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Hui Zhou, Kui Lin-Wang, Furong Wang, Richard V Espley, Fei Ren, Jianbo Zhao, Collins Ogutu, Huaping He, Quan Jiang, Andrew C Allan, Yuepeng Han
Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) accumulation is regulated by both MYB activators and repressors, but little information is available on hierarchical interactions between the positive and negative regulators. Here, we report on a R2R3-MYB repressor in peach, designated PpMYB18, which acts as a negative regulator of anthocyanin and PA accumulation. PpMYB18 can be activated by both anthocyanin- and PA-related MYB activators, and is expressed both at fruit ripening and juvenile stages when anthocyanins or Pas, respectively, are being synthesized...
September 17, 2018: New Phytologist
Hong Zhu, Wei Cao, Peng Zhao, Jieyu Wang, Yuying Qian, Yun Li
Hyperosmotic stress may be initiated during a diverse range pathological circumstances, which in turn results in tissue damage. In this process, the activation of survival signaling, which has the capacity to restore cell homeostasis, determines cell fate. Autophagy is responsible for cell survival and is activated by various pathological stimuli. However, its interplay with hyperosmotic stress and its effect on terminally differentiated cardiac myocytes is unknown. Nuclear factor of activated T‑cells 5 (NFAT5), an osmo‑sensitive transcription factor, mediates the expression of cell survival associated‑genes under hyperosmotic conditions...
September 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
James G Coey, Paula J Whittaker, Greg Williams, Umar H Ikram, Oliver J R Page
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that fibrin tissue adhesive (FTA) can act as an effective alternative to nasal packing in managing the postoperative symptoms of endoscopic nasal surgery. METHODOLOGY: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing FTA with nasal packing in endoscopic nasal surgery. The primary outcome of interest was bleeding; secondary outcomes included pain, nasal obstruction, infection, adhesions and the formation of granulation tissue...
September 17, 2018: Rhinology
Kirti D Doekhie, Mathilde M H Strating, Martina Buljac-Samardzic, Hester M van de Bovenkamp, Jaap Paauwe
BACKGROUND: Patient involvement in the decision-making process, especially for chronically ill elderly patients, has become an important element of patient-centred primary care in many countries, including the Netherlands. This study openly explores different perspectives of patients, informal caregivers and primary care professionals on patient involvement in primary care team interactions. METHODS: Sixty-four qualitative semi-structured interviews with chronically ill elderly patients, informal caregivers and primary care professionals from various disciplines...
September 17, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Rachel A Johnson, Alyson Huntley, Rachael A Hughes, Helen Cramer, Katrina M Turner, Ben Perkins, Gene Feder
BACKGROUND: Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a common long-term health condition. Patient involvement in treating and monitoring hypertension is essential. Control of hypertension improves population cardiovascular outcomes. However, for an individual, potential benefits and harms of treatment are finely balanced. Shared decision making has the potential to align decisions with the preferences and values of patients. OBJECTIVE: Determine the effectiveness of interventions to support shared decision making in hypertension...
September 17, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Sivakumar Prasanth Kumar
Ensemble methods are gaining more importance in structure-based approaches as single protein-ligand complexes strongly influence the outcomes of virtual screening. Structure-based pharmacophore modeling based on a single protein-ligand complex with complex feature combinations is often limited to certain chemical classes. The REPHARMBLE (receptor pharmacophore ensemble) approach presented here examines the ability of an ensemble of selected protein-ligand complexes to populate pharmacophore space in the ligand binding site, rigorously assesses the importance of pharmacophore features using Poisson statistic and information theory-based entropy calculations, and generates pharmacophore models with high probabilities...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Kyoko Ito, Massimo Bonora, Keisuke Ito
HSCs have a fate choice when they divide; they can self-renew, producing new HSCs, or produce daughter cells that will mature to become committed cells. Technical challenges, however, have long obscured the mechanics of these choices. Advances in flow-sorting have made possible the purification of HSC populations, but available HSC-enriched fractions still include substantial heterogeneity, and single HSCs have proven extremely difficult to track and observe. Advances in single-cell approaches, however, have led to the identification of a highly purified population of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that make a critical contribution to hematopoietic homeostasis through a preference for self-renewing division...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Razi Khan, Eric Rheaume, Jean-Claude Tardif
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to examine the role of IL-1β in the inflammatory process central to the development of atherosclerosis and to discuss current clinical evidence for treatments targeting IL-1β in coronary artery disease. RECENT FINDINGS: IL-1β has been shown to modulate atherosclerotic plaque progression by upregulating the synthesis of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, as well increasing activation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells...
