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Caloric restriction human health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884780/regulation-of-metabolic-health-and-aging-by-nutrient-sensitive-signaling-pathways
#1
Nicole E Cummings, Dudley W Lamming
All organisms need to be capable of adapting to changes in the availability and composition of nutrients. Over 75 years ago, researchers discovered that a calorie restricted (CR) diet could significantly extend the lifespan of rats, and since then a CR diet has been shown to increase lifespan and healthspan in model organisms ranging from yeast to non-human primates. In this review, we discuss the effects of a CR diet on metabolism and healthspan, and highlight emerging evidence that suggests that dietary composition - the precise macronutrients that compose the diet - may be just as important as caloric content...
November 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829242/caloric-restriction-preserves-memory-and-reduces-anxiety-of-aging-mice-with-early-enhancement-of-neurovascular-functions
#2
Ishita Parikh, Janet Guo, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Yu Zhong, Ralf G Rempe, Jared D Hoffman, Rachel Armstrong, Björn Bauer, Anika M S Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin
Neurovascular integrity plays an important role in protecting cognitive and mental health in aging. Lifestyle interventions that sustain neurovascular integrity may thus be critical on preserving brain functions in aging and reducing the risk for age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that caloric restriction (CR) had an early effect on neurovascular enhancements, and played a critical role in preserving vascular, cognitive and mental health in aging. In particular, we found that CR significantly enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood-brain barrier function in young mice at 5-6 months of age...
November 8, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781945/resveratrol-and-lifespan-in-model-organisms
#3
Kathrin Pallauf, Gerald Rimbacha, Petra Maria Ruppa, Dawn China, Insa Wolf
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol may possess life-prolonging and health-benefitting properties, some of which may resemble the effect of caloric restriction (CR). CR appears to prolong the lifespan of model organisms in some studies and may benefit human health. However, for humans, restricting food intake for an extended period of time seems impracticable and substances imitating the beneficial effects of CR without having to reduce food intake could improve health in an aging and overweight population...
October 24, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701682/ghrelin-ghrelin-o-acyltransferase-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-during-pregnancy-in-calorie-restricted-mice
#4
A Trivedi, S Babic, M Heiman, W T Gibson, J-P Chanoine
Acylation of ghrelin is mediated by ghrelin O-acyltansferase (GOAT). Exogenous acylated ghrelin (AG) stimulates growth hormone (GH) and food intake. In non-pregnant (NP) animals, the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis prevents hypoglycemia caused by caloric restriction (CR). In humans, maternal malnutrition challenges glucose metabolism, which is a key determinant of fetal health. To clarify the role of AG and GH, we compared effects of CR on the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis in pregnant (P) and NP mice. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and GOAT knock-out (KO) P and NP mice were freely fed (FF) or subjected to 50% CR for one week...
October 4, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687742/the-effects-of-intermittent-calorie-restriction-on-metabolic-health-rationale-and-study-design-of-the-helena-trial
#5
Ruth Schübel, Mirja E Graf, Johanna Nattenmüller, Diana Nabers, Disorn Sookthai, Laura F Gruner, Theron Johnson, Christopher L Schlett, Oyunbileg von Stackelberg, Romy Kirsten, Nina Habermann, Mario Kratz, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Cornelia M Ulrich, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn
Mechanistic studies suggest benefits of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) in chronic disease prevention that may exceed those of continuous calorie restriction (CCR), even at equal net calorie intake. Despite promising results from first trials, it remains largely unknown whether ICR-induced metabolic alterations reported from experimental studies can also be observed in humans, and whether ICR diets are practicable and effective in real life situations. Thus, we initiated the HELENA Trial to test the effects of ICR (eu-caloric diet on five days and very low energy intake on two days per week) on metabolic parameters and body composition over one year...
September 28, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588026/better-living-through-chemistry-caloric-restriction-cr-and-cr-mimetics-alter-genome-function-to-promote-increased-health-and-lifespan
#6
REVIEW
Zoe E Gillespie, Joshua Pickering, Christopher H Eskiw
Caloric restriction (CR), defined as decreased nutrient intake without causing malnutrition, has been documented to increase both health and lifespan across numerous organisms, including humans. Many drugs and other compounds naturally occurring in our diet (nutraceuticals) have been postulated to act as mimetics of caloric restriction, leading to a wave of research investigating the efficacy of these compounds in preventing age-related diseases and promoting healthier, longer lifespans. Although well studied at the biochemical level, there are still many unanswered questions about how CR and CR mimetics impact genome function and structure...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556946/restricted-diet-delays-accelerated-ageing-and-genomic-stress-in-dna-repair-deficient-mice
#7
W P Vermeij, M E T Dollé, E Reiling, D Jaarsma, C Payan-Gomez, C R Bombardieri, H Wu, A J M Roks, S M Botter, B C van der Eerden, S A Youssef, R V Kuiper, B Nagarajah, C T van Oostrom, R M C Brandt, S Barnhoorn, S Imholz, J L A Pennings, A de Bruin, Á Gyenis, J Pothof, J Vijg, H van Steeg, J H J Hoeijmakers
Mice deficient in the DNA excision-repair gene Ercc1 (Ercc1(∆/-)) show numerous accelerated ageing features that limit their lifespan to 4-6 months. They also exhibit a 'survival response', which suppresses growth and enhances cellular maintenance. Such a response resembles the anti-ageing response induced by dietary restriction (also known as caloric restriction). Here we report that a dietary restriction of 30% tripled the median and maximal remaining lifespans of these progeroid mice, strongly retarding numerous aspects of accelerated ageing...
