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M Summa, H Henttonen, L Maunula
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading global causes of diarrhoeal diseases and are transmitted mainly from person to person but also through contaminated food, water and fomites. The possible zoonotic nature of NoVs has occasionally been discussed, although the viruses are generally considered to be host-species-specific. We investigated whether wild birds and rodents could serve as carriers of HuNoVs, thereby transmitting the virus to humans directly or indirectly by contaminating foods. All samples, 115 avian and 100 rat faeces collected in springs 2009-2013 from dump sites, and 85 faeces from yellow-necked mice trapped in late autumn 2008 and 2009 after the rodents entered human settlements due to the first night frosts, were screened for HuNoV using real-time reverse transcription PCR...
March 12, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Stylianos Kykalos, Evangelia Ntikoudi
Dear Editor, delayed gastric emptying due to bilateral vagotomy after esophagectomy, has been associated with increased aspiration rates, prolonged hospital stay and impaired quality of life. A pyloric drainage procedure in an effort to reduce its incidence, most commonly a pyloroplasty, represented for years a standard part of distal esophagectomy. This trend has been reevaluated nowadays and the question that still remains open is whether we should further keep on draining pylorus during esophagectomy or not...
January 2018: Chirurgia
Su Shiung Lam, Rock Keey Liew, Chin Kui Cheng, Nazaitulshila Rasit, Chee Kuan Ooi, Nyuk Ling Ma, Jo-Han Ng, Wei Haur Lam, Cheng Tung Chong, Howard A Chase
Fruit peel, an abundant waste, represents a potential bio-resource to be converted into useful materials instead of being dumped in landfill sites. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a harmful waste that should also be treated before it can safely be released to the environment. In this study, pyrolysis of banana and orange peels was performed under different temperatures to produce biochar that was then examined as adsorbent in POME treatment. The pyrolysis generated 30.7-47.7 wt% yield of a dark biochar over a temperature ranging between 400 and 500 °C...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Robert G West, David Bína, Marcel Fuciman, Valentyna Kuznetsova, Radek Litvín, Tomáš Polívka
We have applied femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in pump-probe and pump-dump-probe regimes to study energy transfer between fucoxanthin and Chl a in fucoxanthin-Chl a complex from the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Experiments were carried out at room temperature and 77 K to reveal temperature dependence of energy transfer. At both temperatures, the ultrafast (<100 fs) energy transfer channel from the fucoxanthin S2 state is active and is complemented by the second pathway via the combined S1 /ICT state...
February 27, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Maria Blanco, Denise Fernandes, Juliane Rizzi, David Huertas, Nuno Caiola, Pilar Fernández, Cinta Porte
The lower course of the Ebro River is polluted with high concentrations of organochlorine compounds dumped by a chloro-alkali plant during the last century. A remediation plan, including building of a protective wall, removal and disposal of polluted sediments started in 2012. With the aim of assessing the effects of dredging of contaminated sediments and potential alterations of water quality, areas located upstream (RR) and downstream (BE, A) the chemical plant (FL) were monitored prior (October 2012) and during dredging (June 2013) using roach (Rutilus rutilus) as sentinel organisms...
