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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906497/neuroembryology
#1
REVIEW
Diana Darnell, Scott F Gilbert
How is it that some cells become neurons? And how is it that neurons become organized in the spinal cord and brain to allow us to walk and talk, to see, recall events in our lives, feel pain, keep our balance, and think? The cells that are specified to form the brain and spinal cord are originally located on the outside surface of the embryo. They loop inward to form the neural tube in a process called neurulation. Structures that are nearby send signals to the posterior neural tube to form and pattern the spinal cord so that the dorsal side receives sensory input and the ventral side sends motor signals from neurons to muscles...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906461/measurement-of-intestinal-and-peripheral-cholesterol-fluxes-by-a-dual-tracer-balance-method
#2
Onne A H O Ronda, Theo H van Dijk, H J Verkade, Albert K Groen
Long-term elevated plasma cholesterol levels put individuals at risk for developing atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol levels are determined by the balance between cholesterol input and output fluxes. Here we describe in detail the methodology to determine the different cholesterol fluxes in mice. The percentage of absorbed cholesterol is calculated from a stable isotope-based double-label method. Cholesterol synthesis is calculated from MIDA after (13) C-acetate enrichment. Cholesterol is removed from the body via the feces...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906217/nonlinearity-of-a-double-path-interferometer-qualified-with-a-non-constant-moving-speed
#3
Hongxing Yang, Christoph Weichert, Paul Köchert, Jens Flügge
A new double-path heterodyne interferometer with spatially separated input beams was developed to minimize the influence of periodic errors. The fully fiber-coupled optics exhibit balanced beam paths which reduce the influence of variations of the ambient conditions. The use of corner cube reflectors enables the interferometer to tolerate larger angular motions of the measuring mirror, compared with common plane mirror interferometers. The nonlinearities were characterized in a measurement with a non-constant moving speed by means of amplitude spectra for spline-interpolated data...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906197/treatment-and-follow-up-of-venous-thrombosis-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-retrospective-study
#4
J C Bohnhoff, S A DiSilvio, R K Aneja, J R Shenk, Y A Domnina, B S Brozanski, M Good
OBJECTIVE: The critically ill, premature patients of neonatal intensive care units are susceptible to venous thrombosis, an adverse event associated with short- and long-term morbidity. Venous thrombosis is frequently treated with low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) such as enoxaparin, but optimal dosing of LMWH must balance the morbidity of venous thrombosis with the potential adverse affects of anticoagulation. The optimal dosing of enoxaparin for premature infants is unclear. The objective of this study was to describe enoxaparin therapy and follow-up in critically ill neonates diagnosed with venous thrombosis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906092/alterations-to-mtorc1-signaling-in-the-skeletal-muscle-differentially-affect-whole-body-metabolism
#5
Maitea Guridi, Barbara Kupr, Klaas Romanino, Shuo Lin, Denis Falcetta, Lionel Tintignac, Markus A Rüegg
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central node in a network of signaling pathways controlling cell growth and survival. This multiprotein complex integrates external signals and affects different nutrient pathways in various organs. However, it is not clear how alterations of mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle affect whole-body metabolism. RESULTS: We characterized the metabolic phenotype of young and old raptor muscle knock-out (RAmKO) and TSC1 muscle knock-out (TSCmKO) mice, where mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle is inhibited or constitutively activated, respectively...
March 21, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906005/the-role-of-nk-cells-in-hiv-1-protection-autologous-allogeneic-or-both
#6
REVIEW
Jef Hens, Wim Jennes, Luc Kestens
Natural killer (NK) cells specialize in killing virally infected- or tumor cells and are part of the innate immune system. The activational state of NK cells is determined by the balance of incoming activating and inhibitory signals mediated by receptor-ligand binding with the target cell. These receptor-ligand bonds mainly consist of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which are expressed at the cell surface of NK cells, and their ligands: the highly variable human leukocyte antigen -class I molecules (HLA)...
March 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905976/comparative-approaches-for-assessing-access-to-alcohol-outlets-exploring-the-utility-of-a-gravity-potential-approach
#7
Tony H Grubesic, Ran Wei, Alan T Murray, William Alex Pridemore
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research recommends controlling alcohol availability to reduce harm. Various common approaches, however, provide dramatically different pictures of the physical availability of alcohol. This limits our understanding of the distribution of alcohol access, the causes and consequences of this distribution, and how best to reduce harm. The aim of this study is to introduce both a gravity potential measure of access to alcohol outlets, comparing its strengths and weaknesses to other popular approaches, and an empirically-derived taxonomy of neighborhoods based on the type of alcohol access they exhibit...
