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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233861/restoration-of-metabolic-inflammation-related-ghrelin-resistance-by-weight-loss
#1
Farhana Naznin, Koji Toshinai, Tm Zaved Waise, Tadashi Okada, Hideyuki Sakoda, Masamitsu Nakazato
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic inflammation in the central and peripheral organs contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. Long-term HFD blunts signaling by ghrelin, a gastric-derived orexigenic peptide, in the vagal afferent nerve via a mechanism involving in situ activation of inflammation. This study was undertaken to investigate whether ghrelin resistance is associated with progressive development of metabolic inflammation. In mice, ghrelin's orexigenic activity was abolished 2 to 4 weeks after the commencement of HFD (60% of energy from fat), consistent with the timing of accumulation and activation of macrophages and microglia in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206569/application-of-miniature-heart-rate-data-loggers-for-use-in-large-free-moving-decapod-crustaceans-method-development-and-validation
#2
Iain J McGaw, S Clay Steell, Travis E Van Leeuwen, Erika J Eliason, Steven J Cooke
Cardiovascular responses of decapod crustaceans to environmental challenges have received extensive attention. However, nearly all of these studies have been restricted to lab-based experiments; here we describe a methodology that will enable measurement of heart rate (HR) in free-moving decapods in the field. Data storage tag heart rate and temperature loggers (DST micro-HRT; Star-Oddi) were used to record electrocardiograms (ECG) and HR in large decapod crustaceans. These loggers were originally designed for use in vertebrates and must be surgically implanted in the body cavity near the heart in order to function...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203514/time-restricted-feeding-alters-the-innate-immune-response-to-bacterial-endotoxin
#3
Yasmine M Cissé, Jeremy C Borniger, Elise Lemanski, William H Walker, Randy J Nelson
An important entraining signal for the endogenous circadian clock, independent of light, is food intake. The circadian and immune systems are linked; forced desynchrony of the circadian clock via nighttime light exposure or genetic ablation of core clock components impairs immune function. The timing of food intake affects various aspects of the circadian clock, but its effects on immune function are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that temporal desynchrony of food intake alters innate immune responses. Adult male Swiss Webster mice were provided with food during the night, the day, or ad libitum for 4 wk, followed by administration of LPS prior to the onset of either the active phase (zeitgeber time [ZT]12: Experiment 1) or the inactive phase (ZT0: Experiment 2)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201376/quantifying-animal-movement-for-caching-foragers-the-path-identification-index-pii-and-cougars-puma-concolor
#4
Kirsten E Ironside, David J Mattson, Tad Theimer, Brian Jansen, Brandon Holton, Terence Arundel, Michael Peters, Joseph O Sexton, Thomas C Edwards
Background: Many studies of animal movement have focused on directed versus area-restricted movement, which rely on correlations between step-length and turn-angles and on stationarity through time to define behavioral states. Although these approaches might apply well to grazing in patchy landscapes, species that either feed for short periods on large, concentrated food sources or cache food exhibit movements that are difficult to model using the traditional metrics of turn-angle and step-length alone...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182752/the-quest-for-welfare-friendly-feeding-of-broiler-breeders-effects-of-daily-vs-5-2-feed-restriction-schedules
#5
C Lindholm, A Johansson, A Middelkoop, J J Lees, N Yngwe, E Berndtson, G Cooper, J Altimiras
Restricted feeding of broiler breeders is required for improved long-term health and welfare. Because feeding frustration and hunger are major welfare concerns during rearing, many suggestions have been made to decrease the negative feelings of hunger while maintaining suitable growth rates and reproductive health. Non-daily ("skip-a-day") feeding schedules are commonly used around the world to increase portion sizes at meal times while restricting intake but these practices are prohibited in many countries due to welfare concerns on fasting days...
