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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330884/synapsin-iii-is-a-key-component-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils-in-lewy-bodies-of-pd-brains
#1
Francesca Longhena, Gaia Faustini, Tatiana Varanita, Michela Zaltieri, Vanessa Porrini, Isabella Tessari, Pietro Luigi Poliani, Cristina Missale, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Luigi Bubacco, Marina Pizzi, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Lewy bodies (LB) and Lewy neurites (LN), which are primarily composed of α-synuclein (α-syn), are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We recently found that the neuronal phosphoprotein synapsin III (syn III) controls dopamine release via cooperation with α-syn and modulates α-syn aggregation. Here, we observed that LB and LN, in the substantia nigra of PD patients and hippocampus of one subject with DLB, displayed a marked immunopositivity for syn III...
January 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325058/serum-carnitine-metabolites-and-incident-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-patients-with-suspected-stable-angina-pectoris
#2
Elin Strand, Eirik W Rebnord, Malin R Flygel, Vegard Lysne, Gard F T Svingen, Grethe S Tell, Kjetil H Løland, Rolf K Berge, Asbjørn Svardal, Ottar Nygård, Eva R Pedersen
Context: Carnitine and its metabolites are centrally involved in fatty acid metabolism. While elevated circulating concentrations have been observed in obesity and insulin resistance, prospective studies examining whether these metabolites are associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are sparse. Objective: We performed a comprehensive evaluation of metabolites along the carnitine pathway in relation to incident T2D. Design: A total of 2519 patients (73...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324654/zinc-status-and-autoimmunity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Alessandro Sanna, Davide Firinu, Patrizia Zavattari, Paolo Valera
Zinc is an essential trace element for living organisms and their biological processes. Zinc plays a key role in more than 300 enzymes and it is involved in cell communication, proliferation, differentiation and survival. Zinc plays also a role in regulating the immune system with implications in pathologies where zinc deficiency and inflammation are observed. In order to examine the experimental evidence reported in the literature regarding zinc levels in the body of patients with autoimmune disorders compared to control individuals, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320581/prevalence-of-hand-osteoarthritis-and-knee-osteoarthritis-in-kashin-beck-disease-endemic-areas-and-non-kashin-beck-disease-endemic-areas-a-status-survey
#4
Wei Lian, Hui Liu, QuanQuan Song, Yun Qi Liu, Li Yan Sun, Qing Deng, Shao Ping Wang, Yan Hong Cao, Xue Ying Zhang, Yuan Yuan Jiang, Hong Yan Lv, Li Bin Duan, Jun Yu
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a considerable health problem worldwide, and the prevalence of OA varies in different regions. In this study, the prevalence of OA in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and non-KBD endemic areas was examined, respectively. According to monitoring data, 4 types of regions (including none, mild, moderate and high KBD endemic areas) in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces were selected. All local residents were eligible for inclusion criteria have undergone X-ray images of hands and anteroposterior image of knees...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319907/aberrant-accumulation-of-erbb4-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#5
Aya Murakami, Masataka Nakamura, Satoshi Kaneko, Wen-Lang Lin, Dennis W Dickson, Hirofumi Kusaka
The human epidermal growth factor receptor family consists of 4 members that belong to the ErbB lineage of proteins (ErbB1-4). Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)/ErbB signalling regulates brain development and function. Abnormalities in this signalling have been implicated in the aetiology or development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. So, we aimed at investigating whether the expression of NRG1 or ErbB proteins are altered in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) METHODS: The brains of 10 PSP and 6 control patients were investigated by immunohistochemical analysis RESULTS: Whereas C-terminal ErbB4 immunoreacitivity was partially but distinctly present in the cytoplasm and/or in the nucleus of neurons in control patients, it was rarely observed in the neuronal nuclei in PSP patients...
January 10, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319031/association-of-comorbid-anxiety-and-depression-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Ruchi Dua, Anindya Das, Abhishek Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Mayank Mishra, Kapil Sharma
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease with known systemic manifestations including psychiatric comorbidities most commonly being depression and/or anxiety. Studies regarding the association of these psychiatric comorbidities in terms of symptom scores, spirometric variables, and hospitalizations among patients of COPD are lacking, especially in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-eight patients of COPD attending the Outpatient Department of AIIMS Rishikesh, and fulfilling inclusion criteria were screened by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and those who scored above the cutoff underwent psychiatric evaluation using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition Diagnostic Criteria for Research for confirmation of their diagnosis...
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313531/fluorescence-spectroscopy-reveals-n-terminal-order-in-fibrillar-forms-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#7
Conor M Haney, E James Petersson
The neuronal protein α-synuclein (αS) plays a key role in Parkinson's disease, forming inclusions termed Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Recent improvements in cryo-electron diffraction and solid state NMR (ssNMR) have led to the elucidation of the structures of peptides derived from the αS fibril core and full-length human αS in fibrils. Despite the valuable insight offered by these methods, there are still several questions about the structures' relevance to pathological aggregates. Herein, we present fluorescence data collected in vitro under the conditions which fibrils are typically assembled...
