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Martin L Skogar, Magnus Sundbom
BACKGROUND: It is not clear which bariatric procedure that gives the best outcome for patients with super obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 50 kg/m(2)). This study aims to compare outcomes in patients with super obesity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and duodenal switch (BPD/DS) using the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) and a local questionnaire for gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: A retrospective mail survey including 211 patients, 98 RYGB and 113 BPD/DS, with a mean follow-up time of 4 years for both groups...
April 24, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Yanina L Idaszkin, María Del Pilar Alvarez, Eleonora Carol
Heavy metal pollution that affects salt marshes is a major environmental concern due to its toxic nature, persistence, and potential risk to organisms and to human health. Mining waste deposits originated four decades ago, by the metallurgical extraction of heavy metals, are found near to the San Antonio salt marsh in Patagonia. The aim of the work was to determine the geochemical processes that control the distribution and concentration of Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in the soils of this Patagonian salt marsh. A survey of the mining waste deposits was carried out where three dumps were identified...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Anna Laurenius, Malin Werling, Carel W le Roux, Lars Fändriks, Torsten Olbers
BACKGROUND: Dumping syndrome after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is traditionally associated with the consumption of refined carbohydrates, but the role of dietary fat is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study compares symptoms after consumption of a carbohydrate-rich or fat-rich beverage to determine perceived symptoms, glycemic control, and pulse rate. SETTING: University hospital. METHODS: We assessed perceived symptoms (Sigstad's Dumping Index) and glycemic control (P-glucose and S-insulin) as well as autonomic nervous system activity (reflected by arterial pulse rate) after a standardized liquid meal test (440 kcal/300 mL carbohydrates [CARB] or fat [FAT]) in a randomized crossover blinded setting...
March 1, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Lydia Hangulu, Olagoke Akintola
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, a new primary health care (PHC) re-engineering initiative aims to scale up the provision of community-based care (CBC). A central element in this initiative is the use of outreach teams comprising nurses and community health workers to provide care to the largely poor and marginalised communities across the country. The provision of care will inevitably lead to an increase in the amount of health care waste (HCW) generated in homes and suggests the need to pay more attention to the HCW that emanates from homes where there is care of a patient...
April 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Lucyna Twerd, Maciej Krzyżyński, Barbara Waldon-Rudzionek, Piotr Olszewski
BACKGROUND: Published sources document a loss of biodiversity at an extreme rate, mainly because natural and semi-natural ecosystems are becoming fragmented and isolated, thus losing their biological functions. These changes significantly influence biological diversity, which is a complex phenomenon that changes over time. Contemporary ecologists must therefore draw attention to anthropogenic replacement habitats and increase their conservation status. In our studies we show the positive role of soda ash dumping grounds as an alternative habitat for digger wasps, especially the thermophilic species...
2017: PloS One
R M A Azzam
Specular reflection at the Brewster angle by a planar surface of a high-refractive-index transparent substrate is an effective means of generating linearly polarized light in the infrared. However, in such a reflection linear polarizer, the refracted light beam is usually dumped. In this paper we describe a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) that uses a high-index prism with a small wedge angle to generate two orthogonally p and s linearly polarized beams that travel in orthogonal directions. A single-layer antireflection coating (ARC) at the exit face of the prism can be embedded with aligned Ag nano needles to suppress the transmission of the small, residual, s-polarized refracted component...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Shrikalaa Kannan, Yvan Gariepy, G S Vijaya Raghavan
Fish processing results in large amounts of solid and liquid wastes that are unsustainably dumped into oceans and landfills. Alternative sustainable technologies that completely utilize seafood wastes are needed. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) that converts moisture-rich biomass into hydrochar is mostly employed for pure lignocellulosic biowaste. However, the suitability of HTC for pure non-lignocellulosic waste is unknown. Here, for the first time, a response surface design guided optimization of microwave hydrothermal carbonization (MHTC) process parameters, holding temperature (150-210°C) and time (90-120min), showed that a temperature of approximately 200°C and a time of approximately 119min yielded maximal hydrochar (∼34%)...
