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Matthew Silver, Stephanie Selke, Peter Balsaa, Annette Wefer-Roehl, Christine Kübeck, Christoph Schüth
Infiltration of treated wastewater (TWW) to recharge depleted aquifers, often referred to as managed aquifer recharge, is a solution to replenish groundwater resources in regions facing water scarcity. We present a mass balance approach to infer the amounts of five pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, fenoprofen, gemfibrozil, and naproxen) degraded in column experiments based on concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the aqueous and solid (sorbed) phases. Column experiments were conducted under three different conditions: continuous infiltration, wetting and drying cycles, and wetting and drying cycles with elevated concentrations of antibiotics (which may reduce microbially aided degradation of other compounds)...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhenhua Song, Yan Liu, Rong Song, Zhenguang Chen, Jianyong Yang, Chao Zhang, Qing Jiang
A novel sparsity-based stochastic pooling which integrates the advantages of max-pooling, average-pooling and stochastic pooling is introduced. The proposed pooling is designed to balance the advantages and disadvantages of max-pooling and average-pooling by using the degree of sparsity of activations and a control function to obtain an optimized representative feature value ranging from average value to maximum value of a pooling region. The optimized representative feature value is employed for probability weights assignment of activations in normal distribution...
June 15, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Duncan Taylor, Bas Kokshoorn, Alex Biedermann
The evaluation of results of forensic genetic analyses given activity level propositions is an emerging discipline in forensic genetics. Although it is a topic with a long history, it has never been considered to be such a critically important topic for the field, as today. With the increasing sensitivity of analysis techniques, and advances in data interpretation using probabilistic models ('probabilistic genotyping'), there is an increasing demand on forensic biologists to share specialised knowledge to help recipients of expert information address mode and timing of transfer and persistence of traces in court...
June 7, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Hongdong Chen, Yeyang Wang, Huaiqian Dai, Xinggui Tian, Zhong-Kai Cui, Zhenguo Chen, Le Hu, Qiancheng Song, Anling Liu, Zhiyong Zhang, Guozhi Xiao, Jian Yang, Yu Jiang, Xiaochun Bai
High concentration of citrate exists in bone of humans and all osteo-vertebrates, and citrate incorporation imparts important biomechanical and other functional properties to bone. However, which cells are responsible for citrate production in bone remains unclear and whether the citrate component changes with bone loss during osteoporosis is also not known. Here, we show that the citrate content is markedly reduced in the bone of mice or rats with age-related, ovariectomy-induced or retinoic acid-induced bone loss...
June 18, 2018: Bone
Bowen Hu, Xi Yang, Huiliang Yang, Limin Liu, Peiran Chen, Linnan Wang, Ce Zhu, Chunguang Zhou, Yueming Song
BACKGROUND: Choosing the fusion level for posterior fusion in Lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients is highly associated with coronal balance. Previous studies indicated that in patients with lowest end vertebra tilt > 25°, surgeons could extend distal fusion to avoid coronal imbalance. This study aimed to assess the risk factors for coronal imbalance in Lenke 5C scoliosis, and to discuss how to select fusion level. METHODS: We reviewed 59 Lenke 5C AIS patients in one institution with at least 2-years' follow-up from 2010 through 2015...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
István Márkus, Ádám Tibor Schlégl, Máté Burkus, Kristóf József, Bálint Niklai, Péter Than, Miklós Tunyogi-Csapó
STUDY HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that altered coronal balance in adolescent scoliosis leads to asymmetric stress on the lower limbs, with subsequent effects on bone maturation and later morphology. We aimed to assess the correlation between the biomechanical parameters of the lower limbs and coronal balance in idiopathic scoliosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, EOS images of 280 patients and 56 controls were randomly selected from our clinics' database...
