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Jingkuang Liu, Enqin Gong, Dong Wang, XiaoHong Lai, Jian Zhu
With the spread of the concept of sustainable development, people have gained awareness about the problem of massive illegal dumping of construction waste. In this research, a questionnaire survey was carried out in the USA and China. The results indicated the following. (1) Workers in both the countries had positive minimisation attitudes, and the attitude of Chinese construction workers was not significantly different from that of American construction workers. Furthermore, their average values were 3.9 and 4...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiaoting Shu, Menghao Liu, Zhike Lu, Chenxu Zhu, Haowei Meng, Sihao Huang, Xiaoxue Zhang, Chengqi Yi
Uracil in DNA can be generated by cytosine deamination or dUMP misincorporation; however, its distribution in the human genome is poorly understood. Here we present a selective labeling and pull-down technology for genome-wide uracil profiling and identify thousands of uracil peaks in three different human cell lines. Surprisingly, uracil is highly enriched at the centromere of the human genome. Using mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that human centromeric DNA contains a higher level of uracil. We also directly verify the presence of uracil within two centromeric uracil peaks on chromosomes 6 and 11...
May 21, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
I Donázar-Aramendía, J E Sánchez-Moyano, I García-Asencio, J M Miró, C Megina, J C García-Gómez
This study assesses the effects of dredged material disposal in a recurrent marine dump near the Guadalquivir Estuary (south-western Spain). We compared the changes observed with two reference areas combining a classical ecological approach with new stable isotope techniques to analyse trophic structure. We detected permanent changes in the macrofaunal community structure as well as in the diversity and biotic indices applied, which showed higher values in the disposal area. The community in the marine dump had lost the natural temporal variations observed in the reference areas...
May 7, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Climent Quintana-Domeque, José Raimundo Carvalho, Victor Hugo de Oliveira
During the outbreak of the Zika virus, Brazilian health authorities recommended that pregnant women take meticulous precaution to avoid mosquito bites and that women in general use contraceptive methods to postpone/delay pregnancies. In this article, we present new estimates on the Zika virus incidence, its correlates and preventive behaviors in the Northeast of Brazil, where the outbreak initiated, using survey data collected between March 30th and June 3rd of 2016. The target population were women aged 15-49 in the capital cities of the nine states of the Northeast region of Brazil...
May 1, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Jin-Hyeon Yun, Alexander Y Polyakov, Kyu-Cheol Kim, Yeon Tae Yu, Donghyun Lee, In-Hwan Lee
We propose stretchable plasmonic templates of Au and Au/SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) to improve the luminescence of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs). These templates are highly flexible and consist of polymer-metal NP composites that facilitate the luminescence enhancement by localized surface plasmons (LSPs) due to coupling with metal NP. This template also prevents the degradation of carrier transport properties for perovskite light-emitting diodes by embedding metal NPs in polymer. The luminescence of PNC film on the template with Au NPs decreases by 21% compared to PNC films on the reference (polymer film without metal NPs), while it increases by 54% for the templates with Au/SiO2 NPs...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Karabi Roy, Sujan Dey, Md Kamal Uddin, Rasel Barua, Md Towhid Hossain
Pectinase is one of the important enzymes of industrial sectors. Presently, most of the pectinases are of plant origin but there are only a few reports on bacterial pectinases. The aim of the present study was to isolate a novel and potential pectinase producing bacterium as well as optimization of its various parameters for maximum enzyme production. A total of forty bacterial isolates were isolated from vegetable dump waste soil using standard plate count methods. Primary screening was done by hydrolysis of pectin...
