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Caloric restriction human health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445443/nutrimiraging-micromanaging-nutrient-sensing-pathways-through-nutrition-to-promote-healthy-aging
#1
REVIEW
Víctor Micó, Laura Berninches, Javier Tapia, Lidia Daimiel
Current sociodemographic predictions point to a demographic shift in developed and developing countries that will result in an unprecedented increase of the elderly population. This will be accompanied by an increase in age-related conditions that will strongly impair human health and quality of life. For this reason, aging is a major concern worldwide. Healthy aging depends on a combination of individual genetic factors and external environmental factors. Diet has been proved to be a powerful tool to modulate aging and caloric restriction has emerged as a valuable intervention in this regard...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329397/resveratrol-improves-vascular-function-and-mitochondrial-number-but-not-glucose-metabolism-in-older-adults
#2
Rena M Pollack, Nir Barzilai, Valentin Anghel, Ameya S Kulkarni, Aaron Golden, Pilib O'Broin, David A Sinclair, Michael S Bonkowski, Alexander J Coleville, Danielle Powell, Sharon Kim, Ruin Moaddel, Daniel Stein, Kehao Zhang, Meredith Hawkins, Jill P Crandall
Background: Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol, has been reported to improve glucose metabolism and vascular function and to extend life span in animal models, but studies in humans have been inconclusive. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, we treated older glucose-intolerant adults (n = 30) with resveratrol (2-3 g/daily) or placebo, each for 6 weeks. A standard mixed-meal test was used to assess insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and secretion (C-peptide deconvolution) and vascular function by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry...
March 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329314/sirt1-polymorphisms-and-serum-induced-sirt1-protein-expression-in-aging-and-frailty-the-champ-study
#3
Shajjia Razi, Victoria C Cogger, Marina Kennerson, Vicky L Benson, Aisling C McMahon, Fiona M Blyth, David J Handelsman, Markus J Seibel, Vasant Hirani, Vasikaran Naganathan, Louise Waite, Rafael de Cabo, Robert G Cumming, David G Le Couteur
The nutrient sensing protein, SIRT1 influences aging and nutritional interventions such as caloric restriction in animals, however, the role of SIRT1 in human aging remains unclear. Here, the role of SIRT1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum-induced SIRT1 protein expression (a novel assay that detects circulating factors that influence SIRT1 expression in vitro) were studied in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a prospective cohort of community dwelling men aged 70 years and older...
March 14, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295377/time-restricted-feeding-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-cardiometabolic-disorders
#4
Girish C Melkani, Satchidananda Panda
The soaring prevalence of obesity and diabetes is associated with an increase in comorbidities, including elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVDs continue to be among the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. While increased nutrition intake from an energy dense diet is known to disrupt metabolic homeostasis and contributes to the disease risk, circadian rhythm disruption is emerging as a new risk factor for CVD. Circadian rhythms coordinate cardiovascular health via temporal control of organismal metabolism and physiology...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241983/unraveling-the-metabolic-health-benefits-of-fasting-related-to-religious-beliefs-a-narrative-review
#5
REVIEW
Angeliki Persynaki, Spyridon Karras, Claude Pichard
Periodic fasting, under a religious aspect, has been adopted by humans for centuries as a crucial pathway of spiritual purification. Caloric restriction, with or without exclusion of certain types of food, is often a key component. Fasting varies significantly among different populations according to cultural habits and local climate conditions. Religious fasting in terms of patterns (continuous versus intermittent) and duration can vary from 1 to 200 d; thus, the positive and negative impact on health can be considerable...
March 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094793/caloric-restriction-improves-health-and-survival-of-rhesus-monkeys
#6
Julie A Mattison, Ricki J Colman, T Mark Beasley, David B Allison, Joseph W Kemnitz, George S Roth, Donald K Ingram, Richard Weindruch, Rafael de Cabo, Rozalyn M Anderson
Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders in most species but its impact in nonhuman primates has been controversial. In the late 1980s two parallel studies were initiated to determine the effect of CR in rhesus monkeys. The University of Wisconsin study reported a significant positive impact of CR on survival, but the National Institute on Aging study detected no significant survival effect. Here we present a direct comparison of longitudinal data from both studies including survival, bodyweight, food intake, fasting glucose levels and age-related morbidity...
January 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035340/targeting-glucose-metabolism-for-healthy-aging
#7
REVIEW
Rachel A Brewer, Victoria K Gibbs, Daniel L Smith
Advancing age is the greatest single risk factor for numerous chronic diseases. Thus, the ability to target the aging process can facilitate improved healthspan and potentially lifespan. Lack of adequate glucoregulatory control remains a recurrent theme accompanying aging and chronic disease, while numerous longevity interventions result in maintenance of glucoregulatory control. In this review, we propose targeting glucose metabolism to enhance regulatory control as a means to ameliorate the aging process...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884780/regulation-of-metabolic-health-and-aging-by-nutrient-sensitive-signaling-pathways
#8
Nicole E Cummings, Dudley W Lamming
All organisms need to be capable of adapting to changes in the availability and composition of nutrients. Over 75 years ago, researchers discovered that a calorie restricted (CR) diet could significantly extend the lifespan of rats, and since then a CR diet has been shown to increase lifespan and healthspan in model organisms ranging from yeast to non-human primates. In this review, we discuss the effects of a CR diet on metabolism and healthspan, and highlight emerging evidence that suggests that dietary composition - the precise macronutrients that compose the diet - may be just as important as caloric content...