June 18, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Ye-Qing Qian, Xiao-Qing Wang, Min Chen, Yu-Qin Luo, Kai Yan, Yan-Mei Yang, Bei Liu, Li-Ya Wang, Ying-Zhi Huang, Hong-Ge Li, Hang-Yi Pan, Fan Jin, Min-Yue Dong
BACKGROUND: Fetal chromosome aberrations and sub-chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs) are not rare. There are several ways to detect duplications and deletions; cell-free DNA screening (cfDNA screening) is nowadays an accurate and safe detection method. The objective of this study is to report the feasibility of cfDNA screening as an indicator of parental balanced chromosome translocation. RESULTS: From February 2015 to March 2016, cfDNA screening was offered to 11344 pregnant women...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Christopher Strouse, Ying Zhang, Mei-Jie Zhang, Alyssa DiGilio, Marcelo Pasquini, Mary M Horowitz, Stephanie Lee, Vincent Ho, Muthalagu Ramanathan, Wichai Chinratanalab, Alison Loren, Linda J Burns, Andrew Artz, Kathleen F Villa, Wael Saber
BACKGROUND: A risk score identifying patients at high risk for veno-occlusive disease (VOD) may aid efforts to study preventive strategies for this uncommon complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). METHODS: Patients receiving a first allogeneic HCT between 2008-2013 as reported to the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research (N=13,097) were randomly divided into training and validation sets. Independent prognostic factors for development of VOD by day+100 post HCT were identified with a multivariate logistic regression model...
June 18, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Monique Chalansonnet, Maria Carreres-Pons, Thomas Venet, Aurélie Thomas, Lise Merlen, Carole Seidel, Frédéric Cosnier, Hervé Nunge, Benoît Pouyatos, Jordi Llorens, Pierre Campo
Chronic occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) has debilitating motor and sensory effects in humans, which can increase the risk of falls. Although no mention of vestibulotoxic effects is contained in the literature, epidemiological and experimental data suggest that CS2 could cause low-frequency hearing loss when associated with noise exposure. Low-frequency noise might also perturb the peripheral balance receptor through an as-yet unclear mechanism. Here, we studied how exposure to a low-frequency noise combined with 250-ppm CS2 affected balance in rats...
June 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
S Gasparini, M R Melo, G M F Andrade-Franzé, J C Geerling, J V Menani, E Colombari
Aldosterone infusion into the 4th ventricle (4th V), upstream the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), produces strong 0.3 M NaCl intake. In the present study, we investigated whether aldosterone infusion into the 4th V activates HSD2 neurons, changes renal excretion, or alters blood pressure and cardiovascular reflexes. Chronic infusion of aldosterone (100 ng/h) into the 4th V increased daily 0.3 M NaCl intake (up to 44 ± 10, vs. vehicle: 5.6 ± 3.4 ml/24 h) and also c-Fos expression in HSD2 neurons in the NTS and in non-HSD2 neurons in the NTS...
June 18, 2018: Brain Research
Andreas V Copan, Alexander Yu Sokolov
We present a linear-response formulation of density cumulant theory (DCT) that provides a balanced and accurate description of many electronic states simultaneously. In the original DCT formulation, only information about a single electronic state (usually, the ground state) is obtained. We discuss the derivation of linear-response DCT, present its implementation for the ODC-12 method (LR-ODC-12), and benchmark its performance for excitation energies in small molecules (N2 , CO, HCN, HNC, C2 H2 , and H2 CO), as well as challenging excited states in ethylene, butadiene, and hexatriene...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Katharina Hammerbacher, Katharina Görtemaker, Christine Knies, Eugenia Bender, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Helmut Rosemeyer, Ralf Kinscherf
Two series of nucleolipids, (i) O-2',3'-heptanylidene- as well as O-2',3'-undecanylidene ketals of 6 ß-D-ribonucleosides (type A) and partly N-farnesyl derivatives thereof (type B) were prepared in a combinatorial manner. All novel compounds were characterized by elemental analysis and/or ESI mass spectrometry and by UV-, 1 H-, and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. Conformational parameters of the nucleosides and nucleolipids were calculated from various 3 J(H,H), 3 J(1 H,13 C) and 5 J(F,H) coupling constants. For a drug profiling the parent nucleosides and their lipophilic derivatives were studied with respect to their distribution (log P) between water and n-octanol as well as water and cyclohexane...
