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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346358/genomic-evidence-for-bacterial-determinants-influencing-obesity-development
#1
Raphael D Isokpehi, Shaneka S Simmons, Matilda O Johnson, Marinelle Payton
Obesity is a major global public health problem requiring multifaceted interventional approaches including dietary interventions with probiotic bacteria. High-throughput genome sequencing of microbial communities in the mammalian gastrointestinal system continues to present diverse protein function information to understand the bacterial determinants that influence obesity development. The goal of the research reported in this article was to identify biological processes in probiotic bacteria that could influence the mechanisms for the extraction of energy from diet in the human gastrointestinal system...
March 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345790/metabolic-responses-to-exogenous-ghrelin-in-obesity-and-early-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-in-humans
#2
Robyn A Tamboli, Joseph Antoun, Reem M Sidani, B Austin Clements, Emily A Eckert, Pam Marks-Shulman, Bruce D Gaylinn, D Brandon Williams, Ronald H Clements, Vance L Albaugh, Naji N Abumrad
AIMS: Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and has a multi-faceted role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, including glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin concentrations are modulated in response to nutritional status, but responses to ghrelin in altered metabolic states are poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic effects of ghrelin in obesity and early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed central and peripheral metabolic responses to acyl ghrelin infusion (1 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) ) in healthy, lean subjects (n = 9) and non-diabetic, obese subjects (n = 9) before and two weeks after RYGB...
March 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344903/comparison-of-consumption-behavior-and-appetite-sensations-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-after-bariatric-surgery
#3
Chun Yeh, Hsien-Hao Huang, Shu-Chun Chen, Tung-Fang Chen, Kong-Han Ser, Chih-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND: The promising postsurgical weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) from bariatric surgery can be attributed to modified eating physiology after surgical procedures. We sought to investigate the changes in the parameters of consumption behaviors and appetite sensations induced by a mixed meal tolerance test, and to correlate these alterations with age, body mass index, C-peptide levels, and duration of T2D 1 year after bariatric surgery. METHODS: A total of 16 obese patients with T2D who underwent mini-gastric bypass (GB) and 16 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were enrolled in this study and evaluated using a mixed meal tolerance test one year after surgery...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344846/beating-obesity-factors-associated-with-interest-in-workplace-weight-management-assistance-in-the-mining-industry
#4
Tamara D Street, Drew L Thomas
BACKGROUND: Rates of overweight and obese Australians are high and continue to rise, putting a large proportion of the population at risk of chronic illness. Examining characteristics associated with preference for a work-based weight-loss program will enable employers to better target programs to increase enrolment and benefit employees' health and fitness for work. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at two Australian mining sites. The survey collected information on employee demographics, health characteristics, work characteristics, stages of behavior change, and preference for workplace assistance with reaching a healthy weight...
March 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344345/gastric-bypass-surgery-with-exercise-alters-plasma-micrornas-that-predict-improvements-in-cardiometabolic-risk
#5
Y O N Lopez, P M Coen, B H Goodpaster, A A Seyhan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery improves insulin sensitivity (SI) and β-cell function in obese non-diabetic subjects. Exercise also improves SI and may be an effective adjunct therapy to RYGB surgery. However, the mechanisms by which exercise or weight-loss improve peripheral SI after RYGB surgery are unclear. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate at least some of the regulatory processes driving such mechanisms. Consequently, this work aimed at profiling plasma miRNAs in participants of the Physical Activity Following Surgery Induced Weight Loss study (clinicaltrials...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342299/plasma-microrna-signature-predicting-weight-gain-among-mexican-american-women
#6
Hua Zhao, Jie Shen, Carrie Daniel-MacDougall, Xifeng Wu, Wong-Ho Chow
OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in obesity. However, whether they can contribute to adult weight gain is still unclear. METHODS: In the training set with 40 nonsmoking, healthy women identified from the Mano-A-Mano Mexican American Cohort study, global circulating miRNA profiles in plasma samples were assessed. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the effects of plasma miRNAs on significant weight gain during a 5-year follow-up...
March 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342156/diet-change-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-is-more-effective-for-weight-loss-than-surgery-only
#7
Joana Rossell, Marta González, Núria Mestres, Eva Pardina, David Ricart-Jané, Julia Peinado-Onsurbe, Juan Antonio Baena-Fustegueras
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery with or without diet change has become one of the most effective treatments for obesity. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and diet change in Sprague-Dawley rats on both body and tissue weights. METHODS: Eighteen rats were fed with a standard chow diet (SCD) (C group), and 36 rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) (diet-induced obesity (DIO) group). After 8 weeks, the animals underwent VSG, sham surgery or no surgery (NS)...
