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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443363/a-mathematical-model-of-aerobic-methane-oxidation-coupled-to-denitrification
#1
Oskar Modin
Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria use methane as their only source of energy and carbon. They release organic compounds that can serve as electron donors for co-existing denitrifiers. This interaction between methanotrophs and denitrifiers is known to contribute to nitrogen losses in natural environments and has also been exploited by researchers for denitrification of nitrate-contaminated wastewater. The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model describing aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification in suspended growth reactors...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440738/restricted-feeding-modulates-the-daily-variations-of-liver-glutamate-dehydrogenase-activity-expression-and-histological-location
#2
Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Isabel Méndez, Isaías Turrubiate, Héctor Valente-Godínez, Moisés Pérez-Mendoza, Paola García-Tejada, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401917/cooperative-roles-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-central-clock-and-the-adrenal-clock-in-controlling-circadian-glucocorticoid-rhythm
#3
Sooyoung Chung, Eun Jeong Lee, Hyo Kyeong Cha, Jeongah Kim, Doyeon Kim, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
The mammalian circadian timing system consists of the central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subsidiary peripheral clocks in other tissues. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are adrenal steroid hormones with widespread physiological effects that undergo daily oscillations. We previously demonstrated that the adrenal peripheral clock plays a pivotal role in circadian GC rhythm by driving cyclic GC biosynthesis. Here, we show that the daily rhythm in circulating GC levels is controlled by bimodal actions of central and adrenal clockwork...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396490/trehalose-metabolism-genes-of-aphelenchoides-besseyi-nematoda-aphelenchoididae-in-hypertonic-osmotic-pressure-survival
#4
Qiaoli Chen, Danlei Li, Feng Wang, Ruizhi Zhang, Yaming Ling
Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation caused by hypertonic osmotic pressure by entering a state of suspended animation known as osmobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi can be induced to enter osmobiosis by soaking in osmolytes. It is assumed that sugars (in particular trehalose) are instrumental for survival under environmental stress. In A. besseyi two putative trehalose-6-phosphate synthase genes (TPS) encode enzymes catalyzing trehalose synthesis and a putative trehalase genes (TRE) encodes enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of trehalose were identified and then characterized based on its transcriptome...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376865/estimating-the-scale-of-adverse-animal-welfare-consequences-of-movement-restriction-and-mitigation-strategies-in-a-classical-swine-fever-outbreak
#5
Shankar Yadav, Hsin-Yi Weng
BACKGROUND: The study aim was to quantify the impact of movement restriction on the well-being of pigs and the associated mitigation responses during a classical swine fever (CSF) outbreak. We developed a stochastic risk assessment model and incorporated Indiana swine industry statistics to estimate the timing and number of swine premises that would encounter overcrowding or feed interruption resulting from movement restriction. Our model also quantified the amount of on-farm euthanasia and movement of pigs to slaughter plants required to alleviate those conditions...
April 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371861/growth-curve-and-diet-density-affect-eating-motivation-behavior-and-body-composition-of-broiler-breeders-during-rearing
#6
J de Los Mozos, A I García-Ruiz, L A den Hartog, M J Villamide
The aim of this work has been to assess the effect of diet density [control (CON) or 15% diluted (DIL)] and growth curve [recommended by the genetic line (RBW) or 15% heavier (HBW)] and their interaction on BW uniformity, feeding motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeder pullets. A total of 3,000 one-day-old female breeders Ross 308, distributed in 20 pens, was randomly assigned to each treatment. Feed allowance was weekly adjusted to reach the desired BW. Feed was provided as pelleted (zero to 3 wk) and crumble (4 to 19 wk)...
March 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369652/early-versus-late-enteral-feeding-in-preterm-intrauterine-growth-restricted-neonates-with-antenatal-doppler-abnormalities-an-open-label-randomized-trial
#7
Vishal Vishnu Tewari, Sachin Kumar Dubey, Reema Kumar, Shakti Vardhan, C M Sreedhar, Girish Gupta
Background of the study: Enteral feeding in preterm neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) on umbilical artery (UA) Doppler is delayed owing to an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Delaying enteral feeding with longer duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) carries an increased risk of sepsis. Objectives: To study early versus late feeding in preterm IUGR neonates for time required to attain sufficient feed volume to discontinue PN and increased risk of NEC or feed intolerance (FI)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342599/concentrate-supplementation-of-a-diet-based-on-medium-quality-grass-silage-for-4-weeks-prepartum-effects-on-cow-performance-health-metabolic-status-and-immune-function
#8
M W Little, N E O'Connell, M D Welsh, F J Mulligan, C P Ferris
Because negative energy balance (EB) contributes to transition-period immune dysfunction in dairy cows, dietary management strategies should aim to minimize negative EB during this time. Prepartum diets that oversupply energy may exacerbate negative EB in early lactation, with detrimental effects on immune function. However, with lower body condition score (BCS) cows, it has been shown that offering concentrates in addition to a grass silage-based diet when confined during an 8-wk dry period resulted in increased neutrophil function in early lactation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321980/relationship-between-food-insecurity-child-weight-status-and-parent-reported-child-eating-and-snacking-behaviors
#9
Tanja V E Kral, Jesse Chittams, Reneé H Moore
PURPOSE: Prior studies showed that food insecurity may increase the odds of obesity in children and adults. We still know very little about the familial aggregation of obesity in food-insecure households or the mechanisms by which food insecurity confers an increased risk of obesity to children. The purpose of this study was to compare children and mothers from food-insecure and food-secure households in their weight status, child eating patterns/behaviors, and maternal feeding practices...
