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Veronica Mpode Ngole-Jeme, Peter Fantke
Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil to that of the control site) observed for As (3...
2017: PloS One
Kelly Kleifges, Nima Bigdely-Shamlo, Scott E Kerick, Kay A Robbins
Electroencephalography (EEG) offers a platform for studying the relationships between behavioral measures, such as blink rate and duration, with neural correlates of fatigue and attention, such as theta and alpha band power. Further, the existence of EEG studies covering a variety of subjects and tasks provides opportunities for the community to better characterize variability of these measures across tasks and subjects. We have implemented an automated pipeline (BLINKER) for extracting ocular indices such as blink rate, blink duration, and blink velocity-amplitude ratios from EEG channels, EOG channels, and/or independent components (ICs)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
V V Оlекsеnко, S V Efetov, V A Zakharov, K A Aliyev, D M Al-Nsour
AIM: To substantiate and to prove the advantages of the new method of gastroplasty in comparison with traditional loop reconstruction of digestive tract after gastrectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was performed prospective comparative study of surgical treatment of 431 patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy with different variants of digestive tract reconstruction. The main group (146 patients) consisted of patients in whom original technique including establishment of food reservoir in initial jejunal part during reconstruction was applied...
2017: Khirurgiia
Joseph Essilfie-Dughan, M Jim Hendry, James J Dynes, Yongfeng Hu, Ashis Biswas, S Lee Barbour, S Day
Exposure of coal waste rock to atmospheric oxygen can result in the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the release of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and associated trace elements (e.g., Se, As, Cd, and Zn) to groundwaters and surface waters. Similarly, reduced iron minerals such as siderite, ankerite, and the sulfide, pyrite, present in the waste rock can also undergo oxidation, resulting in the formation of iron oxyhydroxides that can adsorb trace elements released from the oxidation of the sulfide minerals. Characterization and quantification of the distribution of sulfide and iron minerals, their oxidation products, as well as leaching rates are critical to assessing present-day and future impacts of SO4(2-) and associated trace elements on receiving waters...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tsanangurayi Tongesayi, Jameson Kugara, Sunungurai Tongesayi
Most waste sites in Zimbabwe are not sanitary landfills but open dumps that indiscriminately receive waste from municipalities, industries, commercial establishments, and social services establishments. People, including children, who eke out a living through scavenging the dumps expose themselves to environmental pollutants at the dumps via inadvertent ingestion and inhalation of contaminated dust, and dermal absorption. The public is potentially being exposed to a slew of the pollutants via air, water, and food, all contaminated by uncontrolled leachates and aerially deposited dust and particulates from the sites...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
E Siva Subramaniam Iyer, Arman Sadybekov, Oleg Lioubashevski, Anna I Krylov, Sanford Ruhman
Formation of benzene excimer following UV excitation of the neat liquid is moni- tored with femtosecond spectroscopy. A prompt rise component in excimer transient absorption, which contradicts the classical scenario of gradual reorientation and pairing of the excited monomers, is observed. Three-pulse experiments in which the evolving excimers are probed by a secondary dump pulse demonstrate that the excimer absorption band is polarized along the inter-fragment axis. The experi- ments furthermore prove that the subsequent 4-fold increase in excimer absorption over ∼50 ps is primarily due to an increase in the transition dipole of pairs which are formed early on, and not to excited monomers forming excimers in a delayed fashion due to unfavorable initial geometry...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Eric A Lutz, Rustin J Reed, Vivien S T Lee, Jefferey L Burgess
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare personal exposures to diesel fuel and a biodiesel blend exhaust in an underground mine. METHODS: Personal exposure monitoring was performed in a non-operational, hard rock underground mine during use of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA8) exposure concentrations of ultra-low sulfur diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75) fuels were compared. RESULTS: Compared to diesel, use of B75 was associated with relative percent reductions of 22 and 28% in median respirable (r) diesel particulate matter (DPM) and nitrogen dioxide and 25 and 23% increases in median total DPM and nitric oxide TWA8 exposure concentrations, respectively...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Kipras Redeckas, Vladislava Voiciuk, Donatas Zigmantas, Roger G Hiller, Mikas Vengris
Time-resolved multi-pulse methods were applied to investigate the excited state dynamics, the interstate couplings, and the excited state energy transfer pathways between the light-harvesting pigments in peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP). The utilized pump-dump-probe techniques are based on perturbation of the regular PCP energy transfer pathway. The PCP complexes were initially excited with an ultrashort pulse, resonant to the S0→S2 transition of the carotenoid peridinin. A portion of the peridinin-based emissive intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state was then depopulated by applying an ultrashort NIR pulse that perturbed the interaction between S1 and ICT states and the energy flow from the carotenoids to the chlorophylls...
February 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hong Yang, Junqiang Xia, Julian R Thompson, Roger J Flower
On December 20, 2015 at 11:40 am a landslide in one of China's most advanced cities, Shenzhen, killed 73 people and damaged 33 buildings. In the absence of heavy rainfall or earthquakes, the landslide was an unexpected and profound shock to many people. According to China's Ministry of Land and Resources, the landslide was triggered by the collapse of an enormous pile of construction and demolition waste (CDW). With China's rapid urbanization, an increasing amount of CDW is being generated, especially in major cities...