2018: Enzyme Research
Pradeep Sharma, Sunil Maherchandani, B N Shringi, Sudhir Kumar Kashyap, K S Gopi Sundar
Aims : Multiple antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli of wild vertebrates is a global concern with scarce assessments on the subject from developing countries that have high human-wild species interactions. We studied the ecology of E. coli in a wintering population of Egyptian Vultures in India to understand temporal changes in both E. coli strains and patterns of antimicrobial resistance. Methods and Results : We ribotyped E. coli strains and assessed antimicrobial resistance from wintering vultures at a highly synanthropic carcass dump in north-west India...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Yooeun Chae, Youn-Joo An
Plastic pollution in the environment is currently receiving worldwide attention. Improper dumping of disused or abandoned plastic wastes leads to contamination of the environment. In particular, the disposal of municipal wastewater effluent, sewage sludge landfill, and plastic mulch from agricultural activities is a serious issue and of major concern regarding soil pollution. Compared to plastic pollution in the marine and freshwater ecosystems, that in the soil ecosystem has been relatively neglected. In this study, we discussed plastic pollution in the soil environment and investigated research on the effects of plastic wastes, especially microplastics, on the soil ecosystem...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
A Santos, J Fernandez, S Rodriguez, C M Dominguez, M A Lominchar, D Lorenzo, A Romero
In this work, in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with alkali activated persulfate has been tested for the elimination of HCH isomers and other chlorinated compounds in groundwater from Sabiñanigo (Sardas landfill), which was contaminated by solid and liquid wastes illegally dumped in the area by a company producing lindane. Due to the site lithology and the type of pollutants found in groundwater (HCHs and chlorobenzenes) alkali (NaOH) activated persulfate (PS) was selected as oxidant. The influence of variables such as PS concentration (42-200mM) and NaOH:PS molar ratio (2:1 to 4:1) on chlorinated compound abatement has been studied and a kinetic model to predict the composition of all chlorinated organic compounds (COCs) in the aqueous phase with time was obtained...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wei-Ping Chan, Fei Ren, Xiaomin Dou, Ke Yin, Victor Wei-Chung Chang
Recycling of incineration bottom ashes (IBA) is attracting great interest as it is considered as a vital aspect for closing the waste loop to achieve sustainable development at the growing cities around the world. Various laboratory-testing methods are developed to assess the release potential of heavy metals - one of the most important concerns of using IBA, by reflecting the release conditions of heavy metals from IBA based on the targeted land reclamation application scenarios and corresponding environmental conditions...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Duo Jia, Cang Jiao Wang, Shou Guo Mu, Hua Zhao
The spatiotemporal dynamic patterns of vegetation in mining area are still unclear. This study utilized time series trajectory segmentation algorithm to fit Landsat NDVI time series which generated from fusion images at the most prosperous period of growth based on ESTARFM algorithm. Combining with the shape features of the fitted trajectory, this paper extracted five vegetation dynamic patterns including pre-disturbance type, continuous disturbance type, stabilization after disturbance type, stabilization between disturbance and recovery type, and recovery after disturbance type...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
C Dumps, E Halbeck, D Bolkenius
The discovery of barbituric acid and research on its derivatives have long been of importance in advancements in modern anesthesia. Decades of clinical use of barbiturates worldwide and their abuse has led to an enormous amount of knowledge. Thiopental and methohexital are ultra-short acting derivatives of barbiturates. Their clinical application has been accompanied by an enormous increase in the knowledge of the pharmacology of cerebrally active drugs, in particular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA ) receptor and GABA-induced effects on nerve cell membranes...