September 15, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Markus Islinger, Alfred Voelkl, H Dariush Fahimi, Michael Schrader
Peroxisomes are key metabolic organelles, which contribute to cellular lipid metabolism, e.g. the β-oxidation of fatty acids and the synthesis of myelin sheath lipids, as well as cellular redox balance. Peroxisomal dysfunction has been linked to severe metabolic disorders in man, but peroxisomes are now also recognized as protective organelles with a wider significance in human health and potential impact on a large number of globally important human diseases such as neurodegeneration, obesity, cancer, and age-related disorders...
September 15, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Lucas Faverjon, Abraham Escobar-Gutiérrez, Isabelle Litrico, Bernadette Julier, Gaëtan Louarn
The performance of an individual-based model accounting for the dynamics of forage legumes in multi-species grasslands was assessed. Morphogenetic shoot and root parameters were calibrated for seven widely-used species. Other model parameters, which concerned C and N metabolism, were obtained from the literature. The model was evaluated using a series of independent experiments combining the seven species in binary mixtures subject to regular defoliation.For all the species, the model could accurately simulate phytomer demography, leaf area dynamics, and root growth under conditions of weak competition...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Priscilla Y Hsue, Heather J Ribaudo, Steven G Deeks, Tanvir Bell, Paul M Ridker, Carl Fichtenbaum, Eric S Daar, Diane Havlir, Eunice Yeh, Ahmed Tawakol, Michael Lederman, Judith S Currier, James H Stein
Background: Chronic inflammation in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with mortality and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We evaluated the safety and potential efficacy of low-dose methotrexate (LDMTX) in treated HIV. Methods: This was a phase II randomized, double-blind, multi-center trial in adults with treated HIV ≥40 years old with CD4+ T-cells ≥400 cells/mm 3 and with or at increased risk for ASCVD. Participants received LDMTX (5 to15 mg/week) or placebo (+ folic acid) for 24 weeks and were followed for an additional 12 weeks...
September 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Anna Räsch, Mauricio Hunsche, Matthias Mail, Jürgen Burkhardt, Georg Noga, Shyam Pariyar
Adjuvants such as surfactants are commonly incorporated into agrochemical formulations to enhance the biological efficiency of foliar sprays by improving the wetting behavior of the spray and/or the penetration of the active ingredients into the leaf tissues. Penetration accelerating adjuvants are known to increase the cuticular permeability and may alter the cuticular barrier to water loss. However, none or very little emphasis has been given to the impacts of adjuvants on crop water balance or drought tolerance, a very important factor affecting crop performance under water scarcity...
September 3, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Tobias M Seibt, Bettina Proneth, Marcus Conrad
Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of cell death characterized by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation and metabolic constraints. Dependence on NADPH/H+, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and the mevalonate and glutaminolysis metabolic pathways have been implicated in this novel form of regulated necrotic cell death. Genetic studies performed in cells and mice established the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPX4) as the key regulator of this form of cell death. Besides these genetic models, the identification of a series of small molecule ferroptosis-specific inhibitors and inducers have not only helped in the delineation of the molecular underpinnings of ferroptosis but they might also prove highly beneficial when tipping the balance between cell death inhibition and induction in the context of degenerative diseases and cancer, respectively...
