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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434542/norepinephrine-in-the-medial-pre-frontal-cortex-supports-accumbens-shell-responses-to-a-novel-palatable-food-in-food-restricted-mice-only
#1
Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Rossella Ventura, Simona Cabib
Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrate: (1) that different classes of addictive drugs require intact norepinephrine (NE) transmission in the medial pre Frontal Cortex (mpFC) to promote conditioned place preference and to increase dopamine (DA) tone in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc Shell); (2) that only food-restricted mice require intact NE transmission in the mpFC to develop conditioned preference for a context associated with milk chocolate; and (3) that food-restricted mice show a significantly larger increase of mpFC NE outflow then free fed mice when experiencing the palatable food for the first time...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432036/effects-of-a-meal-feeding-regimen-and-the-availability-of-fresh-alfalfa-on-growth-performance-and-meat-and-bone-quality-of-broiler-genotypes
#2
B Koçer, M Bozkurt, G Ege, A E Tüzün, R Konak, O Olgun
1. The aim of this study was to identify a feeding regimen that encourages good pasture use in slow (SG) and fast (FG) growing broiler genotypes under free-range management. 2. SG and FG birds fed on either an ad libitum (ADB) or a meal feeding (MEF) programme was given free outdoor access with or without fresh alfalfa from d 22 to 72 and from d 22 to 45, respectively. In two consecutive trials, 800 birds of each genotype were included in a factorial design using groups of 40 birds replicated 5 times. 3. Fresh alfalfa consumption did not improve growth performance and meat quality attributes, whereas the feeding regimen had significant implications...
February 12, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431097/an-fgf-driven-feed-forward-circuit-patterns-the-cardiopharyngeal-mesoderm-in-space-and-time
#3
Florian Razy-Krajka, Basile Gravez, Nicole Kaplan, Claudia Racioppi, Wei Wang, Lionel Christiaen
In embryos, multipotent progenitors divide to produce distinct progeny and express their full potential. In vertebrates, multipotent cardiopharyngeal progenitors produce second-heart-field-derived cardiomyocytes, and branchiomeric skeletal head muscles. However, the mechanisms underlying these early fate choices remain largely elusive. The tunicate Ciona emerged as an attractive model to study early cardiopharyngeal development at high resolution: through two asymmetric and oriented divisions, defined cardiopharyngeal progenitors produce distinct first and second heart precursors, and pharyngeal muscle (aka atrial siphon muscle, ASM) precursors...
February 6, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410480/cognitive-and-affective-factors-linking-mothers-perceived-weight-history-to-child-feeding
#4
Sofia Bouhlal, Leah R Abrams, Colleen M McBride, Susan Persky
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To explore whether mothers' lifetime experiences with their own weight status and related cognitive and affective factors influence child feeding behavior. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Overweight mothers (N = 221) of 4-5 year olds recalled their weight at four time points, and were grouped into weight history trajectories: recently overweight, always overweight, and steady-gain-obese. Objective food choice behavior was assessed in a virtual reality buffet and subjective food restriction for the index child was assessed using a psychometric measure...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396372/ghrelin-mediates-exercise-endurance-and-the-feeding-response-post-exercise
#5
Bharath K Mani, Carlos M Castorena, Sherri Osborne-Lawrence, Prasanna Vijayaraghavan, Nathan P Metzger, Joel K Elmquist, Jeffrey M Zigman
OBJECTIVE: Exercise training has several well-established health benefits, including many related to body weight, appetite control, and blood glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms and, in particular, the hormonal systems that mediate and integrate these beneficial effects are poorly understood. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of the hormone ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor), in mediating the effects of exercise on food intake and blood glucose following exercise as well as in regulating exercise endurance capacity...
January 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385171/sex-differences-in-circadian-food-anticipatory-activity-are-not-altered-by-individual-manipulations-of-sex-hormones-or-sex-chromosome-copy-number-in-mice
#6
Antonio Aguayo, Camille S Martin, Timothy F Huddy, Maya Ogawa-Okada, Jamie L Adkins, Andrew D Steele
Recent studies in mice have demonstrated a sexual dimorphism in circadian entrainment to scheduled feeding. On a time restricted diet, males tend to develop food anticipatory activity (FAA) sooner than females and with a higher amplitude of activity. The underlying cause of this sex difference remains unknown. One study suggests that sex hormones, both androgens and estrogens, modulate food anticipatory activity in mice. Here we present results suggesting that the sex difference in FAA is unrelated to gonadal sex hormones...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374087/food-restriction-but-not-fish-oil-increases-fertility-in-hens-role-of-rarres2
#7
Namya Mellouk, Christelle Ramé, Joël Delaveau, Christophe Rat, Maxime Marchand, Frederic Mercerand, Angelique Travel, Aurelien Brionne, Pascal Chartrin, LinLin Ma, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
Overfed hens selected for their rapid growth become fatter and develop reproductive disorders. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that food restriction leading to a weight reduction and/or a supplementation with fish oil may be effective in preventing reproductive disorders through the regulation of adipokine expression in broiler hens. This study included four groups of food restricted (Rt) or ad libitum hens (Ad, feeding at a rate 1.7 times greater than Rt hens) supplemented or unsupplemented with fish oil (1%)...