August 2, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905908/the-balance-between-the-serum-levels-of-il-6-and-il-10-cytokines-discriminates-mild-and-severe-acute-pneumonia
#8
Rita de Cássia Coelho Moraes de Brito, Norma Lucena-Silva, Leuridan Cavalcante Torres, Carlos Feitosa Luna, Jaílson de Barros Correia, Giselia Alves Pontes da Silva
BACKGROUND: To identify markers for earlier diagnosis of severe pneumonia, we assess the correlation between serum cytokine profile of children with different pneumonia severity. METHODS: In 25 hospitalized children, 7 with mild pneumonia and 18 with severe pneumonia, the serum concentration of 11 cytokines in three sampling times were dosed. Statistical analysis included parametric and non-parametric tests, Pearson correlation and ROC curve for cut-off definition of cytokines...
December 1, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905897/cost-and-cost-effectiveness-of-tuberculosis-treatment-shortening-a-model-based-analysis
#9
G B Gomez, D W Dowdy, M L Bastos, A Zwerling, S Sweeney, N Foster, A Trajman, M A Islam, S Kapiga, E Sinanovic, G M Knight, R G White, W A Wells, F G Cobelens, A Vassall
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3 trials. METHODS: We developed an individual-based decision analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical four-month regimen for first-line treatment of TB, assuming non-inferiority to current regimens of six-month duration...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905590/direct-measurements-of-ionic-liquid-layering-at-a-single-mica-liquid-interface-and-in-nano-films-between-two-mica-liquid-interfaces
#10
Lucy R Griffin, Kathryn L Browning, Stuart M Clarke, Alexander M Smith, Susan Perkin, M W A Skoda, Sarah E Norman
The layering of ionic liquids close to flat, charged interfaces has been identified previously through theoretical and some experimental measurements. Here we present evidence for oscillations in ion density ('layering') in a long chain ionic liquid (1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide) near the interface with mica using two complementary approaches. Neutron reflection at the ionic liquid-mica interface is used to detect structure at a single interface, and surface force balance (SFB) measurements carried out with the same ionic liquid reveal oscillatory density in the liquid confined between two mica sheets...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905582/regarding-the-torsional-flexibility-of-the-dihydrolipoic-acid-s-pharmacophore-1-3-propanedithiol
#11
Annalisa Vigorito, Camilla Calabrese, Ettore Paltanin, Sonia Melandri, Assimo Maris
The conformational space of antioxidant dihydrolipoic acid has been explored through the investigation of its pharmacophore, 1,3-propanedithiol. Five of the possible 25 non-equivalent isomers (namely: gGGg', gGGg, g'AGg, gAGg and g'AGg') were observed in the 59.6-74.4 GHz frequency region using free-jet absorption rotational spectroscopy. Furthermore, for three of them, the (34)S mono-substituted isotopologues were also detected in natural abundance. Theoretical simulations show that the balance of steric and electronic intramolecular interactions arises on a shallow conformational potential energy surface and suggest that in polar solvents the flexibility of the dithiol chain is greater than that in the isolated phase...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905514/seagrass-posidonia-oceanica-seedlings-in-a-high-co2-world-from-physiology-to-herbivory
#12
Gema Hernán, Laura Ramajo, Lorena Basso, Antonio Delgado, Jorge Terrados, Carlos M Duarte, Fiona Tomas
Under future increased CO2 concentrations, seagrasses are predicted to perform better as a result of increased photosynthesis, but the effects in carbon balance and growth are unclear and remain unexplored for early life stages such as seedlings, which allow plant dispersal and provide the potential for adaptation under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, the outcome of the concomitant biochemical changes in plant-herbivore interactions has been poorly studied, yet may have important implications in plant communities...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905481/investigating-the-highest-melting-temperature-materials-a-laser-melting-study-of-the-tac-hfc-system
#13
Omar Cedillos-Barraza, Dario Manara, K Boboridis, Tyson Watkins, Salvatore Grasso, Daniel D Jayaseelan, Rudy J M Konings, Michael J Reece, William E Lee
TaC, HfC and their solid solutions are promising candidate materials for thermal protection structures in hypersonic vehicles because of their very high melting temperatures (>4000 K) among other properties. The melting temperatures of slightly hypostoichiometric TaC, HfC and three solid solution compositions (Ta1-xHfxC, with x = 0.8, 0.5 and 0.2) have long been identified as the highest known. In the current research, they were reassessed, for the first time in the last fifty years, using a laser heating technique...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905442/quantifying-global-soil-carbon-losses-in-response-to-warming
#14
T W Crowther, K E O Todd-Brown, C W Rowe, W R Wieder, J C Carey, M B Machmuller, B L Snoek, S Fang, G Zhou, S D Allison, J M Blair, S D Bridgham, A J Burton, Y Carrillo, P B Reich, J S Clark, A T Classen, F A Dijkstra, B Elberling, B A Emmett, M Estiarte, S D Frey, J Guo, J Harte, L Jiang, B R Johnson, G Kröel-Dulay, K S Larsen, H Laudon, J M Lavallee, Y Luo, M Lupascu, L N Ma, S Marhan, A Michelsen, J Mohan, S Niu, E Pendall, J Peñuelas, L Pfeifer-Meister, C Poll, S Reinsch, L L Reynolds, I K Schmidt, S Sistla, N W Sokol, P H Templer, K K Treseder, J M Welker, M A Bradford
