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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545102/effect-of-dietary-restriction-and-subsequent-re-alimentation-on-the-transcriptional-profile-of-bovine-ruminal-epithelium
#1
Kate Keogh, Sinead M Waters, Paul Cormican, Alan K Kelly, Emma O'Shea, David A Kenny
Compensatory growth (CG) is utilised worldwide in beef production systems as a management approach to reduce feed costs. However the underlying biology regulating the expression of CG remains to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG on the global gene expression profile of ruminal epithelial papillae. Holstein Friesian bulls (n = 60) were assigned to one of two groups: restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30) for 125 days (Period 1) followed by ad libitum access to feed for 55 days (Period 2) or (ii) ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB; n = 30)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535183/time-caloric-restriction-inhibits-the-neoplastic-transformation-of-cirrhotic-liver-in-rats-treated-with-diethylnitrosamine
#2
Christian Molina-Aguilar, María de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre, Sitlali Olguin-Reyes, Thania Castro-Belio, Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Julieta Berenice Rivera-Zavala, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Hepatocellular cancer is the most common type of primary liver cancer. Cirrhosis is the main risk factor that generates this malady. It has been proven that caloric restriction protocols and restricted feeding schedules are protective in experimental carcinogenic models. We tested the influence of a time-caloric restriction protocol (2 h of food access during the daytime for 18 weeks) in an experimental model of cirrhosis-hepatocarcinoma produced by weekly administration of diethylnitrosamine. Our results indicate that time-caloric restriction reduced hepatomegaly and prevented the increase in blood leukocytes promoted by diethylnitrosamine...
May 23, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532842/effects-of-diet-and-arginine-treatment-during-the-luteal-phase-on-ovarian-no-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-in-ewes
#3
Yi-Xuan Guo, Hai-Tao Nie, Ling-Wei Sun, Guo-Min Zhang, Kai-Ping Deng, Yi-Xuan Fan, Feng Wang
The aim of this study was to determine whether arginine (Arg) supplementation of malnourished ewes affects the expression of key NO/PGC-1α signaling pathway genes in the ovary. On Day 6-15 of the estrous cycle, 24 multiparous Hu sheep (BW = 43.56 ± 1.53 kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: control group (CG; n = 6), restriction group (RG; n = 9) and l-arginine group (AG; n = 9), and administered Arg treatment (or vehicle) three times per day. The ewes were slaughtered at the end of treatment, and blood samples and ovaries were collected for analysis...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490447/plant-spines-deter-herbivory-by-restricting-caterpillar-movement
#5
Rupesh R Kariyat, Sean B Hardison, Consuelo M De Moraes, Mark C Mescher
The spines of flowering plants are thought to function primarily in defence against mammalian herbivores; however, we previously reported that feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars on the leaves of horsenettle plants (Solanum carolinense) induces increased development of internode spines on new growth. To determine whether and how spines impact caterpillar feeding, we conducted assays with three Solanaceous plant species that vary in spine numbers (S. carolinense, S. atropurpureum and S. aethiopicum) and also manipulated spine numbers within each species...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482939/daytime-restricted-feeding-modifies-the-daily-regulation-of-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-and-the-lipoprotein-profile-in-rats
#6
J B Rivera-Zavala, C Molina-Aguilar, M Pérez-Mendoza, M Olguín-Martínez, R Hernández-Muñoz, G A Báez-Ruiz, M Díaz-Muñoz
Daytime restricted feeding (2 h of food access from 12.00 to 14.00 hours for 3 weeks) is an experimental protocol that modifies the relationship between metabolic networks and the circadian molecular clock. The precise anatomical locus that controls the biochemical and physiological adaptations to optimise nutrient use is unknown. We explored the changes in liver oxidative lipid handling, such as β-oxidation and its regulation, as well as adaptations in the lipoprotein profile. It was found that daytime restricted feeding promoted an elevation of circulating ketone bodies before mealtime, an altered hepatic daily rhythmicity of 14CO2 production from radioactive palmitic acid, and an up-regulation of the fatty acid oxidation activators, the α-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the deacetylase silent mating type information regulation homolog 1, and the transcriptional factor PPARγ-1α coactivator...
May 9, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478774/supplementing-high-quality-fresh-forage-to-growing-lambs-fed-a-total-mixed-ration-diet-led-to-higher-intake-without-altering-nutrient-utilization
#7
A Pérez-Ruchel, J L Repetto, C Cajarville
The effect of supplementing high-quality fresh forage, mainly based on alfalfa, to growing lambs fed with decreasing levels of total mixed ration (TMR) was studied on intake, digestion and ruminal environment. In total, 24 catheterized lambs (25.2±3.67 kg) housed in individual metabolism cages were assigned to one of four treatment diets: 'TMR100': TMR offered ad libitum; 'TMR75' and 'TMR50': TMR at a level of 0.75 and 0.50 of potential intake, respectively, complemented with fresh forage without restriction; 'TMR0': only fresh forage ad libitum...