November 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168606/the-role-of-seed-size-phenology-oogenesis-and-host-distribution-in-the-specificity-and-genetic-structure-in-seed-weevils-curculio-spp-in-mixed-forests
#6
Harold Arias-LeClaire, Raúl Bonal, Daniel García-López, Josep Maria Espelta
Synchrony between seed growth and oogenesis are suggested to largely shape trophic breadth of seed-feeding insects and ultimately contribute to their co-existence by means of resource partitioning or in the time when infestation occurs. Here we investigated: i) the role of seed phenology and sexual maturation of females in the host specificity of seed-feeding weevils (Curculio spp) predating in hazel and oak mixed forests and ii) the consequences that trophic breadth and host distribution have in the genetic structure of the weevil populations...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158981/fitness-implications-of-sex-specific-catch-up-growth-in-nephila-senegalensis-a-spider-with-extreme-reversed-ssd
#7
Rainer Neumann, Nicole Ruppel, Jutta M Schneider
Background: Animal growth is often constrained by unfavourable conditions and divergences from optimal body size can be detrimental to an individual's fitness, particularly in species with determinate growth and a narrow time-frame for life-time reproduction. Growth restriction in early juvenile stages can later be compensated by means of plastic developmental responses, such as adaptive catch-up growth (the compensation of growth deficits through delayed development). Although sex differences regarding the mode and degree of growth compensation have been coherently predicted from sex-specific fitness payoffs, inconsistent results imply a need for further research...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147886/peromyscus-leucopus-mouse-brain-transcriptome-response-to-powassan-virus-infection
#8
Luwanika Mlera, Kimberly Meade-White, Eric Dahlstrom, Rachel Baur, Kishore Kanakabandi, Kimmo Virtaneva, Stephen F Porcella, Marshall E Bloom
Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne Flavivirus responsible for life-threatening encephalitis in North America and some regions of Russia. The ticks that have been reported to transmit the virus belong to the Ixodes species, and they feed on small-to-medium-sized mammals, such as Peromyscus leucopus mice, skunks, and woodchucks. We previously developed a P. leucopus mouse model of POWV infection, and the model is characterized by a lack of clinical signs of disease following intraperitoneal or intracranial inoculation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138421/mperiod2-brdm1-and-other-single-period-mutant-mice-have-normal-food-anticipatory-activity
#9
Julie S Pendergast, Robert H Wendroth, Rio C Stenner, Charles D Keil, Shin Yamazaki
Animals anticipate the timing of food availability via the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO). The anatomical location and timekeeping mechanism of the FEO are unknown. Several studies showed the circadian gene, Period 2, is critical for FEO timekeeping. However, other studies concluded that canonical circadian genes are not essential for FEO timekeeping. In this study, we re-examined the effects of the Per2 (Brdm1) mutation on food entrainment using methods that have revealed robust food anticipatory activity in other mutant lines...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100953/dietary-methionine-restriction-effects-on-glucose-tolerance-lipid-content-and-micro-rna-composition-in-the-muscle-of-rainbow-trout
#10
M N Latimer, B M Cleveland, P R Biga
Lean muscle mass plays an important role in overall health, as altered skeletal muscle metabolism can impact both the incidence and prevention of conditions related to metabolic health. Intriguingly, dietary methionine restriction (MR) has been shown to ameliorate this phenotype over time potentially through mechanisms related to changes in myogenic precursor cell (MPC) differentiation status. Recently the role of micro-RNAs (miRs) in regulating the expression of muscle specific transcription factors myoD and myogenin as well as signaling molecules involved in skeletal muscle differentiation has been reported in vitro...
October 31, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096640/food-parenting-and-child-snacking-a-systematic-review
#11
Rachel E Blaine, Alexandria Kachurak, Kirsten K Davison, Rachel Klabunde, Jennifer Orlet Fisher
BACKGROUND: While the role of parenting in children's eating behaviors has been studied extensively, less attention has been given to its potential association with children's snacking habits. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review to describe associations between food parenting and child snacking, or consuming energy dense foods/foods in between meals. METHODS: Six electronic databases were searched using standardized language to identify quantitative studies describing associations of general and feeding-specific parenting styles as well as food parenting practices with snacking behaviors of children aged 2-18 years...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076974/on-the-role-of-illness-duration-and-nutrient-restriction-in-cholestatic-alterations-that-occur-during-critical-illness
#12
Marc Jenniskens, Fabian Güiza, Marlies Oorts, Sarah Vander Perre, Sarah Derde, Thomas Dufour, Steven Thiessen, Pieter Annaert, Greet Van den Berghe, Lies Langouche
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elevated markers of cholestasis are common in response to critical illness, and associated with adverse outcome. The role of illness duration and of nutrient restriction on underlying molecular pathways of such cholestatic responses have not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: In a mouse model of surgery- and sepsis-induced critical illness, molecular pathways of cholestasis were investigated up to 7 days. To assess which changes are explained by illness-induced lack of feeding, nutrient-restricted healthy mice were studied and compared with ad libitum fed healthy mice...
October 25, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065950/indices-of-heart-rate-variability-as-potential-early-markers-of-metabolic-stress-and-compromised-regulatory-capacity-in-dried-off-high-yielding-dairy-cows
#13
S Erdmann, E Mohr, M Derno, A Tuchscherer, C Schäff, S Börner, U Kautzsch, B Kuhla, H M Hammon, M Röntgen
High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow's energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays a predominant role in adaption to inadequate energy and/or fuel availability and mediation of the stress response. Therefore, we hypothesize that indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that reflect ANS activity and sympatho-vagal balance could be early markers of metabolic stress, and possibly useful to predict cows with compromised regulatory capacity...
