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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930498/anterior-paraventricular-thalamus-to-nucleus-accumbens-projection-is-involved-in-feeding-behavior-in-a-novel-environment
#1
Jingjing Cheng, Jincheng Wang, Xiaolin Ma, Rahim Ullah, Yi Shen, Yu-Dong Zhou
Foraging food in a novel environment is essential for survival. Animals coordinate the complex motivated states and decide whether to initiate feeding or escape from unfamiliar scenes. Neurons in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) receive multiple inputs from the hypothalamus, forebrain, and caudal brainstem that are known to regulate feeding behavior. The PVT neurons also project to the forebrain regions that are involved in reward and motivation. Notably, the PVT neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are activated when an incentive stimulus is presented...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924496/intrasexually-selected-weapons
#2
Alejandro Rico-Guevara, Kristiina J Hurme
We propose a practical concept that distinguishes the particular kind of weaponry that has evolved to be used in combat between individuals of the same species and sex, which we term intrasexually selected weapons (ISWs). We present a treatise of ISWs in nature, aiming to understand their distinction and evolution from other secondary sex traits, including from 'sexually selected weapons', and from sexually dimorphic and monomorphic weaponry. We focus on the subset of secondary sex traits that are the result of same-sex combat, defined here as ISWs, provide not previously reported evolutionary patterns, and offer hypotheses to answer questions such as: why have only some species evolved weapons to fight for the opposite sex or breeding resources? We examined traits that seem to have evolved as ISWs in the entire animal phylogeny, restricting the classification of ISW to traits that are only present or enlarged in adults of one of the sexes, and are used as weapons during intrasexual fights...
June 20, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914137/observing-maternal-restriction-of-food-with-3%C3%A2-5-year-old-children-relationships-with-temperament-and-later-body-mass-index-bmi
#3
Claire V Farrow, Emma Haycraft, Jacqueline M Blissett
Overt parental restriction of food has previously been associated with child weight; however, most research has relied on self-reported feeding behaviour, or observations which give little opportunity to observe restriction of food. Using a novel lab-based observational technique to increase the opportunity to observe maternal feeding restriction, we explored the relationships between maternal restriction, child responses to restriction and child temperament with child body mass index (BMI) Z-scores over time...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913226/evaluating-anhedonia-in-the-activity-based-anorexia-aba-rat-model
#4
Laura K Milton, Brian J Oldfield, Claire J Foldi
Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic, in other words, unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The neurobiological underpinnings of anhedonia are likely to involve mesolimbic reward circuitry. We propose here that this circuitry and its involvement in AN can be investigated using the activity-based anorexia (ABA) rodent model that recapitulates many of the characteristics of the human condition, most notably rapid weight loss...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907318/mytilus-galloprovincialis-fast-growing-phenotypes-under-different-restrictive-feeding-conditions-fast-feeders-and-energy-savers
#5
D Prieto, I Urrutxurtu, E Navarro, M B Urrutia, I Ibarrola
The present study aims to test if the environmental conditions prevailing during the growing period can determine the physiological profiles of specimens differentiated as fast (F) or slow (S) growers in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. We reared mussel spats in the laboratory under two different conditions. In Treatment I (continuous feeding during discontinuous immersion), two mussel groups were submitted to a daily air exposure of 8 h and fed continuously during immersion-time, with either high-quality food dosed below the pseudofaeces threshold (BP group) or low organic content food dosed above the pseudofaeces threshold (AP group)...
May 9, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903839/clocks-and-meals-keep-mice-from-being-cool
#6
Vincent van der Vinne, Mark J Bingaman, David R Weaver, Steven J Swoap
Daily torpor is used by small mammals to reduce daily energy expenditure in response to energetic challenges. Optimizing the timing of daily torpor allows mammals to maximize its energetic benefits and, accordingly, torpor typically occurs in the late night and early morning in most species. The regulatory mechanisms underlying such temporal regulation have however not been elucidated. Direct control by the circadian clock and indirect control through the timing of food intake have both been suggested as possible mechanisms...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898650/new-approaches-for-weight-loss-experiments-in-animal-model
#7
Magnus K Olsen, Helene Johannessen, Chun-Mei Zhao, Duan Chen
The number of people that are overweight and obese is continuously increasing both in the adult and adolescent populations. Coinciding with this is the increased prevalence of health problems such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Bariatric surgery is the only proven long-term treatment of obesity and may induce remission of T2D, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The translational studies presented here might provide insight on the mechanism of steady-state energy balance of the obese phenotype using a special time-restricted feeding regimen for weight loss during the steady-state energy balance; and mechanism by vagal blocking therapy (vBLoc® therapy) as a new treatment for obesity; and possible mechanism behind the remission of T2D following gastric bypass surgery...