May 9, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Anna Potysz, Eric D van Hullebusch, Jakub Kierczak
Smelting activity by its very nature produces large amounts of metal-bearing waste, often called metallurgical slag(s). In the past, industry used to dispose of these waste products at dumping sites without the appropriate environmental oversight. Once there, ongoing biogeochemical processes affect the stability of the slags and cause the release of metallic contaminants. Rather than viewing metallurgical slags as waste, however, such deposits should be viewed as secondary metal resources. Metal bioleaching is a "green" treatment route for metallurgical slags, currently being studied under laboratory conditions...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Barbara Piwowarczyk, Krzysztof Tokarz, Ewa Muszyńska, Wojciech Makowski, Roman Jędrzejczyk, Zbigniew Gajewski, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska
Kidney vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria L.) is a well-known Zn hyperaccumulator. Zn often occurs with Pb in one ore; thus, plants inhabiting waste dumps are exposed not only to Zn but also to Pb toxicity. While the response of kidney vetch to Zn toxicity is relatively well known, the Pb survival strategy of Anthyllis vulneraria has not been the subject of investigations. The aim of presented research was to determine the survival strategy of kidney vetch exposed to high lead concentrations. Shoot explants of a calamine kidney vetch ecotype were placed on agar media containing 0...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dan Xie, Lulu Wang, Qi Xiao, Xiaoyan Wu, Lin Zhang, Qingkai Yang, Lina Wang
Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is an essential enzyme for the de novo synthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) and has been a primary target for cancer chemotherapy. Although the physical structure of TYMS and the molecular mechanisms of TYMS catalyzing the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to dTMP have been the subject of thorough studies, its oligomeric structure remains unclear. Here, we show that human TYMS not only exists in dimer form but also as an octamer by intermolecular Cys43-disulfide formation...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Diogo Appel Colvero, Ana Paula Duarte Gomes, Luís António da Cruz Tarelho, Manuel Arlindo Amador de Matos, Kamila Almeida Dos Santos
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a pressing concern for Goiás State, Brazil. Of the state's 246 municipalities, only 16 send their waste to licensed landfills. This means that 93% of the cities in Goiás dispose of their MSW inappropriately, in dumps or unlicensed landfills. This practice poses a danger to both the environment and to public health. On this basis, the goal of this study was to survey potential landfill sites in Goiás. A geographic information system tool was used to first identify Goiás landfills and dumps and then examine them, to check whether they are located in legally restricted areas...
May 4, 2018: Waste Management
Christian Salerno, Paola Marciani, Aniello Esposito, Lucio Antonio Palin
INTRODUCTION: Aim this study is to assess anomalous mortality rates from 2002 to 2012, in the municipalities of Ghemme and Cavaglio d'Agogna where a landfill has been active. Before the opening of the landfill (1988), studies highlighted the presence of noxious substances, in the ground layers, and not in the groundwater. Goal of our research is to monitor the health levels of the population in an area, with attention to long/midterm effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed the analysis on data of the National Institute of Statistics death records, and produced indirect standardized rates (SMR) using the rates of Local Healthcare Agencies (ASL) of Novara and Vercelli as reference population...
January 2018: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Linda L Chao, Yu Zhang
In early March 1991, shortly after the end of the Gulf War (GW), a munitions dump was destroyed at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Later, in 1996, the dump was found to have contained the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin. We previously reported evidence of smaller hippocampal volumes in GW veterans with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume compared to unexposed GW veterans. To investigate whether these macroscopic hippocampal volume changes are accompanied by microstructural alterations in the hippocampus, the current study acquired diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), T1-, and T2-weighted images from 170 GW veterans (mean age: 53 ± 7 years), 81 of whom had predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume according to Department of Defense (DOD) plume modeling...
May 4, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Alan G Mayton, William L Porter, Xueyan S Xu, Eric B Weston, Elaine N Rubenstein
Workers who operate mine haul trucks are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) on a routine basis. Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Pittsburgh Mining Research Division (PMRD) investigated WBV and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposures for mine/quarry haul truck drivers in relation to the haul truck activities of dumping, loading, and traveling with and without a load. The findings show that WBV measures in weighted root-mean-square accelerations (aw ) and vibration dose value (VDV), when compared to the ISO/ANSI and European Directive 2002/44/EC standards, were mostly below the Exposure Action Value (EAV) identified by the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ)...
March 2018: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics
M W Gitari, S A Akinyemi, L Ramugondo, M Matidza, S E Mhlongo
The economic benefits of mining industry have often overshadowed the serious challenges posed to the environments through huge volume of tailings generated and disposed in tailings dumps. Some of these challenges include the surface and groundwater contamination, dust, and inability to utilize the land for developmental purposes. The abandoned copper mine tailings in Musina (Limpopo province, South Africa) was investigated for particle size distribution, mineralogy, physicochemical properties using arrays of granulometric, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence analyses...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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