January 26, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366566/inadequate-preoperative-nutrition-might-be-associated-with-acute-kidney-injury-and-greater-illness-severity-postoperatively
#8
Kurt D Piggott, Anne Liu, Jessica Monczka, Harun Fakioglu, Sukumar Suguna Narasimhulu, Kamal Pourmoghadam, William DeCampli
OBJECTIVE: Nutrition is vital for maintaining optimal cellular and organ function, particularly in neonates who undergo cardiac surgery. Achieving nutritional goals preoperatively can be challenging because of fluid restrictions, suboptimal oral intake, and concerns for inadequate gastrointestinal circulation. We examined preoperative caloric intake and its effects on postoperative course in neonates who underwent cardiac surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of neonates (younger than 30 days) who underwent congenital heart surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass from 2008 to 2014 at Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364913/effect-of-different-levels-of-feed-restriction-and-fish-oil-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-fat-deposition-by-using-different-techniques-plasma-levels-and-mrna-expression-of-several-adipokines-in-broiler-breeder-hens
#9
Namya Mellouk, Christelle Ramé, Maxime Marchand, Christophe Staub, Jean-Luc Touzé, Éric Venturi, Frédéric Mercerand, Angélique Travel, Pascal Chartrin, François Lecompte, Linlin Ma, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
BACKGROUND: Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens. METHODS: We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt) unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359972/effects-of-weight-loss-with-a-moderate-protein-high-fiber-diet-on-body-composition-voluntary-physical-activity-and-fecal-microbiota-of-obese-cats
#10
Marissa R Pallotto, Maria R C de Godoy, Hannah D Holscher, Preston R Buff, Kelly S Swanson
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of restriction feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on loss of body weight (BW), voluntary physical activity, body composition, and fecal microbiota of overweight cats. ANIMALS 8 neutered male adult cats. PROCEDURES After BW maintenance for 4 weeks (week 0 = last week of baseline period), cats were fed to lose approximately 1.5% of BW/wk for 18 weeks. Food intake (daily), BW (twice per week), body condition score (weekly), body composition (every 4 weeks), serum biochemical analysis (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16), physical activity (every 6 weeks), and fecal microbiota (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16) were assessed...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351143/nutrition-in-the-icu-new-trends-versus-old-fashioned-standard-enteral-feeding
#11
Kristine W A C Koekkoek, Arthur R H van Zanten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The narrative review aims to summarize the relevant studies from the last 2 years and provide contextual information to understand findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent ICU studies have provided insight in the pathophysiology and time course of catabolism, anabolic resistance, and metabolic and endocrine derangements interacting with the provision of calories and proteins.Early provision of high protein intake and caloric overfeeding may confer harm...
January 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348553/night-eating-model-shows-time-specific-depression-like-behavior-in-the-forced-swimming-test
#12
Atsushi Haraguchi, Miyabi Fukuzawa, Shiho Iwami, Yutaro Nishimura, Hiroaki Motohashi, Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian clock system is associated with feeding and mood. Patients with night eating syndrome (NES) delay their eating rhythm and their mood declines during the evening and night, manifesting as time-specific depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that the NES feeding pattern might cause time-specific depression. We established new NES model by restricted feeding with high-fat diet during the inactive period under normal-fat diet ad libitum. The FST (forced swimming test) immobility time in the NES model group was prolonged only after lights-on, corresponding to evening and early night for humans...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332677/pilot-study-of-sleep-and-meal-timing-effects-independent-of-sleep-duration-and-food-intake-on-insulin-sensitivity-in-healthy-individuals
#13
Theresa Pizinger, Kyle Kovtun, Arindam RoyChoudhury, Blandine Laferrère, Ari Shechter, Marie-Pierre St-Onge
This pilot study tested the independent and interactive effects of sleep and meal times, under identical sleep duration and feeding conditions, on insulin sensitivity (Si) in overweight adults. Participants underwent a 4-phase randomized crossover inpatient study differing in sleep times: normal (Ns: 0000-0800 hours) or late (Ls: 0330-1130 hours); and in meal times: normal (Nm: 1, 5, 11, and 12.5 hours after awakening) or late (Lm: 4.5, 8.5, 14.5, and 16 hours after awakening). An insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, at scheduled breakfast time, and a meal tolerance test, at scheduled lunch time, were performed to assess Si after 3 days in each condition...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325557/bidirectional-associations-between-mothers-feeding-practices-and-child-eating-behaviours
#14
Elena Jansen, Kate E Williams, Kimberley M Mallan, Jan M Nicholson, Lynne A Daniels
BACKGROUND: This study examined bidirectional relationships between maternal feeding practices and child food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness from 2 to 5 years. METHODS: Mothers (N = 207) reported their own feeding practices and child eating behaviours using validated questionnaires at child ages 2, 3.7, and 5 years. Cross-lagged analyses were conducted to test for bidirectional effects, adjusting for child BMI z-score (based on measured weight and height) at 14 months...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317623/glp-1-release-and-vagal-afferent-activation-mediate-the-beneficial-metabolic-and-chronotherapeutic-effects-of-d-allulose