November 22, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829242/caloric-restriction-preserves-memory-and-reduces-anxiety-of-aging-mice-with-early-enhancement-of-neurovascular-functions
#9
Ishita Parikh, Janet Guo, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Yu Zhong, Ralf G Rempe, Jared D Hoffman, Rachel Armstrong, Björn Bauer, Anika M S Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin
Neurovascular integrity plays an important role in protecting cognitive and mental health in aging. Lifestyle interventions that sustain neurovascular integrity may thus be critical on preserving brain functions in aging and reducing the risk for age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that caloric restriction (CR) had an early effect on neurovascular enhancements, and played a critical role in preserving vascular, cognitive and mental health in aging. In particular, we found that CR significantly enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood-brain barrier function in young mice at 5-6 months of age...
November 8, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781945/resveratrol-and-lifespan-in-model-organisms
#10
REVIEW
Kathrin Pallauf, Gerald Rimbach, Petra Maria Rupp, Dawn Chin, Insa M A Wolf
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol may possess life-prolonging and health-benefitting properties, some of which may resemble the effect of caloric restriction (CR). CR appears to prolong the lifespan of model organisms in some studies and may benefit human health. However, for humans, restricting food intake for an extended period of time seems impracticable and substances imitating the beneficial effects of CR without having to reduce food intake could improve health in an aging and overweight population...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701682/ghrelin-ghrelin-o-acyltransferase-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-during-pregnancy-in-calorie-restricted-mice
#11
Arjun Trivedi, Sandra Babic, Mark Heiman, William T Gibson, Jean-Pierre Chanoine
Acylation of ghrelin is mediated by ghrelin O-acyltansferase (GOAT). Exogenous acylated ghrelin (AG) stimulates growth hormone (GH) and food intake. In non-pregnant (NP) animals, the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis prevents hypoglycemia caused by caloric restriction (CR). In humans, maternal malnutrition challenges glucose metabolism, which is a key determinant of fetal health. To clarify the role of AG and GH, we compared effects of CR on the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis in pregnant (P) and NP mice. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and GOAT knock-out (KO) P and NP mice were freely fed (FF) or subjected to 50% CR for one week...
January 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687742/the-effects-of-intermittent-calorie-restriction-on-metabolic-health-rationale-and-study-design-of-the-helena-trial
#12
Ruth Schübel, Mirja E Graf, Johanna Nattenmüller, Diana Nabers, Disorn Sookthai, Laura F Gruner, Theron Johnson, Christopher L Schlett, Oyunbileg von Stackelberg, Romy Kirsten, Nina Habermann, Mario Kratz, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Cornelia M Ulrich, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn
Mechanistic studies suggest benefits of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) in chronic disease prevention that may exceed those of continuous calorie restriction (CCR), even at equal net calorie intake. Despite promising results from first trials, it remains largely unknown whether ICR-induced metabolic alterations reported from experimental studies can also be observed in humans, and whether ICR diets are practicable and effective in real life situations. Thus, we initiated the HELENA Trial to test the effects of ICR (eu-caloric diet on five days and very low energy intake on two days per week) on metabolic parameters and body composition over one year...
September 28, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588026/better-living-through-chemistry-caloric-restriction-cr-and-cr-mimetics-alter-genome-function-to-promote-increased-health-and-lifespan
#13
REVIEW
Zoe E Gillespie, Joshua Pickering, Christopher H Eskiw
Caloric restriction (CR), defined as decreased nutrient intake without causing malnutrition, has been documented to increase both health and lifespan across numerous organisms, including humans. Many drugs and other compounds naturally occurring in our diet (nutraceuticals) have been postulated to act as mimetics of caloric restriction, leading to a wave of research investigating the efficacy of these compounds in preventing age-related diseases and promoting healthier, longer lifespans. Although well studied at the biochemical level, there are still many unanswered questions about how CR and CR mimetics impact genome function and structure...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556946/restricted-diet-delays-accelerated-ageing-and-genomic-stress-in-dna-repair-deficient-mice
#14
W P Vermeij, M E T Dollé, E Reiling, D Jaarsma, C Payan-Gomez, C R Bombardieri, H Wu, A J M Roks, S M Botter, B C van der Eerden, S A Youssef, R V Kuiper, B Nagarajah, C T van Oostrom, R M C Brandt, S Barnhoorn, S Imholz, J L A Pennings, A de Bruin, Á Gyenis, J Pothof, J Vijg, H van Steeg, J H J Hoeijmakers
Mice deficient in the DNA excision-repair gene Ercc1 (Ercc1(∆/-)) show numerous accelerated ageing features that limit their lifespan to 4-6 months. They also exhibit a 'survival response', which suppresses growth and enhances cellular maintenance. Such a response resembles the anti-ageing response induced by dietary restriction (also known as caloric restriction). Here we report that a dietary restriction of 30% tripled the median and maximal remaining lifespans of these progeroid mice, strongly retarding numerous aspects of accelerated ageing...