January 9, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310658/the-involvement-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-formation-and-protein-synthesis-efficiency-in-vcp-and-atl1-related-neurological-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Yu-Tzu Shih, Yi-Ping Hsueh
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the biggest organelle in cells and is involved in versatile cellular processes. Formation and maintenance of ER morphology are regulated by a series of proteins controlling membrane fusion and curvature. At least six different ER morphology regulators have been demonstrated to be involved in neurological disorders-including Valosin-containing protein (VCP), Atlastin-1 (ATL1), Spastin (SPAST), Reticulon 2 (RTN2), Receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1) and RAB10-suggesting a critical role of ER formation in neuronal activity and function...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302869/lanthanum-induced-mucosal-alterations-in-the-stomach-lanthanum-gastropathy-a-comparative-study-using-an-animal-model
#9
Kei Yabuki, Joji Haratake, Yojiro Tsuda, Eisuke Shiba, Hiroshi Harada, Kenji Yorita, Kazuyoshi Uchihashi, Atsuji Matsuyama, Keiji Hirata, Masanori Hisaoka
Lanthanum (La) carbonate (LC) is one of the most potent phosphate binders that prevents the elevation of serum phosphate levels in patients with end-stage renal diseases undergoing dialysis. LC binds strongly to dietary phosphate and forms insoluble complexes that pass through the gastrointestinal tract. La deposition in patients treated with LC is a recently documented finding particularly observed in gastric mucosa. We herein describe the detailed gastric mucosal lesions in 45 LC-treated patients and address the potential underlying pathologic mechanism using oral LC administration in rats...
January 4, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302199/cell-to-cell-transmission-of-polyglutamine-aggregates-in-c-elegans
#10
Dong-Kyu Kim, Kyu-Won Cho, Woo Jung Ahn, Dayana Perez-Acuña, Hyunsu Jeong, He-Jin Lee, Seung-Jae Lee
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunction caused by expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat in exon 1 of huntingtin (HTT). In patients, the number of glutamine residues in polyQ tracts are over 35, and it is correlated with age of onset, severity, and disease progression. Expansion of polyQ increases the propensity for HTT protein aggregation, process known to be implicated in neurodegeneration. These pathological aggregates can be transmitted from neuron to another neuron, and this process may explain the pathological spreading of polyQ aggregates...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301522/the-low-indexes-of-metabolism-intervention-trial-limit-design-and-baseline-data-of-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-how-alerting-primary-care-teams-to-low-metabolic-values-could-affect-the-health-of-patients-aged-75-or-older
#11
Nir Tsabar, Yan Press, Johanna Rotman, Bracha Klein, Yonatan Grossman, Maya Vainshtein-Tal, Sophia Eilat-Tsanani
BACKGROUND: Too-low body mass index (BMI), HbA1c% or cholesterol levels predicts poor survival. This study investigates whether e-mails about these low values, improve health of people older than 75 years. METHODS: LIMIT - an open label randomized trial - compares usual care to the addition of an e-mail which alerts the family physicians and nurses to low metabolic indexes of a specific patient and advises on nutritional and medical changes. PARTICIPANTS: Clalit Health Services (CHS) patients in the Northern and Southern Districts, aged ≥75 years with any of the following inclusion criteria: a...
January 5, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298416/prion-like-propagation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-is-regulated-by-the-fc%C3%AE-riib-shp-1-2-signaling-pathway-in-neurons
#12
Yu Ree Choi, Seon-Heui Cha, Seo-Jun Kang, Jae-Bong Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Myun Park
Recent evidence of prion-like propagation of α-synuclein (α-syn) into neighboring neurons set up a paradigm to elucidate the mechanism of progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to develop therapeutic strategies. Here, we show that FcγRIIB expressed in neurons functions as a receptor for α-syn fibrils and mediates cell-to-cell transmission of α-syn. SHP-1 and 2 are activated downstream by α-syn fibrils through FcγRIIB and play an important role in cell-to-cell transmission of α-syn. Also, taking advantage of a co-culture system, we show that cell-to-cell transmission of α-syn induces intracellular Lewy body-like inclusion body formation and that the FcγRIIB/SHP-1/2 signaling pathway is involved in it...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297596/neuropathology-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-synucleinopathies
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Coon, Jeremy K Cutsforth-Gregory, Eduardo E Benarroch
The synucleinopathies-Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure-result from distinct patterns of abnormal α-synuclein aggregation throughout the nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction in these disorders results from variable involvement of the central and peripheral autonomic networks. The major pathologic hallmark of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies is Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites; of multiple system atrophy, oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions; and of pure autonomic failure, peripheral neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions...