April 12, 2017: Waste Management
Sunil Kumar, Stephen R Smith, Geoff Fowler, Costas Velis, S Jyoti Kumar, Shashi Arya, Rena, Rakesh Kumar, Christopher Cheeseman
India faces major environmental challenges associated with waste generation and inadequate waste collection, transport, treatment and disposal. Current systems in India cannot cope with the volumes of waste generated by an increasing urban population, and this impacts on the environment and public health. The challenges and barriers are significant, but so are the opportunities. This paper reports on an international seminar on 'Sustainable solid waste management for cities: opportunities in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries' organized by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute and the Royal Society...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Rodrigo Parrini, Ana Amuchástegui, Cecilia Garibi
In Tomatlán, a small city on the Mexican Pacific Coast there is a tolerance zone in which a group of sex workers, separated from the rest of the city by a garbage dump, offer their services to local men. The women present themselves materially and symbolically as agents of regulation with respect to male sexuality, itself constructed as overwhelming and insatiable, which, were it not for services provided by the sex workers, would threaten the family-based social order. Through in-depth interviews with 19 sex workers and 5 municipal officials, this paper discusses how the sex gender system results in a series of borders that are both geographical and subjective...
April 13, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Rosanne L L Hill, Jiri Vlach, Laura K Parker, Gail E Christie, Jamil S Saad, Terje Dokland
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen able to transfer virulence genes to other cells through the mobilization of S. aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). SaPIs are derepressed and packaged into phage-like transducing particles by helper phages like 80α or φNM1. Phages 80α and φNM1 encode structurally distinct dUTPases, Dut80α (type 1) and DutNM1 (type 2). Both dUTPases can interact with the SaPIbov1 Stl master repressor, leading to derepression and mobilization. That two structurally distinct dUTPases bind the same repressor led us to speculate that dUTPase activity may be important to the derepression process...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
Cindy Bekker, Wouter Fransman, Ruud Boessen, Arné Oerlemans, Ilse B Ottenbros, Roel Vermeulen
Background: Nano-specific inhalation exposure models could potentially be effective tools to assess and control worker exposure to nano-objects, and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA). However, due to the lack of reliable and consistent collected NOAA exposure data, the scientific basis for validation of the existing NOAA exposure models is missing or limited. The main objective of this study was to gain more insight into the effect of various determinants underlying the potential on the concentration of airborne NOAA close to the source with the purpose of providing a scientific basis for existing and future exposure inhalation models...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Rosanna Ginocchio, Pedro León-Lobos, Eduardo Carlos Arellano, Vinka Anic, Juan Francisco Ovalle, Alan John Martin Baker
Abandoned tailing dumps (ATDs) offer an opportunity to identify the main physicochemical filters that determine colonization of vegetation in solid mine wastes. The current study determined the soil physicochemical factors that explain the compositional variation of pioneer vegetal species on ATDs from surrounding areas in semiarid Mediterranean-climate type ecosystems of north-central Chile (Coquimbo Region). Geobotanical surveys-including physicochemical parameters of substrates (0-20 cm depth), plant richness, and coverage of plant species-were performed on 73 ATDs and surrounding areas...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
R Aharonov-Nadborny, L Tsechansky, M Raviv, E R Graber
Olive mill waste water (OMWW) is an acidic (pH 4-5), saline (EC ∼ 5-10 mS cm(-1)), blackish-red aqueous byproduct of the three phase olive oil production process, with a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 220,000 mg L(-1). OMWW is conventionally disposed of by uncontrolled dumping into the environment or by semi-controlled spreading on agricultural soils. It was hypothesized that spreading such liquids on agricultural soils could result in the release and mobilization of indigenous soil metals...