March 24, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342129/comparison-of-two-specimen-retrieval-techniques-in-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-what-is-the-role-of-endobag
#8
Saeed Shoar, Shereen Aboutaleb, Mohsen Karem, Moataz M Bashah, Mohamed AlKuwari, Davit Sargsyan, Alan A Saber
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become a popular stand-alone treatment for morbid obesity. However, removal of the gastric specimen could be a challenging step due to its large size relative to the width of the trocar site. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare a simplified retrieval technique for extraction of the gastric specimen without an endobag with conventionally performed specimen retrieval using an endobag. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted recruiting patients undergoing LSG...
March 24, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340446/mental-health-and-behavioral-weight-loss-24-month-outcomes-in-veterans
#9
Carol A Janney, Robin M Masheb, Lesley D Lutes, Robert G Holleman, Hyungjin Myra Kim, Leah R Gillon, Laura J Damschroder, Caroline R Richardson
BACKGROUND: Individuals with mental health (MH) disorders have an increased risk of being overweight/obese; however research on behavioral weight loss interventions has been limited. A priori hypothesis was that Veterans with serious mental illness (SMI) and/or affective disorders (AD) would lose significantly less weight and have a different pattern of weight loss than Veterans without these diagnoses. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of ASPIRE-VA study, three-arm randomized, effectiveness weight loss trial among Veterans (n=409) categorized by MH diagnoses: 1) SMI, 2) AD without SMI, or 3) No SMI/No AD...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340156/the-impact-of-multicomponent-weight-management-interventions-on-self-esteem-in-overweight-and-obese-adolescents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Maxine P Bonham
 Building self-esteem in overweight adolescents is key to long-term weight management; yet, self-esteem is rarely a key outcome of adolescent weight management interventions. This systematic review investigates the impact of multicomponent weight management interventions on self-esteem in overweight and obese adolescents.  Six databases were searched in December 2014. Eligible studies met the following criteria: (1) randomized controlled trial, (2) overweight or obese participants, (3) adolescents (10-19 years), (4) multicomponent weight management intervention, (5) reported self-esteem and weight changes...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338403/personalized-mobile-health-intervention-for-health-and-weight-loss-in-postpartum-women-receiving-women-infants-and-children-benefit-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#11
L Anne Gilmore, Monica C Klempel, Corby K Martin, Candice A Myers, Jeffrey H Burton, Elizabeth F Sutton, Leanne M Redman
BACKGROUND: Prepregnancy maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy lead to significant morbidities in mothers and their children. Mothers who never return to their prepregnancy weight begin subsequent pregnancies at a greater weight and have a larger propensity for excess gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention. METHODS: In this pilot study, 40 postpartum women credentialed to receive postpartum women, infants, and children (WIC) service were randomized to usual care ("WIC Moms") or a personalized health intervention delivered via a SmartPhone ("E-Moms")...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337847/efficacy-of-environmental-and-acceptance-based-enhancements-to-behavioral-weight-loss-treatment-the-enact-trial
#12
Meghan L Butryn, Evan M Forman, Michael R Lowe, Amy A Gorin, Fengqing Zhang, Katherine Schaumberg
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare weight loss through a traditional behavioral treatment (BT) approach that integrated skills for managing the obesogenic food environment (BT + E) with an approach that integrated environmental and acceptance-based skills (BT + EA). Moderators were examined as an exploratory aim. METHODS: Adults (N = 283) were randomly assigned to treatment condition and provided with 26 group-based sessions over the course of 12 months...
March 23, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337027/obesity-induced-decreases-in-muscle-performance-are-not-reversed-by-weight-loss
#13
F Seebacher, J Tallis, K McShea, R S James
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity can affect muscle phenotypes, and may thereby constrain movement and energy expenditure. Weight loss is a common and intuitive intervention for obesity, but it is not known whether the effects of obesity on muscle function are reversible by weight loss. Here we tested whether obesity-induced changes in muscle metabolic and contractile phenotypes are reversible by weight loss. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a factorial design to compare energy metabolism, locomotor capacity, muscle isometric force and work-loop power output, and myosin heavy chain composition between lean fish, diet-induced obese fish, and fish that were obese and then returned to lean body mass following diet restriction...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336559/microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-obesity-is-driven-by-macrophage-dependent-hydrogen-sulfide-depletion
#14
Joseph Candela, Rui Wang, Carl White
OBJECTIVE: The function of perivascular adipose tissue as an anticontractile mediator in the microvasculature is lost during obesity. Obesity results in inflammation and recruitment of proinflammatory macrophages to the perivascular adipose tissue that is paralleled by depletion of the vasorelaxant signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the vessel. The current objective was to assess the role of macrophages in determining vascular [H2S] and defining how this impinged on vasodilation...