The majority of the Earth's terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905393/nitrous-oxide-as-a-function-of-oxygen-and-archaeal-gene-abundance-in-the-north-pacific
#15
Mark Trimmer, Panagiota-Myrsini Chronopoulou, Susanna T Maanoja, Robert C Upstill-Goddard, Vassilis Kitidis, Kevin J Purdy
Oceanic oxygen minimum zones are strong sources of the potent greenhouse gas N2O but its microbial source is unclear. We characterized an exponential response in N2O production to decreasing oxygen between 1 and 30 μmol O2 l(-1) within and below the oxycline using (15)NO2(-), a relationship that held along a 550 km offshore transect in the North Pacific. Differences in the overall magnitude of N2O production were accounted for by archaeal functional gene abundance. A one-dimensional (1D) model, parameterized with our experimentally derived exponential terms, accurately reproduces N2O profiles in the top 350 m of water column and, together with a strong (45)N2O signature indicated neither canonical nor nitrifier-denitrification production while statistical modelling supported production by archaea, possibly via hybrid N2O formation...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905392/-clinical-and-stabilometric-restructuring-of-patients-stability-during-balance-therapy-from-the-first-days-of-ischemic-stroke
#16
E A Plishkina, B N Bein
AIM: To study the process of recovery of postural function during stabilometric training with biofeedback (BFB) in patients with ischemic carotid stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two patients underwent 10-day stabilometric training from the onset of stroke. Clinical and stabilometric parameters were assessed at 4 points: at baseline, after 5 sessions, after 10 sessions and after 3-4 months in the early recovery stage after discharge from the hospital. RESULTS: There was no correlation between the positive regress of neurologic symptoms and trends of stabilometry indicators...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905297/altered-thermoregulatory-responses-in-heart-failure-patients-exercising-in-the-heat
#17
Bryce N Balmain, Ollie Jay, Surendran Sabapathy, Danielle Royston, Glenn M Stewart, Rohan Jayasinghe, Norman R Morris
Heart failure (HF) patients appear to exhibit impaired thermoregulatory capacity during passive heating, as evidenced by diminished vascular conductance. Although some preliminary studies have described the thermoregulatory response to passive heating in HF, responses during exercise in the heat remain to be described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare thermoregulatory responses in HF and controls (CON) during exercise in the heat. Ten HF (NYHA classes I-II) and eight CON were included. Core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were assessed at rest and during 1 h of exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905258/hla-mismatched-haploidentical-transplantation-using-low-dose-anti-thymocyte-globulin-atg-thymoglobulin
#18
Shinichi Kako, Yu Akahoshi, Naonori Harada, Hirofumi Nakano, Kazuaki Kameda, Tomotaka Ugai, Ryoko Yamasaki, Hidenori Wada, Yuko Ishihara, Koji Kawamura, Kana Sakamoto, Miki Sato, Masahiro Ashizawa, Kiriko Terasako-Saito, Shun-Ichi Kimura, Misato Kikuchi, Hideki Nakasone, Rie Yamazaki, Junya Kanda, Yoshinobu Kanda
Objectives To clarify optimal strategies for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods Twelve patients who underwent HSCT from a haploidentical related donor using low-dose thymoglobulin were analyzed retrospectively. Thymoglobulin was added to conditioning regimens at 2.5 mg/kg/day for 2 days (days -4 and -3). Prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was performed with cyclosporine and methotrexate. Results The median age of the patients was 33 years...
December 1, 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905194/constructing-a-novel-dendron-for-the-self-host-blue-emitter-with-tadf-feature-solution-processed-nondoped-oleds-with-bipolar-charge-transfer-and-stable-color-purity
#19
Xinxin Ban, Baoping Lin, Wei Jiang, Yueming Sun
The self-host thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials have recently been identified as the effective emitters for solution-processed nondoped OLEDs. However, except for carbazole unit, few novel dendrons were developed to build the self-host TADF emitters. This study reports two self-host blue materials, tbCz-SO and poCz-SO, with the same TADF emissive core and different dendrons. The influence of the peripheral dendrons on the photophysical properties and electroluminescent performances of the self-host materials were systematically investigated...
November 30, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905193/high-pretransplant-hepcidin-levels-are-associated-with-poor-overall-survival-and-delayed-platelet-engraftment-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
Soichiro Sakamoto, Hiroshi Kawabata, Junya Kanda, Tatsuki Uchiyama, Chisaki Mizumoto, Toshiyuki Kitano, Tadakazu Kondo, Masakatsu Hishizawa, Naohisa Tomosugi, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo
Iron overload is considered a risk factor for mortality in patients with hematopoietic malignancies. Hepcidin is a key regulator of systemic iron balance. We previously reported dynamic changes of serum hepcidin-25 levels in patients with hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the association of pretransplant hepcidin-25 levels with overall survival (OS), engraftment, and other clinical outcomes of allo-HSCT in patients with hematologic malignancies...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Medicine
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