June 21, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Nicholas R Smith, John R Swain, Paige S Davies, Alexandra C Gallagher, Michael S Parappilly, Catherine Z Beach, Philip R Streeter, Ian A Williamson, Scott T Magness, Melissa H Wong
Background & Aims: Continual renewal of the intestinal epithelium is dependent on active- and slow-cycling stem cells that are confined to the crypt base. Tight regulation of these stem cell populations maintains homeostasis by balancing proliferation and differentiation to support critical intestinal functions. The hierarchical relation of discrete stem cell populations in homeostasis or during regenerative epithelial repair remains controversial. Although recent studies have supported a model for the active-cycling leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5)+ intestinal stem cell (ISC) functioning upstream of the slow-cycling B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi1)-expressing cell, other studies have reported the opposite relation...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Shinya Kimata, Daichi Mochizuki, Junichi Satoh, Ken Kitano, Yu Kanesaki, Kouji Takeda, Akira Abe, Shinji Kawasaki, Youichi Niimura
Amphibacillus xylanus is a recently identified bacterium which grows well under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and may prove useful for biomass utilization. Amphibacillus xylanus, despite lacking a respiratory chain, consumes oxygen at a similar rate to Escherichia coli (130-140 μmol oxygen·min-1 ·g-1 dry cells at 37 °C), suggesting that it has an alternative system that uses a large amount of oxygen. Amphibacillus xylanus NADH oxidase (Nox) was previously reported to rapidly reduce molecular oxygen content in the presence of exogenously added free flavin...
June 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Aino Tietäväinen, Maria Kuvaldina, Edward Hæggström
Sleep deprivation may cause accidents, and it has deteriorating effects on health. A measurement of postural steadiness by a portable and affordable Nintendo Wii Fit balance board can be used to quantify a person's alertness. At work, people are under the influence of their environment-often other people-that may affect their alertness. This work investigates whether sleep deprivation among people is "contagious," as quantified by sway measures. We measured 21 volunteers' postural steadiness while alert and sleep deprived...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez
Exacerbation of COPD is associated with a worsening of lung function and symptoms, and a serious loss in functional status and health related quality of life. It also represents the major cause for emergency hospitalization in COPD patients which places the patient at risk for developing further muscle weakness. Actually, loss of muscle function developed fast and continued to decrease over time during hospitalization and may be further compromised when disease deterioration would require the use of ventilator support...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Ramzi Lakhdar, Roberto A Rabinovich
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associates with several extra-pulmonary effects. Muscle dysfunction and wasting is one of the most prominent extra-pulmonary effects and contributes to exercise limitation and health related quality of life (HRQoL), morbidity as well as mortality. The loss of muscle mass is characterised by an impaired balance between protein synthesis (anabolism) and protein breakdown (catabolism) which relates to nutritional disturbances, muscle disuse and the presence of a systemic inflammation, among other factors...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Joaquim Gea, Antoni Sancho-Muñoz, Roberto Chalela
Nutritional abnormalities are frequent in different chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis (CF), interstitial fibrosis and lung cancer, having important clinical consequences. However, nutritional abnormalities often remained underdiagnosed due to the relative lack of awareness of health professionals. Therefore, systematic anthropometry or even better, assessment of body composition, should be performed in all patients with chronic respiratory conditions, especially following exacerbation periods when malnutrition becomes more accentuated...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Jae Won Yang, Chunhui Suh, Chae Kwan Lee, Byung Chul Son
Background: It is challenging to balance work and life, and little attention has been paid to the work-life balance and psychosocial well-being of South Koreans. We assessed the association between work-life balance and psychosocial well-being among paid Korean workers. Methods: This study was based on data from the fourth Korean Working Conditions Survey. We evaluated only paid workers, which constituted 30,649 of the total of 50,007 subjects surveyed. Poor work-life balance was defined based on the goodness of fit between working hours and social commitments...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Karina Vargas-Sánchez, Maria Mogilevskaya, John Rodríguez-Pérez, María G Rubiano, José J Javela, Rodrigo E González-Reyes
Status epilepticus is a medical emergency with elevated morbidity and mortality rates, and represents a leading cause of epilepsy-related deaths. Though status epilepticus can occur at any age, it manifests more likely in children and elderly people. Despite the common prevalence of epileptic disorders, a complete explanation for the mechanisms leading to development of self-limited or long lasting seizures (as in status epilepticus) are still lacking. Apart from neurons, research evidence suggests the involvement of immune and glial cells in epileptogenesis...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
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