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Ursula Danner, Tanja Macheiner, Alexander Avian, Nina Lackner, Frederike Fellendorf, Armin Birner, Susanne A Bengesser, Martina Platzer, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, Eva Reininghaus
Before patients with bipolar disorder (BD) can begin to perform balanced physical activity, they have to overcome many difficulties. The aim of this study was to examine the acceptance of pedometers as a self-assessment tool in people with BD. Patients who participated in an intervention study with body-oriented groups and psychoeducation groups at the Medical University of Graz/ Department of Psychiatry were invited to use pedometers on a daily basis and keep pedometer diaries over a period of 24 weeks. Most of the patients were satisfied with the pedometers and found them helpful for their health...
February 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Julita Sadowska, Andrzej K Gębczyński, Marek Konarzewski
Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait...
2017: PloS One
Eric J Keller, Megan Crowley-Matoka, Jeremy D Collins, Howard B Chrisman, Magdy P Milad, Robert L Vogelzang
PURPOSE: In response to limited physician adoption of various healthcare initiatives, we sought to propose and assess a novel approach to policy development where one first characterizes diverse physician groups' common interests, using a medical student and constructivist grounded theory. METHODS: In 6 months, a medical student completed 36 semi-structured interviews with interventional radiologists, gynecologists, and vascular surgeons that were systematically analyzed according to constructivist grounded theory to identifying common themes...
2017: PloS One
Xuefang Pan, Yanting Wang, Torben Lübke, Aleksander Hinek, Alexey V Pshezhetsky
Vasoactive and mitogenic peptide, endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an important role in physiology of the ocular tissues by regulating the growth of corneal epithelial cells and maintaining the hemodynamics of intraocular fluids. We have previously established that ET-1 can be degraded in vivo by two lysosomal/secreted serine carboxypeptidases, Cathepsin A (CathA) and Serine Carboxypeptidase 1 (Scpep1) and that gene-targeted CathAS190A /Scpep1-/- mice, deficient in CathA and Scpep1 have a prolonged half-life of circulating ET-1 associated with systemic hypertension...
2017: PloS One
Hoyoung Kwon, Carmen M Ugarte, Stephen M Ogle, Stephen A Williams, Michelle M Wander
We evaluated the accuracy and precision of the CENTURY soil organic matter model for predicting soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration under rainfed corn-based cropping systems in the US. This was achieved by inversely modeling long-term SOC data obtained from 10 experimental sites where corn, soybean, or wheat were grown with a range of tillage, fertilization, and organic matter additions. Inverse modeling was accomplished using a surrogate model for CENTURY's SOC dynamics sub-model wherein mass balance and decomposition kinetics equations from CENTURY are coded and solved by using a nonlinear regression routine of a standard statistical software package...
2017: PloS One
Kazunari Ozasa, June Won, Simon Song, Shun Tamaki, Takahiro Ishikawa, Mizuo Maeda
The adaptation to a strong light is one of the essential characteristics of green algae, yet lacking relatively the information about the photophobic responses of Eukaryotic microalgae. We investigated the photophobic step-up responses of Euglena gracilis over a time course of several hours with alternated repetition of blue-light pulse illumination and spatially patterned blue-light illumination. Four distinctive photophobic motions in response to strong blue light were identified in a trace image analysis, namely on-site rotation, running and tumbling, continuous circular swimming, and unaffected straightforward swimming...
2017: PloS One
Tobias Wunsch, Nathalie Alexander, Josef Kröll, Thomas Stöggl, Hermann Schwameder
To enhance running performance in heel-toe running, a leaf spring structured midsole shoe (LEAF) has recently been introduced. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a LEAF compared to a standard foam midsole shoe (FOAM) on joint mechanics and lower limb muscle forces in overground running. Nine male long-distance heel strike runners ran on an indoor track at 3.0 ± 0.2 m/s with LEAF and FOAM shoes. Running kinematics and kinetics were recorded during the stance phase. Absorbed and generated energy (negative and positive work) of the hip, knee and ankle joint as well as muscle forces of selected lower limb muscles were determined using a musculoskeletal model...