June 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892035/age-based-norm-reference-values-for-the-pediatric-eating-assessment-tool
#8
Britt F Pados, Suzanne M Thoyre, Jinhee Park
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Differentiating problematic feeding from variations of typical behavior is a challenge for pediatric providers. The Pediatric Eating Assessment Tool (PediEAT) is a parent-report measure of symptoms of problematic feeding in children 6 months to 7 years old with evidence of reliability and validity. This study aimed to determine age-based, norm-referenced values for the PediEAT. METHODS: Parents of children between 6 months and 7 years old (n = 1110) completed the PediEAT...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860274/hormonal-levels-of-estradiol-testosterone-and-progesterone-at-entry-into-lay-of-year-1980-vs-2000-broiler-breeder-females-under-fast-and-slow-release-from-feed-restriction
#9
Eliyahu M Heifetz, Israel Rozenboim, Morris Soller, Yoav Eitan
In the mid-1960s egg production, fertility, and hatchability of broiler breeder females dropped precipitously. Due to disrupted follicle hierarchies and development of the erratic oviposition and defective eggs (EODES) syndrome. EODES was controlled by restricting feed. In the 1990s, another set of problems arose at entry of broiler breeders into lay and characterized by high mortality followed by lower peak lay and reduction in egg and chick production. These problems are induced by even slight over-feeding, and hence we termed it the "Over Feeding Complex" (OFC)...
June 1, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851688/spinal-anesthesia-for-pediatric-laparoscopic-hernia-repair-a-case-report
#10
Ramón Eizaga Rebollar, María Victoria García Palacios, Javier Morales Guerrero, Luis Miguel Torres Morera
Spinal anesthesia is practical and safe in infants and toddlers and prevents perioperative complications including cardiorespiratory instability and apnea. Other perioperative advantages include reduced time from surgery completion to operating room exit and first feed. This article presents the case of an ex-premature infant who underwent laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair under spinal anesthesia. The infant remained calm and stable throughout the uneventful procedure and postoperative period. Spinal anesthesia may be feasible for laparoscopic herniotomy when pneumoperitoneum pressure and operative time are restricted to 8 mm Hg and 60 minutes, respectively, with sensory level at T10 or higher...
May 29, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849742/limitations-of-maternal-recall-for-measuring-exclusive-breastfeeding-rates-in-south-african-mothers
#11
Helen Mulol, Anna Coutsoudis
Background: Maternal recall is most commonly used to determine exclusive breastfeeding rates. A gold standard stable isotope method is available which can determine intake of breast milk versus water from sources other than breast milk and thus objectively determine exclusive breastfeeding. The objectives of this study were to determine exclusive breastfeeding rates by both maternal recall and the objective stable isotope method and discuss the limitations and usefulness of the two methods...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843025/occurence-of-legacy-and-novel-brominated-flame-retardants-in-food-and-feed-in-france-for-the-period-2014-to-2016
#12
A Vénisseau, E Bichon, A Brosseaud, V Vaccher, E Lesquin, F Larvor, S Durand, G Dervilly-Pinel, P Marchand, B Le Bizec
Determination of the occurrence levels of legacy and novel BFRs is today required to better understand the trends of BFRs contamination in food consecutive to the EU PBDEs restrictions and to proceed to a recent human food exposure in parallel. Therefore, concentrations of a large set of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (n = 27) including PBDEs, HBCDDs, TBBPA and novel flame retardants (nBFRs) have been determined in more than 600 food and feed samples collected between 2014 and 2016 in the context of French monitoring plans...
May 21, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29806838/assessing-activity-based-anorexia-in-mice
#13
Amanda C Welch, William R Katzka, Stephanie C Dulawa
Rodents develop activity-based anorexia (ABA) when exposed to a restricted feeding schedule and allowed free access to a running wheel. These conditions lead to a life-threatening reduction in body weight. However, rodents exposed to only one of these conditions ultimately adapt to re-establish normal body weight. Although increased running coupled with reduction in voluntary food intake appear paradoxical under ABA conditions, ABA behavior is observed across numerous mammalian species. The ABA paradigm provides an animal model for anorexia nervosa (AN), an eating disorder with severe dysregulation of appetite-behavior...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772642/pilot-study-examining-the-influence-of-potassium-bicarbonate-supplementation-on-nitrogen-balance-and-whole-body-ammonia-and-urea-turnover-following-short-term-energy-restriction-in-older-men
#14
Lee M Margolis, Lisa Ceglia, Donato A Rivas, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Roger A Fielding
With aging there is a chronic low-grade metabolic-acidosis that may exacerbate negative protein balance during weight loss. The objective of this randomized pilot study was to assess the impact of 90 mmol∙day-1 potassium bicarbonate (KHCO₃) versus a placebo (PLA) on 24-h urinary net acid excretion (NAE), nitrogen balance (NBAL), and whole-body ammonia and urea turnover following short-term diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen (KHCO₃; n = 8, PLA; n = 8) older (64 ± 4 years) overweight (BMI: 28.5 ± 2.1 kg∙day-1 ) men completed a 35-day controlled feeding study, with a 7-day weight-maintenance phase followed by a 28-day 30% energy-restriction phase...