October 25, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065948/circadian-rhythms-nutrition-and-implications-for-longevity-in-urban-environments
#14
O Froy
Presently, about 12% of the population is 65 years or older and by the year 2030 that figure is expected to reach 21%. In order to promote the well-being of the elderly and to reduce the costs associated with health care demands, increased longevity should be accompanied by ageing attenuation. Energy restriction, which limits the amount of energy consumed to 60-70% of the daily intake, and intermittent fasting, which allows the food to be available ad libitum every other day, extend the life span of mammals and prevent or delay the onset of major age-related diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and cataracts...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059601/effects-of-pregnancy-and-short-lasting-acute-feed-restriction-on-total-ghrelin-concentration-and-metabolic-parameters-in-dairy-cattle
#15
Thomas Markos Chouzouris, Eleni Dovolou, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Alexandros Rekkas, Konstantinos Dafopoulos, Lambrini Athanasiou, George C Fthenakis, Georgios S Amiridis
The aims of this study were: to compare total ghrelin concentration throughout pregnancy between lactating cows and heifers, and to study the response to acute feed restriction in pregnant or non-pregnant heifers. Blood samples were collected each month of pregnancy from cows (n = 5) and heifers (n = 5) and analyzed for total ghrelin concentration. Compared to pre-conception values, ghrelin concentrations tended to be greater during 3rd month of pregnancy in heifers, whereas they were higher in the 7th, 8th and 9th months in lactating cows, but no difference was detected between lactating cows and heifers...
October 16, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053842/differential-expression-of-water-channel-and-noncoding-rna-biogenesis-related-genes-in-three-lines-of-chickens-under-a-short-term-water-restriction
#16
S Orlowski, J Flees, N Anthony, S Dridi
Genetic selection for high growth rate has resulted in tremendous changes not only in feed efficiency, but also in water consumption between modern broilers and their ancestor jungle fowl (JF). However molecular mechanisms involved in water homeostasis are still not well defined. This study aimed, therefore, to determine the effect of short-term water restriction on the expression of water channel- and noncoding RNA biogenesis-related genes in the kidney and whole blood of JF, broiler population from the 1990s (RB1995), and modern broiler population developed in 2015 (ARB2015)...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042187/exploring-patient-experiences-of-a-pain-management-centre-a-qualitative-study
#17
Manasi M Mittinty, John Lee, Amanda C de C Williams, Natasha Curran
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To improve care and management of patients with chronic pain it is important to understand patients' experiences of treatment, and of the people and the environment involved. As chronic pain patients often have long relationships with medical clinics and pain management centres, the team and team interactions with the patients could impact the treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to elicit as honest as possible an account of chronic pain patients' experiences associated with their care and feed this information back to the clinical team as motivation for improvement...
October 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030913/effect-of-water-restriction-on-milk-yield-and-quality-in-lacaune-breed-ewes
#18
D Casamassima, M Palazzo, M Nardoia, A G D'Alessandro, F Vizzarri
The effect of water restriction on body weight, body condition score, milk yield, and milk composition and rheological characteristics in intensively reared Lacaune ewes was evaluated. After 7 days of adaptation, the trial lasted 28 days. Thirty lactating ewes (48 ± 5 months of age; mean value ± standard deviation) at the beginning of third lactation month were divided into three groups (n = 10), corresponding to the following water restriction treatment: a group control received no drinking water restriction (W100), and two groups received water to the extent of 80% and 60% of W100 daily consumption (W80 and W60 group respectively)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029216/diversity-and-distribution-of-cryptic-species-of-the-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-complex-in-pakistan
#19
Mariyam Masood, Imran Amin, Ishtiaq Hassan, Shahid Mansoor, Judith K Brown, Rob W Briddon
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius; Hempitera: Aleyrodidae) is considered to be a cryptic (sibling) species complex, the members of which exhibit morphological invariability while being genetically and behaviorally distinct. Members of the complex are agricultural pests that cause direct damage by feeding on plants, and indirectly by transmitting viruses that cause diseases leading to reduced crop yield and quality. In Pakistan, cotton leaf curl disease, caused by multiple begomovirus species, is the most economically important viral disease of cotton...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028359/complex-interaction-between-circadian-rhythm-and-diet-on-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-rats
#20
Hannah M Eggink, Johanneke E Oosterman, Paul de Goede, Emmely M de Vries, Ewout Foppen, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Anita Boelen, Johannes A Romijn, Susanne E la Fleur, Maarten R Soeters, Andries Kalsbeek
Desynchronization between the master clock in the brain, which is entrained by (day) light, and peripheral organ clocks, which are mainly entrained by food intake, may have negative effects on energy metabolism. Bile acid metabolism follows a clear day/night rhythm. We investigated whether in rats on a normal chow diet the daily rhythm of plasma bile acids and hepatic expression of bile acid metabolic genes is controlled by the light/dark cycle or the feeding/fasting rhythm. In addition, we investigated the effects of high caloric diets and time-restricted feeding on daily rhythms of plasma bile acids and hepatic genes involved in bile acid synthesis...
October 13, 2017: Chronobiology International
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