September 15, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475046/nutritional-ketosis-alters-fuel-preference-and-thereby-endurance-performance-in-athletes
#15
Pete J Cox, Tom Kirk, Tom Ashmore, Kristof Willerton, Rhys Evans, Alan Smith, Andrew J Murray, Brianna Stubbs, James West, Stewart W McLure, M Todd King, Michael S Dodd, Cameron Holloway, Stefan Neubauer, Scott Drawer, Richard L Veech, Julian L Griffin, Kieran Clarke
Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration...
August 9, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260561/energetic-interventions-for-healthspan-and-resiliency-with-aging
#16
Derek M Huffman, Marissa J Schafer, Nathan K LeBrasseur
Several behavioral and pharmacological strategies improve longevity, which is indicative of delayed organismal aging, with the most effective interventions extending both life- and healthspan. In free living creatures, maintaining health and function into old age requires resilience against a multitude of stressors. Conversely, in experimental settings, conventional housing of rodents limits exposure to such challenges, thereby obscuring an accurate assessment of resilience. Caloric restriction (CR) and exercise, as well as pharmacologic strategies (resveratrol, rapamycin, metformin, senolytics), are well established to improve indices of health and aging, but some paradoxical effects have been observed on resilience...
December 15, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240590/caloric-restriction-beneficial-effects-on-brain-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Caroline Van Cauwenberghe, Charysse Vandendriessche, Claude Libert, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke
Dietary interventions such as caloric restriction (CR) extend lifespan and health span. Recent data from animal and human studies indicate that CR slows down the aging process, benefits general health, and improves memory performance. Caloric restriction also retards and slows down the progression of different age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific molecular basis of these effects remains unclear. A better understanding of the pathways underlying these effects could pave the way to novel preventive or therapeutic strategies...
August 2016: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869153/contributions-of-nonhuman-primates-to-research-on-aging
#18
E S Didier, A G MacLean, M Mohan, P J Didier, A A Lackner, M J Kuroda
Aging is the biological process of declining physiologic function associated with increasing mortality rate during advancing age. Humans and higher nonhuman primates exhibit unusually longer average life spans as compared with mammals of similar body mass. Furthermore, the population of humans worldwide is growing older as a result of improvements in public health, social services, and health care systems. Comparative studies among a wide range of organisms that include nonhuman primates contribute greatly to our understanding about the basic mechanisms of aging...
March 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26850040/feasibility-outcomes-of-a-presurgical-randomized-controlled-trial-exploring-the-impact-of-caloric-restriction-and-increased-physical-activity-versus-a-wait-list-control-on-tumor-characteristics-and-circulating-biomarkers-in-men-electing-prostatectomy-for-prostate
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Jeffery W Nix, Gary R Hunter, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Renee A Desmond, Balu Chacko, Casey D Morrow, Maria Azrad, Andrew D Frugé, Yuko Tsuruta, Travis Ptacek, Scott A Tully, Roanne Segal, William E Grizzle
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with tumor aggressiveness and disease-specific mortality for more than 15 defined malignancies, including prostate cancer. Preclinical studies suggest that weight loss from caloric restriction and increased physical activity may suppress hormonal, energy-sensing, and inflammatory factors that drive neoplastic progression; however, exact mechanisms are yet to be determined, and experiments in humans are limited. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 40 overweight or obese, newly-diagnosed prostate cancer patients who elected prostatectomy to explore feasibility of a presurgical weight loss intervention that promoted a weight loss of roughly one kg...
February 5, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26830139/increased-ghrelin-signaling-prolongs-survival-in-mouse-models-of-human-aging-through-activation-of-sirtuin1
#20
N Fujitsuka, A Asakawa, A Morinaga, M S Amitani, H Amitani, G Katsuura, Y Sawada, Y Sudo, Y Uezono, E Mochiki, I Sakata, T Sakai, K Hanazaki, T Yada, K Yakabi, E Sakuma, T Ueki, A Niijima, K Nakagawa, N Okubo, H Takeda, M Asaka, A Inui
Caloric restriction (CR) is known to retard aging and delay functional decline as well as the onset of diseases in most organisms. Ghrelin is secreted from the stomach in response to CR and regulates energy metabolism. We hypothesized that in CR ghrelin has a role in protecting aging-related diseases. We examined the physiological mechanisms underlying the ghrelin system during the aging process in three mouse strains with different genetic and biochemical backgrounds as animal models of accelerated or normal human aging...
November 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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