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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651330/rosiglitazone-improves-insulin-resistance-mediated-by-10-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-in-a-male-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Shari Wang, Leela Goodspeed, Katherine E Turk, Barbara Houston, Laura J den Hartigh
Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) is a dietary fatty acid that promotes weight loss and disproportionate fat loss. Obese mice fed a high fat high sucrose (HFHS) diet containing 10,12 CLA are resistant to weight gain and contain markedly reduced subcutaneous fat and adiponectin, with a concurrent lack of improvement in insulin sensitivity despite significant weight loss. Taken together, 10,12 CLA promotes a phenotype resembling PPARγ antagonism. Since thiazolidinediones such as rosiglitazone (Rosi) are used clinically to improve insulin sensitivity by activating PPARγ, with particular efficacy in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, we hypothesized that Rosi would improve glucose metabolism in mice losing weight with 10,12 CLA...
June 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650865/effect-of-obesity-on-bladder-cancer-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-incidence-and-survival
#2
Philipp Gild, Behfar Ehdaie, Luis A Kluth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically in the general population and among cancer survivors in the last three decades. In this review, we highlight the impact of obesity on carcinogenesis and survival with a focus on bladder cancer and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity presents an established risk factor for an up to 1.8-fold relative risk of RCC. Data with regard to bladder cancer are less abundant but support this association as well...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649714/exercise-during-short-term-exposure-to-hypoxia-or-hyperoxia-novel-treatment-strategies-for-type-2-diabetic-patients
#3
REVIEW
C Brinkmann, W Bloch, K Brixius
Both hypoxia (decreased oxygen availability) and hyperoxia (increased oxygen availability) have been shown to alter exercise adaptations in healthy subjects. This review aims to clarify the possible benefits of exercise during short-term exposure to hypoxia or hyperoxia for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is evidence that exercise during short-term exposure to hypoxia can acutely increase skeletal muscle glucose uptake more than exercise in normoxia, and that post-exercise insulin sensitivity in T2DM patients is more increased when exercise is performed under hypoxic conditions...
June 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649655/gene-expression-in-breast-and-adipose-tissue-after-12-months-of-weight-loss-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-postmenopausal-women
#4
Caitlin Mason, Lei Wang, Catherine Duggan, Ikuyo Imayama, Sushma S Thomas, Ching-Yun Wang, Larissa A Korde, Anne McTiernan
Adipose tissue is involved in the etiology of postmenopausal breast cancer, possibly through increased sex steroid hormone production, inflammation, and altered adipokines. Vitamin D may affect these pathways but its effect on gene expression in different tissues has not been examined. Within a double-blind, 12-month placebo-controlled randomized trial, we compared 2000 IU/day oral vitamin D3 supplementation (N = 39) vs. placebo (N = 40) on the expression of 5 genes in breast and adipose tissue in overweight/obese postmenopausal women (50-75 years)...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649469/distinct-patterns-in-the-gut-microbiota-after-surgical-or-medical-therapy-in-obese-patients
#5
Daniel A Medina, Juan P Pedreros, Dannae Turiel, Nicolas Quezada, Fernando Pimentel, Alex Escalona, Daniel Garrido
Bariatric surgery is highly successful in improving health compared to conventional dietary treatments. It has been suggested that the gut microbiota is a relevant factor in weight loss after bariatric surgery. Considering that bariatric procedures cause different rearrangements of the digestive tract, they probably have different effects on the gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the impact of medical treatment, sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the gut microbiota from obese subjects...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649465/dietary-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-cross-sectional-study
#6
Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Marcin Mardas, Khalid Iqbal, Magdalena Kostrzewska, Tomasz Piorunek
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of dietary intake in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which could prove important in improving clinical outcomes for people with obesity and/or cardiovascular disease within these populations. Reduction in energy intake typically results in weight loss, markedly improving metabolic parameters and ameliorating OSA severity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary and cardio-metabolic risk factors with OSA severity. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647687/overweight-obesity-and-survival-after-stroke-in-the-framingham-heart-study
#7
Hugo J Aparicio, Jayandra J Himali, Alexa S Beiser, Kendra L Davis-Plourde, Ramachandran S Vasan, Carlos S Kase, Philip A Wolf, Sudha Seshadri
BACKGROUND: We investigated how body weight affects survival after stroke, leveraging the availability of multiple prestroke body mass index (BMI) measurements and using a nested case-control design in a community-based sample. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared all-cause mortality in participants stratified by prestroke weight. Separate analyses were performed for ischemic stroke and all stroke and for age-, sex-, and BMI category-matched stroke-free controls. Participants were grouped into BMI categories and followed for up to 10 years...
June 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647001/gastric-bypass-surgery-stimulates-the-dormant-gut-brain-axis-in-obesity
#8
Stephanie P B Caligiuri, Paul J Kenny
To truly reduce the rates of chronic kidney disease, a root cause of kidney damage, obesity, must be targeted. Weight loss is often unsustainable because imbalances in satiety regulators are frequently not addressed to ensure maintenance of weight loss. In a recent study, gastric bypass surgery rebalanced satiety signals through resensitization of the gut-brain axis in obesity. This research may lead to noninvasive strategies to reduce obesity and obesity-related kidney disease.