August 24, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475046/nutritional-ketosis-alters-fuel-preference-and-thereby-endurance-performance-in-athletes
#8
Pete J Cox, Tom Kirk, Tom Ashmore, Kristof Willerton, Rhys Evans, Alan Smith, Andrew J Murray, Brianna Stubbs, James West, Stewart W McLure, M Todd King, Michael S Dodd, Cameron Holloway, Stefan Neubauer, Scott Drawer, Richard L Veech, Julian L Griffin, Kieran Clarke
Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration...
August 9, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260561/energetic-interventions-for-healthspan-and-resiliency-with-aging
#9
Derek M Huffman, Marissa J Schafer, Nathan K LeBrasseur
Several behavioral and pharmacological strategies improve longevity, which is indicative of delayed organismal aging, with the most effective interventions extending both life- and healthspan. In free living creatures, maintaining health and function into old age requires resilience against a multitude of stressors. Conversely, in experimental settings, conventional housing of rodents limits exposure to such challenges, thereby obscuring an accurate assessment of resilience. Caloric restriction (CR) and exercise, as well as pharmacologic strategies (resveratrol, rapamycin, metformin, senolytics), are well established to improve indices of health and aging, but some paradoxical effects have been observed on resilience...
May 31, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240590/caloric-restriction-beneficial-effects-on-brain-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Caroline Van Cauwenberghe, Charysse Vandendriessche, Claude Libert, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke
Dietary interventions such as caloric restriction (CR) extend lifespan and health span. Recent data from animal and human studies indicate that CR slows down the aging process, benefits general health, and improves memory performance. Caloric restriction also retards and slows down the progression of different age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific molecular basis of these effects remains unclear. A better understanding of the pathways underlying these effects could pave the way to novel preventive or therapeutic strategies...
August 2016: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869153/contributions-of-nonhuman-primates-to-research-on-aging
#11
E S Didier, A G MacLean, M Mohan, P J Didier, A A Lackner, M J Kuroda
Aging is the biological process of declining physiologic function associated with increasing mortality rate during advancing age. Humans and higher nonhuman primates exhibit unusually longer average life spans as compared with mammals of similar body mass. Furthermore, the population of humans worldwide is growing older as a result of improvements in public health, social services, and health care systems. Comparative studies among a wide range of organisms that include nonhuman primates contribute greatly to our understanding about the basic mechanisms of aging...
March 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26850040/feasibility-outcomes-of-a-presurgical-randomized-controlled-trial-exploring-the-impact-of-caloric-restriction-and-increased-physical-activity-versus-a-wait-list-control-on-tumor-characteristics-and-circulating-biomarkers-in-men-electing-prostatectomy-for-prostate
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Jeffery W Nix, Gary R Hunter, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Renee A Desmond, Balu Chacko, Casey D Morrow, Maria Azrad, Andrew D Frugé, Yuko Tsuruta, Travis Ptacek, Scott A Tully, Roanne Segal, William E Grizzle
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with tumor aggressiveness and disease-specific mortality for more than 15 defined malignancies, including prostate cancer. Preclinical studies suggest that weight loss from caloric restriction and increased physical activity may suppress hormonal, energy-sensing, and inflammatory factors that drive neoplastic progression; however, exact mechanisms are yet to be determined, and experiments in humans are limited. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 40 overweight or obese, newly-diagnosed prostate cancer patients who elected prostatectomy to explore feasibility of a presurgical weight loss intervention that promoted a weight loss of roughly one kg...
February 5, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26830139/increased-ghrelin-signaling-prolongs-survival-in-mouse-models-of-human-aging-through-activation-of-sirtuin1
#13
N Fujitsuka, A Asakawa, A Morinaga, M S Amitani, H Amitani, G Katsuura, Y Sawada, Y Sudo, Y Uezono, E Mochiki, I Sakata, T Sakai, K Hanazaki, T Yada, K Yakabi, E Sakuma, T Ueki, A Niijima, K Nakagawa, N Okubo, H Takeda, M Asaka, A Inui
Caloric restriction (CR) is known to retard aging and delay functional decline as well as the onset of diseases in most organisms. Ghrelin is secreted from the stomach in response to CR and regulates energy metabolism. We hypothesized that in CR ghrelin has a role in protecting aging-related diseases. We examined the physiological mechanisms underlying the ghrelin system during the aging process in three mouse strains with different genetic and biochemical backgrounds as animal models of accelerated or normal human aging...