January 3, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295487/infant-feeding-beliefs-attitudes-knowledge-and-practices-of-chinese-immigrant-mothers-an-integrative-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Ana Cristina Lindsay, Qun Le, Mary L Greaney
Chinese are a fast-growing immigrant population group in several parts of the world (e.g., Australia, Canada, Europe, Southeast Asia, United States). Research evidence suggests that compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals of Asian-origin including Chinese are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes at a lower body mass index (BMI). These risks may be possibly due to genetic differences in body composition and metabolic responses. Despite the increasing numbers of Chinese children growing up in immigrant families and the increasing prevalence of obesity among Chinese, little research has been focused on children of Chinese immigrant families...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291227/investigation-and-confirmation-of-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv-infection-in-wild-caught-penaeid-shrimps-of-andaman-and-nicobar-islands-india
#15
K Saravanan, P Puneeth Kumar, J Praveenraj, Arunjyoti Baruah, T Sivaramakrishnan, T Sathish Kumar, S Pramod Kumar, R Kiruba Sankar, S Dam Roy
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most prevalent, widespread and devastating pathogen associated with shrimp population. The present study was aimed at screening the wild caught shrimps from Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI) for WSSV infection. Shrimp samples of different penaeid species including Penaeus monodon, Penaeus indicus, Penaeus merguiensis and Metapenaeus monoceros collected from nine different landing centers across the coast of ANI were screened for WSSV infection. Presence of white spots, a typical clinical sign of white spot disease was observed on the exoskeleton of WSSV infected shrimp samples...
December 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289634/pilot-production-of-the-recombinant-peptide-toxin-of-heteractis-crispa-as-a-potential-analgesic-by-intein-mediated-technology
#16
Roman S Esipov, Dmitry A Makarov, Vasily N Stepanenko, Maria A Kostromina, Tatyana I Muravyova, Yaroslav A Andreev, Igor A Dyachenko, Sergey A Kozlov, Evgeny V Grishin
APHC3 is an analgesic polypeptide that was found in the sea anemone (Heteractis crispa), and contains 56 amino acid residues. This polypeptide is of interest for the development of medications for diseases, associated with inflammatory or neuropathological processes, as well as its use as an analgesic. This work presents an innovative biotechnological method for APHC3 production. We have constructed a recombinant plasmid intended for biosynthesizing the fusion protein consisting of a chitin-binding domain, DnaB mini-intein from Synechocystis sp...
December 28, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289445/incidence-risk-factors-and-clinical-implications-of-pneumonia-after-surgery-for-geriatric-hip-fracture
#17
Daniel D Bohl, Robert A Sershon, Bryan M Saltzman, Brian Darrith, Craig J Della Valle
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the occurrence of pneumonia after hip fracture surgery. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical implications of pneumonia after surgery for geriatric hip fracture. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was used to retrospectively study geriatric patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture during 2006-2014. Independent risk factors for developing pneumonia within 30 days of surgery were identified using multivariate regression...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286334/a-single-neonatal-exposure-to-bmaa-in-a-rat-model-produces-neuropathology-consistent-with-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
Laura Louise Scott, Timothy Grant Downing
Although cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), no BMAA animal model has reproduced all the neuropathology typically associated with these neurodegenerative diseases. We present here a neonatal BMAA model that causes β-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles of hyper-phosphorylated tau, TDP-43 inclusions, Lewy bodies, microbleeds and microgliosis as well as severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta, and ventral horn of the spinal cord in rats following a single BMAA exposure...
December 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282267/stepped-care-approach-for-medial-tibiofemoral-osteoarthritis-streamline-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Sarah Rubia Robbins, Luciano Ricardo S Melo, Hema Urban, Leticia A Deveza, Rebecca Asher, Victoria L Johnson, David J Hunter
INTRODUCTION: Current guidelines recommend tailored interventions to optimise knee osteoarthritis (OA) management. However, models of care still have a 'one size fits all' approach, which is suboptimal as it ignores patient heterogeneity. This study aims to compare a stepped care strategy with standard care for overweight and obese persons with medial tibiofemoral OA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Participants will be randomised into two groups (85 each). The intervention will receive a diet and exercise programme for 18 weeks in the first step of the study...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277469/the-seisicat-study-a-pilot-study-assessing-efficacy-and-safety-of-spironolactone-in-cats-with-congestive-heart-failure-secondary-to-cardiomyopathy
#20
Rachel James, Emilie Guillot, Catherine Garelli-Paar, Jacqueline Huxley, Vanessa Grassi, Malcolm Cobb
INTRODUCTION: The pathophysiology of heart failure involves activation of several neurohormonal systems including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone has been shown to be beneficial in humans and dogs with heart failure. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of spironolactone in cats with heart failure secondary to cardiomyopathy already treated with furosemide and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
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