May 8, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476590/automating-mouse-weighing-in-group-homecages-with-raspberry-pi-micro-computers
#8
Omid Noorshams, Jamie D Boyd, Timothy H Murphy
BACKGROUND: Operant training systems make use of water or food restriction and make it necessary to weigh animals to ensure compliance with experimental endpoints. In other applications periodic weighing is necessary to assess drug side-effects, or as an endpoint in feeding experiments. Periodic weighing while essential can disrupt animal circadian rhythms and social structure. NEW METHOD: Automatic weighing system within paired mouse homecages. Up to 10 mice freely move between two cages (28×18×9cm) which were connected by a weighing chamber mounted on a load cell...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473865/artificial-neural-networks-in-image-processing-for-early-detection-of-breast-cancer
#9
REVIEW
M M Mehdy, P Y Ng, E F Shair, N I Md Saleh, C Gomes
Medical imaging techniques have widely been in use in the diagnosis and detection of breast cancer. The drawback of applying these techniques is the large time consumption in the manual diagnosis of each image pattern by a professional radiologist. Automated classifiers could substantially upgrade the diagnosis process, in terms of both accuracy and time requirement by distinguishing benign and malignant patterns automatically. Neural network (NN) plays an important role in this respect, especially in the application of breast cancer detection...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470003/optimizing-fluorescein-isothiocyanate-dextran-measurement-as-a-biomarker-in-a-24-h-feed-restriction-model-to-induce-gut-permeability-in-broiler-chickens
#10
Mikayla F A Baxter, Ruben Merino-Guzman, Juan D Latorre, Brittany D Mahaffey, Yichao Yang, Kyle D Teague, Lucas E Graham, Amanda D Wolfenden, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Lisa R Bielke, Billy M Hargis, Guillermo Tellez
Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) is a 3-5 kDa marker used to measure tight junction permeability. We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction (FR), resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. However, further optimization adjustments of the current FITC-d methodology are possible to enhance precision and efficacy of results in future. The objective of the present study was to optimize our current model to obtain a larger difference between control and treated groups, by optimizing the FITC-d measurement as a biomarker in a 24-h FR model to induce gut permeability in broiler chickens...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465827/does-level-of-motivation-for-change-impact-post-treatment-outcomes-in-the-eating-disorders-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-quantitative-analysis
#11
Jeanne Sansfaçon, Howard Steiger, Lise Gauvin, Émilie Fletcher, Mimi Israël
BACKGROUND: Eating Disorders are highly prevalent and widespread mental health problems, with marked risk of chronicity and refractoriness to treatment. Affected individuals are hesitant to change their behaviours and therefore struggle to maintain motivation for therapy. This review aims to produce the first high-quality meta-analysis of the literature on the impact of level of motivation for change on post-treatment outcomes in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED)...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464090/genetic-variance-and-covariance-and-breed-differences-for-feed-intake-and-average-daily-gain-to-improve-feed-efficiency-in-growing-cattle
#12
K J Retallick, J M Bormann, R L Weaber, M D MacNeil, H L Bradford, H C Freetly, K E Hales, D W Moser, W M Snelling, R M Thallman, L A Kuehn
Feed costs are a major economic expense in finishing and developing cattle; however, collection of feed intake data is costly. Examining relationships among measures of growth and intake, including breed differences, could facilitate selection for efficient cattle. Objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth and intake traits and compare indices for feed efficiency to accelerate selection response. On-test ADFI and on-test ADG (TESTADG) and postweaning ADG (PWADG) records for 5,606 finishing steers and growing heifers were collected at the U...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459132/a-prospective-longitudinal-study-of-postnatal-dentoalveolar-and-palatal-growth-the-anatomical-basis-for-cad-cam-assisted-production-of-cleft-lip-palate-feeding-plates
#13
Franz X Bauer, Florian D Güll, Maximilian Roth, Lucas M Ritschl, Andrea Rau, Dominik Gau, Maximilian Gruber, Markus Eblenkamp, Bettina Hilmer, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Denys J Loeffelbein
Introduction This study describes dentoalveolar and palatal growth during the first months of life. Knowledge concerning this development is essential to avoid unwanted events such as mucosal ulcerations or restriction of growth when cleft-lip and palate (CLP) patients are treated. The results involve the generation of CAD/CAM CLP-feeding plates. Methods Intra-oral impressions from 32 healthy newborns were taken monthly for five months, supplemented by measurements of body weight, length, and occipital-frontal head circumference...