July 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645905/obesity-related-hypogonadism-a-reversible-condition
#9
Stamatios Zouras, Jeffrey W Stephens, David Price
Obesity is associated with hypogonadism. While this association is widely accepted, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Furthermore, obesity is a risk factor for hypogonadism and conversely hypogonadism may be a risk factor for obesity. We present the case of a morbidly obese man aged 30 years with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism that underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation. Following the surgical treatment of his obesity, the testosterone level returned to normal with improvements in hypogonadal symptoms, which allowed discontinuation of exogenous testosterone therapy...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645541/comparison-of-the-effect-by-which-gastric-plication-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-procedures-alter-metabolic-and-physical-parameters-in-an-obese-type-2-diabetes-rodent-model
#10
Min Ye, Renhong Huang, Zhijun Min, Peng Zhang, Tingfeng Wang, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Gastric plication (GP) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are 2 restrictive bariatric surgeries that are associated with weight loss and health improvement in patients with obesity. However, differences in how these procedures exert their effects have not been systematically evaluated and compared between techniques. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of GP and SG surgeries for obese patients with type 2 diabetes based on evaluation of energy metabolism, hormone metabolism, and gastrointestinal dynamics...
May 11, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645227/diabetic-and-obese-patient-clinical-outcomes-improve-during-a-care-management-implementation-in-primary-care
#11
Jodi Summers Holtrop, Zhehui Luo, Gretchen Piatt, Lee A Green, Qiaoling Chen, John Piette
BACKGROUND: To address the increasing burden of chronic disease, many primary care practices are turning to care management and the hiring of care managers to help patients coordinate their care and self-manage their conditions. Care management is often, but not always, proving effective at improving patient outcomes, but more evidence is needed. METHODS: In this pair-matched cluster randomized trial, 5 practices implemented care management and were compared with 5 comparison practices within the same practice organization...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643551/provider-advice-about-weight-loss-in-a-primary-care-sample-of-obese-and-overweight-patients
#12
Chanita Hughes Halbert, Melanie Jefferson, Cathy L Melvin, LaShanta Rice, Kemi M Chukwuka
OBJECTIVE: Primary care providers play an important role in obesity prevention and reduction by advising patients about weight loss strategies. This study examined receipt of provider advice to lose weight among primary care patients who were overweight and obese. METHODS: Observational study conducted among primary care patients (n = 282) who completed a survey that measured receipt of provider advice about weight loss/management, chronic health conditions, perceived weight status, and perceptions about shared decision making about weight loss/management...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643290/does-the-eating-disorder-examination-questionnaire-global-subscale-adequately-predict-eating-disorder-psychopathology-in-the-daily-life-of-obese-adults
#13
Tyler B Mason, Kathryn E Smith, Ross D Crosby, Stephen A Wonderlich, Scott J Crow, Scott G Engel, Carol B Peterson
The eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) Global score is a self-report measure of global eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to evaluate the ecological validity of EDE-Q Global scores among obese adults. Fifty obese adults completed the EDE-Q and 2 weeks of EMA ratings prior to initiating eating episodes and subsequently after eating episodes. EMA items assessed behavioral symptoms [i.e., loss of control (LOC) eating and overeating] and cognitive symptoms (i...
June 22, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643134/randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-volitional-help-sheet-to-encourage-weight-loss-in-the-middle-east
#14
Christopher J Armitage, Soud Alganem, Paul Norman
In the Middle East, the prevalence of overweight/obesity is 80%; however, no studies have yet tested the efficacy of interventions to promote weight loss. The aim of the present study was to test the ability of implementation intentions formed using a volitional help sheet to support weight loss among people who were overweight/obese. Participants (N = 216) enrolling in a weight loss program in Kuwait were randomly allocated either to form implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet (intervention group) or to use the volitional help sheet to think about critical situations and appropriate responses but not form implementation intentions (control group)...
June 23, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642297/combination-of-diet-exercise-and-behaviour-change-may-help-weight-loss-in-child-obesity
#15
Susan Mayor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640442/endocrine-function-after-bariatric-surgery
#16
Ki-Suk Kim, Darleen A Sandoval
Obesity increases the risks of metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is the most successful therapeutic option that causes sustained weight loss and improvements in obesity comorbidities. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are two of the most frequently performed bariatric surgeries. Despite their different anatomical rearrangement, they have remarkably similar success in both weight loss and T2DM remission. Interestingly, they also both cause a wide range of endocrine changes...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#17
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639757/-ketogenic-diets-the-miraculous-solution
#18
Christophe Kosinski, François R Jornayvaz
The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered and aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, carbohydrate restriction is popular, specifically ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and /or proteins. Results are controversial, but some benefits such as weight loss and improved glycemic control have been described. Nevertheless, these effects seem to be limited in time...
May 31, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639346/adipose-tissue-meal-derived-fatty-acid-uptake-before-and-after-diet-induced-weight-loss-in-adults-with-overweight-and-obesity
#19
Roel G Vink, Nadia J Roumans, Birgitta W van der Kolk, Parastoo Fazelzadeh, Mark V Boekschoten, Edwin C Mariman, Marleen A van Baak
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether diet-induced weight loss alters indices of in vivo postprandial fat uptake in adipose tissue (AT) and whether these changes are associated with weight regain in adults with overweight and obesity. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 16 (6 male) individuals (BMI: 28-35 kg/m(2) ) were randomized to either a low-calorie diet (1,250 kcal/d) for 12 weeks or a very-low-calorie diet (500 kcal/d) for 5 weeks (weight loss [WL] period) followed by a 4-week weight-stable (WS) period (together, the dietary intervention [DI] period) and a 9-month follow-up period...
June 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637408/lifestyle-modifications-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Andreas Pittaras, Charles Faselis, Puneet Narayan, Peter Kokkinos
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common diseases worldwide, affecting more than 30% of general population. High-fat diets, physical inactivity and obesity, all prevalent in the western societies, are strongly associated with the development and progression of NAFLD. Current drug therapies have not consistently shown substantial beneficial effects. Thus, lifestyle modification appears to be the optimal intervention in combating the disease. Accordingly, several studies have concluded that weight loss, via increase in physical activity, and dietary interventions could potential ameliorate biochemical, histological, and structural abnormalities of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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