September 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Cuiling Mo, Zhuotong Zeng, Qiancheng Deng, Yan Ding, Rong Xiao
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease that is characterized by fibrosis, inflammation, and vasculopathy of the skin and internal organs. The etiopathogenesis of SSc remains unclear. However, the pivotal role of T lymphocytes with an aberrant immune response in SSc is well established. Among T cells, IL-17-producing helper T (Th17) cell and regulatory T (Treg) cell subsets have recently been found to play crucial roles in SSc pathogenesis. Generally speaking, Th17 cell subsets up-regulate inflammation, fibrosis, and autoimmunity, which are present in SSc, while Treg cell subsets have an immunosuppressive function and resist the immunological performance of Th17 cells...
September 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Delphine Turpin, Adeline Furudoi, Marie Parrens, Patrick Blanco, Jean-François Viallard, Dorothée Duluc
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by low levels of circulating immunoglobulins and defects in B cell maturation leading to an increased susceptibility to infections. Some patients develop complications such as autoimmune diseases, enteropathy, and lymphoproliferation, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality. Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are specialized in helping B cell differentiation into Ig-producing cells. Three subsets have been described, namely non B-cell helper Tfh1 and the two B-helper cell subsets Tfh2 and Tfh17...
September 13, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Zubayeda Zahan, Stelios Georgiou, Tim H Muster, Maazuza Z Othman
In this study, four agro-industrial substrates, chicken litter (CL), food waste (FW), wheat straw (WS) and hay grass (HG) were assessed as feedstock for anaerobic digestion (AD) under semi-continuous conditions at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2.0-3.0 g TS/L.d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days. Six different substrate mixtures were prepared such that the C/N ratio of each was 20 or more. Using principal component analysis 68.1% of data variability was explained. Biogas production from CL, as a single substrate, was 181...
September 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Whitney E Hornsby, Mohamed-Ali Sareini, Jessica R Golbus, Cristen J Willer, Jennifer L McNamara, Matthew C Konerman, Scott L Hummel
BACKGROUND: Frailty reflects decreased resilience to physiologic stressors; its prevalence and prognosis are not fully defined in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was prospectively obtained in 114 outpatients with HFpEF. The SPPB tests gait speed, tandem balance, and timed chair rises, each scored 0-4 points. Severe and mild frailty were respectively defined as an SPPB score ≤6 and 7-9 points...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Chen Ling, Guan-Qing Qiao, Bo-Wen Shuai, Karel Olavarria, Jin Yin, Rui-Juan Xiang, Kun-Nan Song, Yun-Hao Shen, Yingying Guo, Guo-Qiang Chen
Halomonas bluephagenesis has been developed as a platform strain for the next generation industrial biotechnology (NGIB) with advantages of resistances to microbial contamination and high cell density growth (HCD), especially for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) including poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P34HB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). However, little is known about the mechanism behind PHA accumulation under oxygen limitation...
September 13, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Yinhui Qin, Shengsheng Qiang, Shengli Ji, Zhiyang Liu, Chaoyu Hu, Shutao Ma
A novel series of 3-O-arylalkylcarbamoyl-3-O-descladinosyl-9-O-(2-chlorobenzyl)oxime clarithromycin derivatives, were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity. These derivatives were found to have strong activity against susceptible and resistant bacteria strains. Among them, compounds 7a and 7q showed the most potent activity (0.125 µg/mL) against erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae expressing the mefA gene. Moreover, compounds 7f, 7i, 7p and 7z displayed remarkably improved activity (4 µg/mL) against penicillin-resistant S...
September 10, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
James T Fletcher, Jill M Sobczyk, Sarah C Gwazdacz, Aaron J Blanck
A series of 1,3,4-trisubstituted-1,2,3-triazolium bromide salts were prepared by efficient two-step sequences of azide-alkyne cycloaddition and benzylic substitution. The antimicrobial activity of each triazolium salt and correlating triazole precursor was evaluated using a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. MIC activities as low as 1 µM against Gram-positive bacteria, 8 µM against Gram-negative bacteria and 4 µM against fungi were observed for salt analogs, while neutral triazoles were inactive...
September 10, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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