April 29, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457930/delayed-venous-drainage-in-ruptured-arteriovenous-malformations-based-on-quantitative-color-coded-digital-subtraction-angiography
#14
Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Xiaolin Chen, Ethan A Winkler, Daniel L Cooke, Helen Kim, Michael T Lawton
OBJECTIVE: Clinically applicable hemodynamic risk factors to predict arteriovenous malformation (AVM) rupture are missing in the literature. The aim of this study was to identify hemodynamic parameters in ruptured and unruptured AVMs based on catheter angiography. METHODS: Patients with frontal and temporal AVMs and Siemens syngo iFlow color-coding angiography were included in this study (n=71). Clinical and radiological data (age, gender, Spetzler-Martin (SM) and supplemented SM grade, and rupture status), and hemodynamic features (contrast mean transit time (MTT) of feeding arteries, draining veins, AVM nidus, and the cerebral circulation time (CCT)) were analyzed...
April 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443363/a-mathematical-model-of-aerobic-methane-oxidation-coupled-to-denitrification
#15
Oskar Modin
Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria use methane as their only source of energy and carbon. They release organic compounds that can serve as electron donors for co-existing denitrifiers. This interaction between methanotrophs and denitrifiers is known to contribute to nitrogen losses in natural environments and has also been exploited by researchers for denitrification of nitrate-contaminated wastewater. The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model describing aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification in suspended-growth reactors...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440738/restricted-feeding-modulates-the-daily-variations-of-liver-glutamate-dehydrogenase-activity-expression-and-histological-location
#16
Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Isabel Méndez, Isaías Turrubiate, Héctor Valente-Godínez, Moisés Pérez-Mendoza, Paola García-Tejada, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401917/cooperative-roles-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-central-clock-and-the-adrenal-clock-in-controlling-circadian-glucocorticoid-rhythm
#17
Sooyoung Chung, Eun Jeong Lee, Hyo Kyeong Cha, Jeongah Kim, Doyeon Kim, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
The mammalian circadian timing system consists of the central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subsidiary peripheral clocks in other tissues. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are adrenal steroid hormones with widespread physiological effects that undergo daily oscillations. We previously demonstrated that the adrenal peripheral clock plays a pivotal role in circadian GC rhythm by driving cyclic GC biosynthesis. Here, we show that the daily rhythm in circulating GC levels is controlled by bimodal actions of central and adrenal clockwork...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396490/trehalose-metabolism-genes-of-aphelenchoides-besseyi-nematoda-aphelenchoididae-in-hypertonic-osmotic-pressure-survival
#18
Qiaoli Chen, Danlei Li, Feng Wang, Ruizhi Zhang, Yaming Ling
Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation caused by hypertonic osmotic pressure by entering a state of suspended animation known as osmobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi can be induced to enter osmobiosis by soaking in osmolytes. It is assumed that sugars (in particular trehalose) are instrumental for survival under environmental stress. In A. besseyi, two putative trehalose-6-phosphate synthase genes (TPS) encoding enzymes catalyzing trehalose synthesis, and a putative trehalase gene (TRE) encoding enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of trehalose were identified and then characterized based on their transcriptome...
May 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376865/estimating-the-scale-of-adverse-animal-welfare-consequences-of-movement-restriction-and-mitigation-strategies-in-a-classical-swine-fever-outbreak
#19
Shankar Yadav, Hsin-Yi Weng
BACKGROUND: The study aim was to quantify the impact of movement restriction on the well-being of pigs and the associated mitigation responses during a classical swine fever (CSF) outbreak. We developed a stochastic risk assessment model and incorporated Indiana swine industry statistics to estimate the timing and number of swine premises that would encounter overcrowding or feed interruption resulting from movement restriction. Our model also quantified the amount of on-farm euthanasia and movement of pigs to slaughter plants required to alleviate those conditions...
April 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371861/growth-curve-and-diet-density-affect-eating-motivation-behavior-and-body-composition-of-broiler-breeders-during-rearing
#20
J de Los Mozos, A I García-Ruiz, L A den Hartog, M J Villamide
The aim of this work has been to assess the effect of diet density [control (CON) or 15% diluted (DIL)] and growth curve [recommended by the genetic line (RBW) or 15% heavier (HBW)] and their interaction on BW uniformity, feeding motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeder pullets. A total of 3,000 one-day-old female breeders Ross 308, distributed in 20 pens, was randomly assigned to each treatment. Feed allowance was weekly adjusted to reach the desired BW. Feed was provided as pelleted (zero to 3 wk) and crumble (4 to 19 wk)...
March 23, 2017: Poultry Science
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