July 2017: Chemosphere
Alejandro G Farji-Brener, Victoria Werenkraut
Ants are recognized as one of the major sources of soil disturbance worldwide. However, this view is largely based on isolated studies and qualitative reviews. Here, for the first time, we quantitatively determined whether ant nests affect soil fertility and plant performance, and identified the possible sources of variation of these effects. Using Bayesian mixed-models meta-analysis we tested the hypotheses that ant effects on soil fertility and plant performance depend on the substrate sampled, ant feeding type, latitude, habitat and the plant response variable measured...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Lwazi C Mahlalela, Jane C Ngila, Langelihle N Dlamini
The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in several consumer products has led to them finding their way into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Some of these NPs have photocatalytic properties, thus providing a possible solution to textile industries to photodegrade dyes from their wastewater. Thus, the interaction of NPs with industrial dye effluents is inevitable. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) guideline for testing of chemical 303A was employed to study the fate and behaviour of TiO2 NPs in industrial dye-stuff effluent...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Ali Mirdar Harijani, Saeed Mansour, Behrooz Karimi
The efficient management of municipal solid waste is a major problem for large and populated cities. In many countries, the majority of municipal solid waste is landfilled or dumped owing to an inefficient waste management system. Therefore, an optimal and sustainable waste management strategy is needed. This study introduces a recycling and disposal network for sustainable utilisation of municipal solid waste. In order to optimise the network, we develop a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model in which the economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainability are concurrently balanced...
April 2017: Waste Management & Research
Claudia Filisetti, Luciano Maestri, Milena Meroni, Federica Marinoni, Giovanna Riccipetitoni
Microgastria is a rare congenital condition often associated with other anomalies. In the present report we describe the case of a 6-year-old girl with isolated CM who presented with dumping syndrome successfully treated by a Hunt-Lawrence pouch.
January 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery Reports
Rebeca Manzano, Pedro Jiménez-Peñalver, Elvira Esteban
Abandoned waste piles from ancient mining activities are potential hot spots for the pollution of the surrounding areas. A pot experiment was carried out to check the potential toxicity of the dumping material present in one of these scenarios, and several amendments were tested to attenuate the spread of the contamination events. The waste material had an acid pH and a large total concentration of As and Cu. A dose-response experiment was performed with this material following OCDE 208 test. A proportion 90:10 uncontaminated soil: dumping material (% w/w) was selected for the following experiment, in order to surpass the amount of dumping material that caused 50% reduction in plant growth...
March 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Rania Abu El Asrar, Lia Margamuljana, Hugo Klaassen, Marnik Nijs, Arnaud Marchand, Patrick Chaltin, Hannu Myllykallio, Hubert F Becker, Steven De Jonghe, Piet Herdewijn, Eveline Lescrinier
Tuberculosis (TB), mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is an infection that is responsible for roughly 1.5 million deaths per year. The situation is further complicated by the wide-spread resistance to the existing first- and second-line drugs. As a result of this, it is urgent to develop new drugs to combat the resistant bacteria as well as have lower side effects, which can promote adherence to the treatment regimens. Targeting the de novo synthesis of thymidylate (dTMP) is an important pathway to develop drugs for TB...
March 28, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
Selvam Kandasamy, Govarthanan Muthusamy, Senthilkumar Balakrishnan, Senbagam Duraisamy, Selvankumar Thangasamy, Kamala-Kannan Seralathan, Sudhakar Chinnappan
The aim of the study was to identify new sources of substrate from agro-industrial waste for protease production using Bacillus sp., a local bacteria isolated from an agro-waste dumping site. The strain was identified as Bacillus sp. BT MASC 3 by 16S rRNA sequence followed by phylogenic analysis. Response surface methodology-based Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the variables such as pH, incubation time, coffee pulp waste (CPW) and corncob (CC) substrate concentration. The BBD design showed a reasonable adjustment of the quadratic model with the experimental data...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
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