2017: PloS One
Hendrik Reimann, Tyler D Fettrow, Elizabeth D Thompson, Peter Agada, Bradford J McFadyen, John J Jeka
Lateral balance is a critical factor in keeping the human body upright during walking. Two important mechanisms for balance control are the stepping strategy, in which the foot placement is changed in the direction of a sensed fall to modulate how the gravitational force acts on the body, and the lateral ankle strategy, in which the body mass is actively accelerated by an ankle torque. Currently, there is minimal evidence about how these two strategies complement one another to achieve upright balance during locomotion...
2017: PloS One
Harshvardhan Rao, Neeraj Gaur, Dnyanesh Tipre
Diabetic neuropathies (DNs) are nerve-damaging disorders associated with diabetes. They are commonly attributed to peripheral nerves and primarily affect the limbs of the patient. They cause altered sensitivity to external stimuli along with loss in balance and reflexes of the affected patient. DNs are associated with a variety of clinical manifestations including autonomic failure and are caused by poor management of blood sugar levels. Imaging modalities provide vital information about early physiological changes in DNs...
February 23, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Gina C Davis, Karen J Gibson, David Casley, Mark A Brown
BACKGROUND: Women using oral contraceptives have higher ambulatory blood pressures (BPs) than other women. We sought to learn whether this was associated with an alteration in the balance of angiotensin II (Ang)/Ang (1-7) and whether this ratio and BP remained constant throughout the menstrual cycle. METHOD: In total, 30 (15 ovulatory, 15 taking oral contraceptives) healthy, normotensive women aged 18-30 years were studied. The ovulatory group was assessed within days 1-5 (follicular phase) and 19-23 (luteal phase) and the oral contraceptive group within days 19-23...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
K Schuh, M Kolesik, E M Wright, J V Moloney, S W Koch
We simulate and elucidate the self-channeling of high-power 10  μm infrared pulses in atomic gases. The major new result is that the peak intensity can remain remarkably stable over many Rayleigh ranges. This arises from the balance between the self-focusing, diffraction, and defocusing caused by the excitation induced dephasing due to many-body Coulomb effects that enhance the low-intensity plasma densities. This new paradigm removes the Rayleigh range limit for sources in the 8-12  μm atmospheric transmission window and enables transport of individual multi-TW pulses over multiple kilometer ranges...
February 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Monika Ewa Dzieciuch-Rojek, Chetan Poojari, Jan Bednar, Alex Bunker, Bartłomiej Kozik, Maria Nowakowska, Ilpo Vattulainen, Pawel Wydro, Mariusz Kepczynski, Tomasz Rog
Itraconazole (ITZ) is an antifungal agent used clinically to treat mycotic infections. However, its therapeutic effects are limited by low solubility in aqueous media. Liposome-based delivery systems (LDS) have been proposed as a delivery mechanism for ITZ to solve this problem. Further, PEGylation, the inclusion in the formulation of a protective "stealth sheath" of poly(ethylene glycol) around carrier particles is widely used to increase the circulation time in the bloodstream, and hence efficacy. Together, these themes underlie the importance to strengthen our mechanistic and structural understanding of ITZ incorporation into liposomes both with and without PEGylation, since it can provide a potential foundation for the rational design of LDS-based systems for the delivery of ITZ, using alternate protective polymers or formulations...
February 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Nils E Persson, Ping-Hsun Chu, Michael McBride, Martha Grover, Elsa Reichmanis
Conjugated semiconducting polymers have been the subject of intense study for over two decades with promising advances toward a printable electronics manufacturing ecosystem. These materials will deliver functional electronic devices that are lightweight, flexible, large-area, and cost-effective, with applications ranging from biomedical sensors to solar cells. Synthesis of novel molecules has led to significant improvements in charge carrier mobility, a defining electrical performance metric for many applications...