February 26, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Natalia Reyna-Bensusan, David C Wilson, Stephen R Smith
Uncontrolled burning of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an important source of air pollution and is wide spread in many developing countries, but only limited data quantify the extent of domestic open burning of household waste. Here, we present some of the first field data to be reported on the uncontrolled domestic burning of waste. A representative community of Mexico (Huejutla de Reyes Municipality) was investigated and household surveys, interviews with waste operators and a waste characterisation analysis were completed to assess the extent of, and factors controlling, the open burning of waste...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Research
Evgenia-Maria Papaslioti, Rafael Pérez-López, Annika Parviainen, Aguasanta M Sarmiento, José M Nieto, Claudio Marchesi, Antonio Delgado-Huertas, Carlos J Garrido
This research reports the effects of pH increase on contaminant mobility in phosphogypsum leachates by seawater mixing, as occurs with dumpings on marine environments. Acid leachates from a phosphogypsum stack located in the Estuary of Huelva (Spain) were mixed with seawater to achieve gradually pH7. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Cr, Pb and U in mixed solutions significantly decreased with increasing pH by sorption and/or precipitation processes. Nevertheless, this study provides insight into the high contribution of the phosphogypsum stack to the release of other toxic elements (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Sb) to the coastal areas, as 80-100% of their initial concentrations behaved conservatively in mixing solutions with no participation in sorption processes...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Radhouan El Zrelli, Lotfi Rabaoui, Mohsen Ben Alaya, Nabil Daghbouj, Sylvie Castet, Philippe Besson, Sylvain Michel, Nejla Bejaoui, Pierre Courjault-Radé
Temperature, pH and trace elements (F, P, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) contents were determined in 16 stations as well as in 2 industrial and 2 domestic discharge sources, in the central coastal area of the Gulf of Gabes. Compared to the northern and southern areas of the study area, the highest contents of contaminants were reached in the central area which hosts the coastal industrial complex. The seawater in this central area was also found to be acid and of higher temperature. Based on the Water Pollution Index results, an increasing degradation gradient of the seawater quality was revealed from northern and/or southern stations to central ones, categorized as 'strongly to seriously affected'...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Bofei Zhang, Senyang Hu, Elizabeth Baskin, Andrew Patt, Jalal K Siddiqui, Ewy A Mathé
The value of metabolomics in translational research is undeniable, and metabolomics data are increasingly generated in large cohorts. The functional interpretation of disease-associated metabolites though is difficult, and the biological mechanisms that underlie cell type or disease-specific metabolomics profiles are oftentimes unknown. To help fully exploit metabolomics data and to aid in its interpretation, analysis of metabolomics data with other complementary omics data, including transcriptomics, is helpful...
February 22, 2018: Metabolites
A I Bisi-Onyemaechi, N A Akani, A N Ikefuna, B N Tagbo, J M Chinawa
Objectives: Poor maintenance of school environment can cause or worsen illnesses among schoolchildren. The objective of this study was to assess the healthfulness of school environments of primary schools in Enugu East, Nigeria, and to compare the difference if any between public and private schools. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional noninterventional study of the school environments in Enugu East, Nigeria. Methods: Multistage sampling method was used to select the sample population...
February 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Patrick J Marroum, Silpa Nuthalapati, Apurvasena Parikh, Mohamad Shebley, David Hoffman, Jiuhong Zha, Amit Khatri, Walid M Awni
Investigating the effect of food on bioavailability during the development of an oral drug product is of prime importance because it has major implications on the study design of the clinical trials and dosing and administration recommendations. For modified-release formulations that exhibit dose dumping when administered with food, this may result in clinical concerns around safety and efficacy. In this article, we provide an overview of the various considerations in our opinion that impact the design and conduct of food-effect studies...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Breanna Wright, Liam Smith, Fraser Tull
Cleaning and disposal of illegal dumping at charitable collection points costs charities and diverts funds from their charitable programs. However, there is no published literature that attempts to better understand this problem. The current study assesses site-specific characteristics, community level indicators and sociodemographic factors as predictors of both charity stores and collection bin dumping in the metropolitan area of Perth, Australia. Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher levels of dumping at stores were predicted by being open on Sundays, the presence of gates/fencing, bringing bins in at night, greater 5-year mobility and lower levels of education and occupation in the area...