January 30, 2017: Waste Management
Anfal Arshi
Coal mine spoils (-the previous overburden of coal seams, inevitable by-product in the mining process) which are usually unfavorable for plant growth have different properties according to dumping years. The reclamation of overburden dumps (OBDs) through plantation by using efficient microbes with suitable bio-inoculants is an environmental friendly microbial technique for significant improvement in fertility status and biological activities of the OBD soil. A systematic greenhouse pot experiment program followed by field trial was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and NFB on the performance of plant growth which have resulted in the development of environmental friendly bio-inoculant package for soil reclamation of abandoned mine land by revegetation...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
B J Ramaiah, G V Ramana
The article presents the stress-strain and volume change behavior, shear strength and stiffness parameters of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) collected from two dump sites located in Delhi, India. Over 30 drained triaxial compression (TXC) tests were conducted on reconstituted large-scale specimens of 150mm diameter to study the influence of fiber content, age, density and confining pressure on the shear strength of MSW. In addition, a few TXC tests were also conducted on 70mm diameter specimen to examine the effect of specimen size on the mobilized shear strength...
January 27, 2017: Waste Management
Haider Ghazanfar, Sualeha Saleem, Sajida Naseem, Ali Ghazanfar, Umme Kulsoom Khattak
OBJECTIVE: To assess sources of drinking water and its methods of disinfection, sanitary situation and waste disposal methods. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 6 months from April 2015 to September 2015 in the village of Nurpur Shahan, a peri-urban slum area of Islamabad, Pakistan. Systemic random sampling method was employed to gather data from an adult household member aged between 18 and 45 years through a structured questionnaire...
February 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Grazia Cecchi, Pietro Marescotti, Simone Di Piazza, Mirca Zotti
Metal contamination constitutes a major source of pollution globally. Many recent studies emphasized the need to develop cheap and green technologies for the remediation or reclamation of environmental matrices contaminated by heavy metals. In this context, fungi are versatile organisms that can be exploited for bioremediation activities. In our work, we tested silver (Ag) bioaccumulation capabilities of three microfungal strains (Aspergillus alliaceus Thom & Church, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, Clonostachys rosea (Link) Schroers, Samuels, Seifert & W...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
M Karcher, A Hosseini, R Schnur, F Kauker, J E Brown, M Dowdall, P Strand
Of the wide variety of dumped objects containing radioactive materials in the Arctic seas, the submarine K-27 constitutes a major risk due to the large amount of highly enriched uranium onboard and its location in shallow waters. As the matter of potential operations involving raising of the submarine have entered the public arena, a priori assessment of the contamination in the Arctic marine environment that could result after a possible accident during such operations is a matter of some interest. The dispersion of contaminants within the Arctic has been assessed using a large scale hydrodynamic model for a series of plausible accident scenarios and locations under different oceanographic regimes...
January 22, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
M A Popovici, I O Mitu, Gh Căta-Danil, F Negoit Ă, C Ivan
High field quantum electrodynamics experiments will be conducted in the E6 experimental area of the Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics building. Here electrons and protons will be accelerated up to relativistic energies by multi-petawatt laser beam-target interactions. In this respect, the requirements for radiological safety measures are similar to those associated with the operation of conventional high energy accelerators. The paper presents a FLUKA simulation approach to the shielding assessment of the individual experiments...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Sophie Terp, Brandon Wang, Brian Raffetto, Seth A Seabury, Michael Menchine
OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of civil monetary penalty settlements levied by the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) against individual physicians related to violation of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA). METHODS: Descriptions of all civil monetary penalty settlements between 2002 and 2015 were obtained from the OIG. Characteristics of settlements against individual physicians related to EMTALA violations were described including settlement date, location, amount, whether there was an associated hospital settlement, the medical specialty of the physician involved, and the nature of the allegation...
January 20, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Bo Gao, Qingxing Huang, Jianhong Dong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of the delta-shaped anastomosis in laparoscopic distal gastrectomy and digestive tract reconstruction. METHODS: Clinical data of 34 gastric cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with the delta-shaped anastomosis for digestive tract reconstruction (delta-shaped group) and 83 gastric cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with Billroth I( for digestive tract reconstruction (Billroth group) by same surgeon team from July 2013 to July 2015 at the Department of Digestive Surgery, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Shanxi Medical University were retrospectively analyzed...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Zohre Farahmandkia, Faramarz Moattar, Farid Zayeri, Mohamad Sadegh Sekhavatjou, Nabiollah Mansouri
BACKGROUND: The positive matrix factorization is a powerful environmental analysis technique which has been successfully utilized to assess air-born particulate matter source contribution. The new version of this model (PMF5) has two additional estimation error methods and some other useful advantages compared to the previous versions. In the present study, the capability of PMF5 for identification and contribution of small size particle source to the ambient particulate matter was evaluated...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
Nepal C Dey, Mahmood Parvez, Digbijoy Dey, Ratnajit Saha, Lucky Ghose, Milan K Barua, Akramul Islam, Mushtaque R Chowdhury
This study, conducted in 40 selected upazilas covering four hydrological regions of Bangladesh, aimed at determining the risk of selected shallow tubewells (depth<30m) used for drinking purpose (n=26,229). This was based on WHO's sanitary inspection guidelines and identifying the association of sanitary inspection indicators and risk scores with microbiological contamination of shallow tubewells. The main objective of the study was to observe the seasonal and regional differences of microbial contamination and finally reaching a conclusion about safe distance between tubewells and latrines by comparing the contamination of two tubewell categories (category-1: distance ≤10m from nearest latrine; n=80 and category 2: distances 11-20m from nearest latrine; n=80) in different geographical contexts...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Nachalida Yukalang, Beverley Dawn Clarke, Kirstin Elizabeth Ross
Due to rapid urbanization, solid waste management (SWM) has become a significant issue in several developing countries including Thailand. Policies implemented by the Central Thai Government to manage SWM issues have had only limited success. This article reviews current municipal waste management plans in Thailand and examines municipal waste management at the local level, with focus on the Tha Khon Yang sub-district surrounding Mahasarakham University in Mahasarakham Province. Within two decades this area has been converted from a rural to an urban landscape featuring accommodation for over 45,000 university students and a range of business facilities...
January 11, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
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