February 24, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Mateusz Krzysztof Łącki, Michał Startek, Dirk Valkenborg, Anna Gambin
As high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) becomes increasingly available, the need of software tools capable of handling more complex data is surging. The complexity of the HRMS data stems partly from the presence of isotopes that give rise to more peaks to interpret compared to lower resolution instruments. However, a new generation of fine isotope calculators is on the rise. They calculate the smallest possible sets of isotopologues. However, none of these calculators lets the user specify the joint probability of the revealed envelope in advance...
February 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Frédéric Schwenger, Endre Repasi
The knowledge of the spatial energy (or power) distribution of light beams reflected at the dynamic sea surface is of great practical interest in maritime environments. For the estimation of the light energy reflected into a specific spatial direction a lot of parameters need to be taken into account. Both whitecap coverage and its optical properties have a large impact upon the calculated value. In published literature, for applications considering vertical light propagation paths, such as bathymetric lidar, the reflectance of sea surface and whitecaps are approximated by constant values...
February 20, 2017: Applied Optics
S Rödel, F W Günthert, T Brüggemann
To demonstrate the effects of increased extraneous water on operation, purification, and energy efficiency, two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been investigated in detail under the research project 'Sealing of sewer pipes - Effects on the purification performance of WWTPs and their impact on the local water balance'. Both treatment plants, after evaluating and analyzing the measurement data and information about them, were compared in the light of existing literature and other practical investigations...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Yin Li, Ze-Xu Li, Tan Jin, Zhan-You Wang, Pu Zhao
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the backbone of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and provides biochemical and physical support to aggrecan-based perineuronal nets (PNNs), which are associated with the selective vulnerability of neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we showed that HA synthases (HASs), including Has1, Has2, and Has3, were widely expressed in murine central nervous system. All types of HASs were localized to cell bodies of neurons; only Has1 existed in the membranes of neural axons. By using TauP301S transgenic (Tg) mouse model, we found that the axonal-localization of Has1 was abolished in TauP301S overexpressed mouse brain, and the redistribution of Has1 was also observed in human AD brains, suggesting that the localization of Has1 is dependent on intact microtubules which are regulated partially by the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cycles of tau proteins...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
L Carver, S Sullivan
This paper describes and analyses applied practices creating numerical equivalence between sites of development impact and proposed conservation offset sites in the new conservation technology of biodiversity offsetting. Application of biodiversity offsetting metrics in development impact and mitigation assessments is considered to standardize biodiversity conservation outcomes, sometimes termed 'biodiversity yield' by consultants conducting these calculations. The youth of biodiversity offsetting in application, however, means that little is known about how biodiversity valuations and offset contracts between development and offset sites are agreed in practice, or the long-term implications for conservation outcomes...
February 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Amber M Hubbard, Russell W Mailen, Mohammed A Zikry, Michael D Dickey, Jan Genzer
The ability to change shape and control curvature in 3D structures starting from planar sheets can aid in assembly and add functionality to an object. Herein, we convert planar sheets of shape memory polymers (SMPs) into 3D objects with controllable curvature by dictating where the sheets shrink. Ink patterned on the surface of the sheet absorbs infrared (IR) light, resulting in localized heating, and the material shrinks locally wherever the temperature exceeds the activation temperature, Ta. We introduce two different mechanisms for controlling curvature within SMP sheets...
February 24, 2017: Soft Matter
Shriram N Rajpathak, Deepti D Deobagkar
The gene balance hypothesis predicts that an imbalance in the dosage sensitive genes affects the cascade of gene networks that may influence the fitness of individuals. The phenotypes associated with chromosomal aneuploidies demonstrate the importance of gene dosage balance. We have employed untransformed human fibroblast cells with different number of X chromosomes to assess the expression of miRNAs and autosomal genes in addition to the DNA methylation status. High throughput NGS analysis using illumina Next seq500 has detected several autosomal as well as X linked miRNAs as differentially expressed in X monosomy and trisomy cells...
February 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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