May 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760179/time-restricted-feeding-prevents-ablation-of-diurnal-rhythms-in-gastric-vagal-afferent-mechanosensitivity-observed-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#15
Stephen J Kentish, George Hatzinikolas, Hui Li, Claudine A Frisby, Gary A Wittert, Amanda J Page
Mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents (GVAs) are involved in the regulation of food intake. GVAs exhibit diurnal rhythmicity in their response to food related stimuli allowing time of day specific satiety signalling. This diurnal rhythmicity is ablated in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Time restricted feeding (TRF) has a strong influence on peripheral clocks. This study aimed to determine whether diurnal patterns in GVA mechanosensitivity are entrained by TRF.Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice (N=256) were fed a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or HFD for 12wks...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754952/early-time-restricted-feeding-improves-insulin-sensitivity-blood-pressure-and-oxidative-stress-even-without-weight-loss-in-men-with-prediabetes
#16
Elizabeth F Sutton, Robbie Beyl, Kate S Early, William T Cefalu, Eric Ravussin, Courtney M Peterson
Intermittent fasting (IF) improves cardiometabolic health; however, it is unknown whether these effects are due solely to weight loss. We conducted the first supervised controlled feeding trial to test whether IF has benefits independent of weight loss by feeding participants enough food to maintain their weight. Our proof-of-concept study also constitutes the first trial of early time-restricted feeding (eTRF), a form of IF that involves eating early in the day to be in alignment with circadian rhythms in metabolism...
May 8, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747574/longitudinal-analysis-of-direct-and-indirect-effects-on-average-daily-gain-in-rabbits-using-a-structured-antedependence-model
#17
Ingrid David, Juan-Pablo Sánchez, Miriam Piles
BACKGROUND: Indirect genetic effects (IGE) are important components of various traits in several species. Although the intensity of social interactions between partners likely vary over time, very few genetic studies have investigated how IGE vary over time for traits under selection in livestock species. To overcome this issue, our aim was: (1) to analyze longitudinal records of average daily gain (ADG) in rabbits subjected to a 5-week period of feed restriction using a structured antedependence (SAD) model that includes IGE and (2) to evaluate, by simulation, the response to selection when IGE are present and genetic evaluation is based on a SAD model that includes IGE or not...
May 10, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738656/perceptions-of-childcare-staff-for-preventing-overweight-in-mexican-preschool-children-a-swot-analysis
#18
Doris Verónica Ortega-Altamirano, Guadalupe Rodríguez-Oliveros, Marco Aurelio González-Unzaga, Hortensia Reyes-Morales
OBJECTIVE: To identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) perceived by childcare staff for preventing childhood overweight. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Qualitative study using an interpretative phenomenological approach; 18 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and 12 focus groups with 89 key informants working in six Mexican public childcare centers (CCC) were conducted. Through content and SWOT analyses, experts further ranked fifty-nine recurrent perceptions regarding healthy feeding and physical activity (PA), using the Delphi method...
March 2018: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736336/from-chilean-patagonia-to-galapagos-ecuador-novel-insights-on-blue-whale-migratory-pathways-along-the-eastern-south-pacific
#19
Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete, Luis Bedriñana-Romano, Francisco A Viddi, Jorge E Ruiz, Juan Pablo Torres-Florez, Alexandre N Zerbini
Background: The most traditional scheme for migration among baleen whales comprises yearly migrations between productive waters at high latitude summer feeding grounds and warmer waters at lower latitudes where whales calve and mate, but rarely feed. Evidence indicates, however, that large departures from this scheme exist among populations and individuals. Furthermore, for some populations there is virtually no information on migratory pathways and destinations. Such is the case of Chilean blue whales throughout the Eastern South Pacific; hence, the goal of this study was to assess its migratory behavior...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736239/clinical-and-psychological-features-of-children-and-adolescents-diagnosed-with-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-in-a-pediatric-tertiary-care-eating-disorder-program-a-descriptive-study
#20
Megan Cooney, Melissa Lieberman, Tim Guimond, Debra K Katzman
Background: Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is an eating disorder first described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) [American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013]. Patients with ARFID do not fear gaining weight or have body image distortions. ARFID involves a persistent disturbance in feeding and eating that results in an inability to meet nutritional and/or energy needs with one of the following: weight loss or failure to achieve appropriate weight gain, nutritional deficiency, dependence on enteral feeding or nutritional supplements and significant interference with psychosocial functioning...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
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