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Pulmonary aspergillosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928005/sensitive-and-selective-quantification-of-total-and-free-itraconazole-and-hydroxyitraconazole-in-human-plasma-using-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Yosuke Suzuki, Ryota Tanaka, Nobuhiro Oyama, Ko Nonoshita, Kazuhiko Hashinaga, Kenji Umeki, Yuhki Sato, Kazufumi Hiramatsu, Jun-Ichi Kadota, Hiroki Itoh
OBJECTIVES: Protein-free (unbound) drug concentrations have been reported to be better biomarker of pharmacodynamics compared with total drug concentrations. In this study, we developed and validated an assay for the quantification of total and free itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole, a main metabolite with antifungal activity, in human plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). DESIGN & METHODS: Plasma sample was ultra-filtrated for the measurement of free itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole concentrations...
September 16, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924369/il-12-influence-mtor-to-modulate-cd8-t-cells-differentiation-through-t-bet-and-eomesodermin-in-response-to-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#2
Hao Wang, Jingdong Li, Qiyang Han, Fei Yang, Yu Xiao, Meng Xiao, Yingchun Xu, Longxiang Su, Na Cui, Dawei Liu
Objective: To investigate whether mTOR signaling pathway regulate the proliferation and differentiation of CD8(+) T cells by transcription factors T-bet and Eomes, and explore the role of IL-12 in this biological procedure. Methods: Aspergillus fumigatus spore suspension nasal inhalation was used to establish the invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) mouse model. After inoculation, rapamycin (2mg/kg) each day or IL-12 (5ug/kg) every other day was given for 7 days. The blood samples were obtained before the mice sacrificed and lung specimens were taken...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923871/emergence-of-echinocandin-resistance-due-to-a-point-mutation-in-the-fks1-gene-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-a-patient-with-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#3
Cristina Jiménez-Ortigosa, Caroline Moore, David W Denning, David S Perlin
We have identified the first case of a fks1 hot spot 1 point mutation causing echinocandin resistance in a clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolate recovered from a chronic pulmonary aspergillosis patient with an aspergilloma who first failed azole and polyene therapy, and then subsequently failed micafungin treatment.
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923131/innate-and-adaptive-immune-response-to-chronic-pulmonary-infection-of-hyphae-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-a-new-murine-model
#4
Fengyuan Wang, Caiyun Zhang, Yuan Jiang, Caixia Kou, Qingtao Kong, Nanbiao Long, Ling Lu, Hong Sang
PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) has seldom been studied due partly to a lack of animal models. Since hypha is the main morphology colonizing the airway in CPA, it's critical to study the immune reaction to chronic pulmonary infection of hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus, which also has seldom been studied in vivo before. METHODOLOGY: We established a novel murine model of chronic pulmonary infection of hyphae by challenging immunocompetent mice with tightly-structured hyphae balls intratracheally, and described the ensuing immunoreaction to hyphae and conidia, and the pathogenesis of CPA...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922489/clinical-evaluation-of-the-newly-formatted-lateral-flow-device-for-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#5
Martin Hoenigl, Susanne Eigl, Sven Heldt, Wiebke Duettmann, Christopher Thornton, Juergen Prattes
The study evaluated the newly formatted Aspergillus-specific lateral-flow-device (LFD), and compared its performance to the original prototype "old" LFD test using BALF samples from 28 patients (14 patients with probable/proven invasive pulmonary aspergillosis [IPA] and 14 patients with no evidence for IPA). A total of 10/14 (71%) of BALF samples from patients with probable/proven IPA resulted positive with the new LFD, including 8/9 with true-positive and 2/5 with false-negative results with the old LFD. All 14 samples from patients without IPA resulted negative with the new LFD; specificity of the new LFD was significantly improved compared to the old LFD...
September 18, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920166/clinical-significance-of-aspergillus-species-isolated-from-respiratory-specimens-in-patients-with-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease
#6
K Furuuchi, A Ito, T Hashimoto, S Kumagai, T Ishida
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is associated with mortality in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD). An Aspergillus-positive respiratory specimen often reflects colonization, and thus the clinical significance of Aspergillus isolation in MAC-LD patients is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MAC-LD patients in whom Aspergillus was isolated from respiratory specimens. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of 329 MAC-LD patients...
September 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918972/-mycological-and-parasitological-examinations-in-the-management-of-lung-infections
#7
REVIEW
L Lachaud, J P Gangneux
Pulmonary parasitic diseases are rare whereas pulmonary fungal infections are increasing. The diversity of clinical presentations requires laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis. Direct examination of lung samples and antibody detection are the basis of parasitological diagnosis. With regard to mycoses, the range of biological tests is broader. The conventional mycological examination allows identification of any type of fungus except Pneumocystis jirovecii. Its specificity is excellent but it lacks sensitivity...
