Suranyi, Beata G Vertessy, Judit Toth
dUTPase superfamily enzymes generate dUMP, the obligate precursor for de novo dTTP biosynthesis, from either dUTP (monofunctional dUTPase, Dut) or dCTP (bifunctional dCTP deaminase/dUTPase, Dcd:dut). In addition, the elimination of dUTP by these enzymes prevents harmful uracil incorporation into DNA. These two beneficial outcomes have been thought to be related. Here we determined the relationship between dTTP biosynthesis (dTTP/dCTP balance) and the prevention of DNA uracilation in a mycobacterial model that encodes both the Dut and Dcd:dut enzymes, and has no other ways to produce dUMP...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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