February 13, 2018: Waste Management
Giuseppe Protano, Francesco Nannoni
A geochemical study was carried out at the former Abbadia San Salvatore (ASS) mining site of the Monte Amiata ore district (Italy). Hg, As and Sb total contents and fractionation using a sequential extraction procedure were determined in soil and mining waste samples. Ore processing activities provided a different contribution to Hg contamination and concentration in soil fractions, influencing its behaviour as volatility and availability. Soils of roasting zone showed the highest Hg contamination levels mainly due to the deposition of Hg released as Hg 0 by furnaces during cinnabar roasting...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Monika Singh, Mohini Verma, R Naresh Kumar
Influence of open dumping of municipal solid wastes (MSW) on metal contamination of soil, plants, and earthworms in Ranchi, Jharkhand, India, was studied over 6-month period. Dumpsite in the study area exists in two sections, old section where waste dumping has stopped and new section where wastes are currently disposed. Soil around dumpsite had high concentration of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn than that at control site. Geoaccumulation index indicated uncontaminated to moderate level of soil contamination at old dumpsite and soil at new dumpsite was found to be uncontaminated...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
E Hagesaether
Orfiril® long is a widely used antiepileptic drug preparation despite being characterized by features associated with susceptibility to ethanol induced changes to drug release. In vitro dissolution studies revealed that 30 % ethanol was required in order to cause dose dumping of valproic acid within two hours at pH 1. However, after exposure to only 5 % of ethanol for 45 minutes at pH 1, the subsequent release of sodium valproate increased by ~ 10 % for the first two hours in ethanol-free media of pH 6.8. The drug solubility increases with pH, likely to also increase the vulnerability to ethanol...
February 1, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Olivier Javaudin, A Baillon, N Varin, C Martinaud, T Pouget, C Civadier, B Clavier, A Sailliol
BACKGROUND: Haemorrhagic shock remains the leading cause of preventable death in overseas and austere settings. Transfusion of blood components is critical in the management of this kind of injury. For French naval and ground military units, this supply often takes too long considering the short shelf-life of red blood cell concentrates (RBCs) and the limited duration of transport in cooling containers (five to six days). Air-drop supply could be an alternative to overcome these difficulties on the condition that air-drop does not cause damage to blood units...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Rachit Kashyap, K S Verma, Sanjay Kr Uniyal, S K Bhardwaj
The study focused on analyzing concentrations of metal(loid)s, their geospatial distribution in groundwater around an industrial hub of northern India. Human health risk posed due to the intake of contaminated groundwater was also evaluated. For this, 240 samples were assayed using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer. For risk assessment, the methodology proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency was adopted. Geometric mean of Al, As, Mo, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn was 193...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yujiro Tanaka, Takahisa Tainaka, Hiroo Uchida
Total esophagogastric dissociation (TED) is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux (GER) after failed fundoplication in neurologically impaired patients. It is now performed for some otherwise healthy patients with severe GER. In this procedure, the gastrointestinal tract is reconstructed in a non-physiological way with a Roux-en-Y esophagojejunal anastomosis and jejuno-jejunostomy. Although TED eliminates almost all GER, some patients experience late complications. In this review, we investigated the long-term outcomes after TED to determine the best indications...
February 12, 2018: Surgery Today
Piia Jõul, Merike Vaher, Maria Kuhtinskaja
In this study, SPE method using a carbon aerogel(CA)-based sorbent was developed and evaluated for the simultaneous extraction of sulfur mustard (HD) degradation products from environmental water samples. Applied CAs proved to be very promising materials for use as SPE sorbents, due to their high porosity, very low density and a large specific surface area. 10 degradation products of HD, both aliphatic and cyclic (thiodiglycol (TDG), TDG sulfoxide, TDG sulfone, 3,5-dithia-1,7-heptanediol, 3,6-dithia-1,8-octanediol, 1,4-thioxane, 1,3-dithiolane, 1,4-dithiane, 1,2,5-trithiepane, and 1,4,5-oxadithiepane) were extracted on a CA-based SPE cartridge...
February 6, 2018: Chemosphere
H R Otsyina, J Nguhiu-Mwangi, E G M Mogoa, P G Mbuthia, W O Ogara
The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in the Nairobi and Kajiado Counties, Kenya, on the usage, disposal, and effect of plastic waste on sheep and goats (shoats). A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 384 respondents in four communities in the two counties. Most of the people irrespective of their age, occupation, and educational status used plastic bags of some type on a daily basis. A high proportion of the respondents (37.0%, 142) used plastic bags because of the low cost...
February 8, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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