September 14, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912884/towards-translational-immunopet-mr-imaging-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-the-humanised-monoclonal-antibody-jf5-detects-aspergillus-lung-infections-in-vivo
#8
Genna Davies, Anna-Maria Rolle, Andreas Maurer, Philipp R Spycher, Claudia Schillinger, Djamschid Solouk-Saran, Mike Hasenberg, Juliane Weski, Jesper Fonslet, Adrien Dubois, Frederic Boschetti, Franck Denat, Matthias Gunzer, Martin Eichner, Lauren S Ryder, Mikael Jensen, Roger Schibli, Bernd J Pichler, Stefan Wiehr, Christopher R Thornton
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease of hematological malignancy or bone marrow transplant patients caused by the ubiquitous environmental fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Current diagnostic tests for the disease lack sensitivity as well as specificity, and culture of the fungus from invasive lung biopsy, considered the gold standard for IPA detection, is slow and often not possible in critically ill patients. In a previous study, we reported the development of a novel non-invasive procedure for IPA diagnosis based on antibody-guided positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (immunoPET/MRI) using a [(64)Cu]DOTA-labeled mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb), mJF5, specific to Aspergillus...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911045/azole-resistant-aspergillosis-epidemiology-molecular-mechanisms-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Anuradha Chowdhary, Cheshta Sharma, Jacques F Meis
Aspergillus fumigatus remains the most common species in all pulmonary syndromes, followed by Aspergillus flavus which is a common cause of allergic rhinosinusitis, postoperative aspergillosis and fungal keratitis. The manifestations of Aspergillus infections include invasive aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and bronchitis. Allergic manifestations of inhaled Aspergillus include allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Triazoles are the mainstay of therapy against Aspergillus infections for treatment and prophylaxis...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905439/testing-the-performance-of-a-prototype-lateral-flow-device-using-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-high-risk-patients
#10
Caroline G Castillo, Carol A Kauffman, Jingyi Zhai, Hui Jiang, Stephanie M Agozino, Marisa H Miceli
The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) increasingly relies on non-culture-based biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The Aspergillus lateral flow device (LFD) is a rapid immunoassay that uses a novel Aspergillus monoclonal antibody to gain specificity. The objective of the study is to compare specificity and sensitivity of the prototype LFD and the galactomannan (GM) enzyme immunoassay in BAL fluid in high-risk patients. A total of 114 BAL samples from 106 patients at high risk for IPA were studied: 8 patients had proven/probable IPA, 16 had possible IPA and 82 did not have IPA...
September 14, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904353/toll-like-receptor%C3%A2-2-induced-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-associated-protein%C3%A2-4-regulates-aspergillus-induced-regulatory-t-cells-with-pro-inflammatory-characteristics
#11
Ruud P H Raijmakers, Evelien G G Sprenkeler, Floor E Aleva, Cor W M Jacobs, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Leo A B Joosten, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Mark S Gresnigt
Patients with cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe asthma, pre-existing pulmonary lesions, and severely immunocompromised patients are susceptible to develop infections with the opportunistic pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, called aspergillosis. Infections in these patients are associated with persistent pro-inflammatory T-helper (TH)2 and TH17 responses. Regulatory T-cells, natural suppressor cells of the immune system, control pro-inflammatory T-cell responses, but can also contribute to disease by shifting to a pro-inflammatory TH17-like phenotype...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877383/levels-of-interleukin-il-6-and-il-8-are-elevated-in-serum-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-of-haematological-patients-with-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#12
Sven Heldt, Susanne Eigl, Juergen Prattes, Holger Flick, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Florian Prüller, Tobias Niedrist, Peter Neumeister, Albert Wölfler, Heimo Strohmaier, Robert Krause, Martin Hoenigl
Aspergillus spp. have been shown to induce T-helper cell (Th) 1 and Th17 subsets resulting in elevated levels of several cytokines. The objective of this study was to analyse a bundle of cytokines in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with and without invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). This nested case-control analysis included 10 patients with probable/proven IPA and 20 matched controls without evidence of IPA, out of a pool of prospectively enrolled (2014-2017) adult cases with underlying haematological malignancies and suspected pulmonary infection...
September 6, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864921/invasive-pulmonary-fungal-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#13
Carsten Schwarz, Claudia Brandt, Paul Whitaker, Sivagurunathan Sutharsan, Heino Skopnik, Silvia Gartner, Christina Smazny, Jobst F Röhmel
Invasive pulmonary mycosis is after allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) a frequent and severe complication of CF lung disease. Among CF caregivers, there is an insecurity when and how to treat infections of the lung parenchyma caused by different fungi in patients with CF. This case series provides a multicenter experience on diagnostic, manifestation, and treatment of non-ABPA cases of pulmonary. Non-ABPA cases of pulmonary mycoses in patients with CF have been collected from the CF Centers in Berlin, Essen, Worms, Frankfurt (Germany), Leeds (UK), and Barcelona (Spain)...