February 2, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26812158/metabolic-benefit-of-chronic-caloric-restriction-and-activation-of-hypothalamic-agrp-npy-neurons-in-male-mice-is-independent-of-ghrelin
#14
Nicole H Rogers, Heidi Walsh, Oscar Alvarez-Garcia, Seongjoon Park, Bruce Gaylinn, Michael O Thorner, Roy G Smith
Aging is associated with attenuated ghrelin signaling. During aging, chronic caloric restriction (CR) produces health benefits accompanied by enhanced ghrelin production. Ghrelin receptor (GH secretagogue receptor 1a) agonists administered to aging rodents and humans restore the young adult phenotype; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the metabolic benefits of CR are mediated by endogenous ghrelin. Three month-old male mice lacking ghrelin (Ghrelin-/-) or ghrelin receptor (Ghsr-/-), and their wild-type (WT) littermates were randomly assigned to 2 groups: ad libitum (AL) fed and CR, where 40% food restriction was introduced gradually to allow Ghrelin-/- and Ghsr-/- mice to metabolically adapt and avoid severe hypoglycemia...
April 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617514/early-shifts-of-brain-metabolism-by-caloric-restriction-preserve-white-matter-integrity-and-long-term-memory-in-aging-mice
#15
Janet Guo, Vikas Bakshi, Ai-Ling Lin
Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26463981/the-sirtuins-markers-of-metabolic-health
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Covington, Sudip Bajpeyi
The sirtuins represent a class of proteins first discovered orthologus to the yeast silent information regulator 2 protein that have been retained in mammalian species. Currently, seven sirtuins have been identified in humans, and their functions currently surpass their originally identified role as histone deacetylase and chromatin silencers to encompass nutrient sensing and metabolic function. All seven sirtuins require NAD(+) in order to carry out their enzymatic activity, and thus become activated in conditions of nutrient depletion, starvation, and cellular stress...
January 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26214681/manipulation-of-health-span-and-function-by-dietary-caloric-restriction-mimetics
#17
REVIEW
George S Roth, Donald K Ingram
After nearly a century of rigorous investigation and testing, dietary caloric restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reproducible method for slowing aging and maintaining health, function, and vitality. This intervention has been applied to species across the evolutionary spectrum, but for a number of reasons, practical applicability to humans has been questioned. To overcome these issues, we initiated the field of CR mimetics in 1998 and have observed its development into a full-fledged antiaging industry...
January 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26187233/a-2-year-randomized-controlled-trial-of-human-caloric-restriction-feasibility-and-effects-on-predictors-of-health-span-and-longevity
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman, James Rochon, Sai Krupa Das, Luigi Fontana, William E Kraus, Sergei Romashkan, Donald A Williamson, Simin N Meydani, Dennis T Villareal, Steven R Smith, Richard I Stein, Tammy M Scott, Tiffany M Stewart, Edward Saltzman, Samuel Klein, Manju Bhapkar, Corby K Martin, Cheryl H Gilhooly, John O Holloszy, Evan C Hadley, Susan B Roberts
BACKGROUND: Caloric restriction (CR), energy intake reduced below ad libitum (AL) intake, increases life span in many species. The implications for humans can be clarified by randomized controlled trials of CR. METHODS: To determine CR's feasibility, safety, and effects on predictors of longevity, disease risk factors, and quality of life in nonobese humans aged 21-51 years, 218 persons were randomized to a 2-year intervention designed to achieve 25% CR or to AL diet...
September 2015: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25672622/nrf2-a-master-regulator-of-detoxification-and-also-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-other-cytoprotective-mechanisms-is-raised-by-health-promoting-factors
#19
Martin L Pall, Stephen Levine
The transcription factor Nrf2, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2, activates the transcription of over 500 genes in the human genome, most of which have cytoprotective functions. Nrf2 produces cytoprotection by detoxification mechanisms leading to increased detoxification and excretion of both organic xenobiotics and toxic metals; its action via over two dozen genes increases highly coordinated antioxidant activities; it produces major anti-inflammatory changes; it stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and otherwise improves mitochondrial function; and it stimulates autophagy, removing toxic protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles...
February 25, 2015: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25654546/development-of-autophagy-inducers-in-clinical-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Beth Levine, Milton Packer, Patrice Codogno
Defects in autophagy have been linked to a wide range of medical illnesses, including cancer as well as infectious, neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. These observations have led to the hypothesis that autophagy inducers may prevent or treat certain clinical conditions. Lifestyle and nutritional factors, such as exercise and caloric restriction, may exert their known health benefits through the autophagy pathway. Several currently available FDA-approved drugs have been shown to enhance autophagy, and this autophagy-enhancing action may be repurposed for use in novel clinical indications...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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