#15
Yusaku Iwasaki, Mio Sendo, Katsuya Dezaki, Tohru Hira, Takehiro Sato, Masanori Nakata, Chayon Goswami, Ryohei Aoki, Takeshi Arai, Parmila Kumari, Masaki Hayakawa, Chiaki Masuda, Takashi Okada, Hiroshi Hara, Daniel J Drucker, Yuichiro Yamada, Masaaki Tokuda, Toshihiko Yada
Overeating and arrhythmic feeding promote obesity and diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are effective anti-obesity drugs but their use is limited by side effects. Here we show that oral administration of the non-calorie sweetener, rare sugar D-allulose (D-psicose), induces GLP-1 release, activates vagal afferent signaling, reduces food intake and promotes glucose tolerance in healthy and obese-diabetic animal models. Subchronic D-allulose administered at the light period (LP) onset ameliorates LP-specific hyperphagia, visceral obesity, and glucose intolerance...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302618/time-restricted-feeding-improves-circadian-dysfunction-as-well-as-motor-symptoms-in-the-q175-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#16
Huei-Bin Wang, Dawn H Loh, Daniel S Whittaker, Tamara Cutler, David Howland, Christopher S Colwell
Huntington's disease (HD) patients suffer from a progressive neurodegeneration that results in cognitive, psychiatric, cardiovascular, and motor dysfunction. Disturbances in sleep/wake cycles are common among HD patients with reports of delayed sleep onset, frequent bedtime awakenings, and fatigue during the day. The heterozygous Q175 mouse model of HD has been shown to phenocopy many HD core symptoms including circadian dysfunctions. Because circadian dysfunction manifests early in the disease in both patients and mouse models, we sought to determine if early intervention that improve circadian rhythmicity can benefit HD and delay disease progression...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301912/monitoring-the-postnatal-growth-of-preterm-infants-a-paradigm-change
#17
REVIEW
Jose Villar, Francesca Giuliani, Fernando Barros, Paola Roggero, Irma Alejandra Coronado Zarco, Maria Albertina S Rego, Roseline Ochieng, Maria Lorella Gianni, Suman Rao, Ann Lambert, Irina Ryumina, Carl Britto, Deepak Chawla, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Syed Rehan Ali, Jane Hirst, Jagjit Singh Teji, Karim Abawi, Jacqueline Asibey, Josephine Agyeman-Duah, Kenny McCormick, Enrico Bertino, Aris T Papageorghiou, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Stephen Kennedy
There is no consensus regarding how the growth of preterm infants should be monitored or what constitutes their ideal pattern of growth, especially after term-corrected age. The concept that the growth of preterm infants should match that of healthy fetuses is not substantiated by data and, in practice, is seldom attained, particularly for very preterm infants. Hence, by hospital discharge, many preterm infants are classified as postnatal growth-restricted. In a recent systematic review, 61 longitudinal reference charts were identified, most with considerable limitations in the quality of gestational age estimation, anthropometric measures, feeding regimens, and how morbidities were described...
January 4, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300996/factors-associated-with-time-to-full-feeds-in-preterm-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#18
Gaurav Patwardhan, Ankit Soni, Nitin Rachwani, Sandeep Kadam, Sanjay Patole, Anand Pandit
Background: Feeding intolerance prolongs time to full feeds (TFFs) in preterm infants. We studied factors associated with TFF in preterm infants on standardized feeding regimen (SFR) and routine probiotic supplementation (RPS). Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of preterm infants ≤1500 g. Pearson's correlation, Mann-Whitney test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: In total, 37 of 304 admitted infants died before reaching full feeds...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299670/flexibility-is-the-key-metabolic-and-thermoregulatory-behaviour-in-a-small-endotherm
#19
Franz Langer, Nadine Havenstein, Joanna Fietz
Hibernation is the most effective way to reduce thermoregulatory costs during periods of unfavourable environmental conditions. In preparation to hibernation, fat-storing hibernators accumulate large quantities of body fat, which increases their locomotor costs and also the risk of predation. As a consequence, there should be a strong selective pressure to restrict pre-hibernation fattening to a short-time period before the onset of hibernation. The edible dormouse (Glis glis) is characterized by having adapted its whole life history to the irregularly occurring mast-seeding pattern of the European beech (Fagus sylvaticus)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274966/fetuin-a-a-negative-acute-phase-protein-linked-to-adipose-tissue-function-in-periparturient-dairy-cows
#20
Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Jonas de Souza, William Raphael, Adam L Lock, G Andres Contreras
Fetuin-A (FetA) is a free fatty acid transporter and an acute-phase protein that enhances cellular lipid uptake and lipogenesis. In nonruminants, FetA is involved in lipid-induced inflammation. Despite FetA importance in lipid metabolism and inflammation, its expression and dynamics in adipose tissue (AT) of dairy cows are unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine serum and AT FetA dynamics over the periparturient period and in mid-lactation cows in negative energy balance (NEB) after a feed restriction protocol and (2) characterize how an inflammatory challenge affects adipocyte FetA expression...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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