September 1, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830945/pharmacodynamics-of-the-orotomides-against-aspergillus-fumigatus-new-opportunities-for-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-fungal-disease
#14
William W Hope, Laura McEntee, Joanne Livermore, Sarah Whalley, Adam Johnson, Nicola Farrington, Ruwanthi Kolamunnage-Dona, Julie Schwartz, Anthony Kennedy, Derek Law, Michael Birch, John H Rex
F901318 is an antifungal agent with a novel mechanism of action and potent activity against Aspergillus spp. An understanding of the pharmacodynamics (PD) of F901318 is required for selection of effective regimens for study in phase II and III clinical trials. Neutropenic murine and rabbit models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis were used. The primary PD endpoint was serum galactomannan. The relationships between drug exposure and the impacts of dose fractionation on galactomannan, survival, and histopathology were determined...
August 22, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826456/chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-as-a-cause-of-smear-negative-tb-and-or-tb-treatment-failure-in-nigerians
#15
R O Oladele, N K Irurhe, P Foden, A S Akanmu, T Gbaja-Biamila, A Nwosu, H A Ekundayo, F T Ogunsola, M D Richardson, D W Denning
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) as an alternative diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) and treatment failure in TB patients in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional multicentre survey in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative adult patients at the end of their TB treatment in clinics in Lagos and Ilorin states. All were assessed using clinical examination, chest X-ray (CXR) and aspergillus immunoglobulin G (IgG) serology, and some for sputum fungal culture...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804700/abridged-version-of-the-awmf-guideline-for-the-medical-clinical-diagnostics-of-indoor-mould-exposure-s2k-guideline-of-the-german-society-of-hygiene-environmental-medicine-and-preventive-medicine-ghup-in-collaboration-with-the-german-association-of-allergists
#16
Gerhard A Wiesmüller, Birger Heinzow, Ute Aurbach, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Albrecht Bufe, Walter Buzina, Oliver A Cornely, Steffen Engelhart, Guido Fischer, Thomas Gabrio, Werner Heinz, Caroline E W Herr, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ludger Klimek, Martin Köberle, Herbert Lichtnecker, Thomas Lob-Corzilius, Rolf Merget, Norbert Mülleneisen, Dennis Nowak, Uta Rabe, Monika Raulf, Hans Peter Seidl, Jens-Oliver Steiß, Regine Szewszyk, Peter Thomas, Kerttu Valtanen, Julia Hurraß
This article is an abridged version of the AWMF mould guideline "Medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure" presented in April 2016 by the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin, GHUP), in collaboration with the above-mentioned scientific medical societies, German and Austrian societies, medical associations and experts. Indoor mould growth is a potential health risk, even if a quantitative and/or causal relationship between the occurrence of individual mould species and health problems has yet to be established...
2017: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797493/allergic-and-noninvasive-infectious-pulmonary-aspergillosis-syndromes
#17
REVIEW
Eavan G Muldoon, Mary E Strek, Karen C Patterson
Aspergillus spp are ubiquitous in the environment, and inhalation of Aspergillus spores is unavoidable. An intact immune system, with normal airway function, protects most people from disease. Globally, however, the toll from aspergillosis is high. The literature has largely focused on invasive aspergillosis, yet the burden in terms of chronicity and prevalence is higher for noninvasive Aspergillus conditions. This article discusses allergic aspergilloses and provides an update on the diagnosis and management of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, including in patients with cystic fibrosis, and an update on severe asthma with fungal sensitization...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797271/successful-long-term-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-a-case-report
#18
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Kei Nishiyama, Nobuaki Shime
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is an established life-saving procedure for severe acute respiratory failure due to various causes. In general, the duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ranges from 1 to 2 weeks, with withdrawal recommended if no improvement is noted. We report a successful case of long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management for respiratory failure due to invasive pulmonary Aspergillus infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old Asian man with no previous underlying medical conditions was transferred to our hospital for fever and dyspnea...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795412/severe-neurological-disorders-and-refractory-aspergillosis-in-an-adolescent-treated-by-vincristine-and-voriconazole
#19
Y Bennis, S Bodeau, A Lutun, A Gourmel, C Solas, S Quaranta, N Guillaume, T Chouaki, A-S Lemaire-Hurtel, K Masmoudi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Voriconazole and vincristine are major therapeutics in paediatric haematology. However, the risk-benefit ratio of the treatment of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole in patients receiving vincristine-based chemotherapy remains unclear. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report severe peripheral and central neurological disorders in a 14-year-old girl with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and pulmonary aspergillosis. The case describes a strong exacerbation by voriconazole of the vincristine-induced neuropathic pains...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790413/liquid-based-cytopathology-test-as-a-novel-method-to-identify-aspergillus-in-patients-with-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#20
Yongchun Shen, Xiaorong Zhang, Wenyi Lin, Chun Wan, Qiyuan Li, Yong Jiang
Conventional cytopathology examination of respiratory samples can aid in identifying Aspergillus but with poor sensitivity, so this study aimed to assess the potential of the liquid-based cytopathology test (LCT) for improving the identification of Aspergillus in respiratory samples following Papanicolaou's or Special staining with Grocott's methenamine silver or periodic acid-Schiff staining. Paired bronchial brushing samples (n = 54) and sputum samples (n = 117) from 171 patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were prepared as slides using either conventional cytopathology or SurePath LCT...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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