March 23, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336199/primary-care-physician-decision-making-regarding-referral-for-bariatric-surgery-a-national-survey
#15
Charlotte Røn Stolberg, Nicola Hepp, Anna Julie Aavild Juhl, Deepti B C, Claus B Juhl
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity. It results in significant and sustained weight loss and reduces obesity-related co-morbidities. Despite an increasing prevalence of severe obesity, the number of bariatric operations performed in Denmark has decreased during the past years. This is only partly explained by changes in the national guidelines for bariatric surgery. The purpose of the cross-sectional study is to investigate referral patterns and possible reservations regarding bariatric surgery among Danish primary care physicians (PCPs)...
February 4, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335761/the-effects-of-jiao-tai-wan-on-sleep-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity-resistant-rats-with-chronic-partial-sleep-deprivation
#16
Xin Zou, Wenya Huang, Fuer Lu, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Shuyong Zhao, Jiming Jia, Lijun Xu, Kaifu Wang, Nan Wang, Hui Dong
BACKGROUND: Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW), composed of Rhizome Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi, is a classical traditional Chinese prescription for treating insomnia. Several in vivo studies have concluded that JTW could exert its therapeutical effect in insomnia rats. However, the specific mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effect of JTW on sleep in obesity-resistant (OR) rats with chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD) and to clarify its possible mechanism. METHODS: JTW was prepared and the main components contained in the granules were identified by 3D-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (3D-HPLC) assay...
March 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335749/women-s-perceptions-of-discussions-about-gestational-weight-gain-with-health-care-providers-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum-a-qualitative-study
#17
Hara Nikolopoulos, Maria Mayan, Jessica MacIsaac, Terri Miller, Rhonda C Bell
BACKGROUND: Maternal body weight is an indicator of the health of a mother and her developing fetus. Risks of poor maternal and fetal health issues increase when women gain too little or too much weight during pregnancy. A study of 600 women from Alberta, Canada, reported approximately 30, 46, 80, and 80% of underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese women, respectively, gained in excess of Health Canada gestational weight gain guidelines. Behavioural interventions during pregnancy have shown to be effective at supporting women achieve gestational weight gain (GWG) recommendations and return to their pre-pregnancy weight postpartum, yet few women are counseled about weight gain during pregnancy...
March 24, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335711/peer-group-and-text-message-based-weight-loss-and-management-intervention-for-african-american-women
#18
Sohye Lee, Erica Schorr, Chih-Lin Chi, Diane Treat-Jacobson, Michelle A Mathiason, Ruth Lindquist
About 80% of African American (AA) women are overweight or obese. Accessible and effective weight management programs targeting weight loss, weight maintenance and the prevention of weight regain are needed to improve health of AA women. A feasibility study was conducted to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a 16-week intervention protocol for weight loss and management that combined daily text messages and biweekly peer group sessions. Modest but statistically significant reductions were detected in weight and body mass index from baseline to 16 weeks...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335560/serum-amyloid-a-production-is-triggered-by-sleep-deprivation-in-mice-and-humans-is-that-the-link-between-sleep-loss-and-associated-comorbidities
#19
Edson M de Oliveira, Bruna Visniauskas, Sergio Tufik, Monica L Andersen, Jair R Chagas, Ana Campa
Serum amyloid A (SAA) was recently associated with metabolic endotoxemia, obesity and insulin resistance. Concurrently, insufficient sleep adversely affects metabolic health and is an independent predisposing factor for obesity and insulin resistance. In this study we investigated whether sleep loss modulates SAA production. The serum SAA concentration increased in C57BL/6 mice subjected to sleep restriction (SR) for 15 days or to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 72 h. Sleep restriction also induced the upregulation of Saa1...
March 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333235/ovarian-hormones-and-obesity
#20
Brigitte Leeners, Nori Geary, Philippe N Tobler, Lori Asarian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
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