April 2017: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301599/exploring-the-role-of-locomotor-sensitization-in-the-circadian-food-entrainment-pathway
#10
Hanna Opiol, Nuria de Zavalia, Tara Delorme, Pavel Solis, Spencer Rutherford, Uri Shalev, Shimon Amir
Food entrainment is the internal mechanism whereby the phase and period of circadian clock genes comes under the control of daily scheduled food availability. Food entrainment allows the body to efficiently realign the internal timing of behavioral and physiological functions such that they anticipate food intake. Food entrainment can occur with or without caloric restriction, as seen with daily schedules of restricted feeding (RF) or restricted treat (RT) that restrict food or treat intake to a single feeding time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295377/time-restricted-feeding-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-cardiometabolic-disorders
#11
Girish C Melkani, Satchidananda Panda
The soaring prevalence of obesity and diabetes is associated with an increase in comorbidities, including elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVDs continue to be among the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. While increased nutrition intake from an energy dense diet is known to disrupt metabolic homeostasis and contributes to the disease risk, circadian rhythm disruption is emerging as a new risk factor for CVD. Circadian rhythms coordinate cardiovascular health via temporal control of organismal metabolism and physiology...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285995/deep-time-convergence-in-rove-beetle-symbionts-of-army-ants
#12
Munetoshi Maruyama, Joseph Parker
Recent adaptive radiations provide striking examples of convergence [1-4], but the predictability of evolution over much deeper timescales is controversial, with a scarcity of ancient clades exhibiting repetitive patterns of phenotypic evolution [5, 6]. Army ants are ecologically dominant arthropod predators of the world's tropics, with large nomadic colonies housing diverse communities of socially parasitic myrmecophiles [7]. Remarkable among these are many species of rove beetle (Staphylinidae) that exhibit ant-mimicking "myrmecoid" body forms and are behaviorally accepted into their aggressive hosts' societies: emigrating with colonies and inhabiting temporary nest bivouacs, grooming and feeding with workers, but also consuming the brood [8-11]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275717/the-arcuate-nucleus-a-site-of-fast-negative-feedback-for-corticosterone-secretion-in-male-rats
#13
Luis Leon-Mercado, Daniela Herrera Moro Chao, María Del Carmen Basualdo, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs
Variations in circulating corticosterone (Cort) are driven by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), mainly via the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) directly stimulating Cort release from the adrenal gland and via corticotropin-releasing hormone targeting the adenohypophysis to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cort feeds back through glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Here we show in male Wistar rats that PVN neurons projecting to the adrenal gland do not express GRs, leaving the question of how the ANS in the PVN gets information about circulating Cort levels to control the adrenal...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264752/diet-selection-and-performance-of-horses-grazing-on-different-heathland-types
#14
C López López, L M M Ferreira, U García, J Moreno-Gonzalo, M A M Rodrigues, K Osoro, I Ferre, R Celaya
The number of horses in northern Spanish mountains has increased in recent decades, but little is known about their grazing behaviour, performance and potential for foal meat production. This research aimed to study the diet selection, liveweight (LW) changes and parasitic status of dry and lactating mares, and foals' LW gains, grazing on heathlands with different botanical composition. The experimental design consisted of three vegetation types: dominated by heather (Ericaceae) species (H), dominated by gorse (Ulex gallii; G) and co-dominated by gorse and heath-grasses (G-G), with four replicates per treatment (12 paddocks of 1...
March 7, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254060/effects-of-sludge-retention-time-carbon-and-initial-biomass-concentrations-on-selection-process-from-activated-sludge-to-polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating-cultures
#15
Zhiqiang Chen, Long Huang, Qinxue Wen, Huichao Zhang, Zirui Guo
Four sequence batch reactors (SBRs) fed by fermented sugar cane wastewater were continuously operated under the aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) mode with different configurations of sludge retention time (SRT), carbon and initial biomass concentrations to enrich polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulating mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) from municipal activated sludge. The stability of SBRs was investigated besides the enrichment performance. The microbial community structures of the enriched MMCs were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP)...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251326/the-effect-of-starvation-and-re-feeding-on-vasotocinergic-and-isotocinergic-pathways-in-immature-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#16
Arleta Krystyna Skrzynska, Magdalena Gozdowska, Ewa Kulczykowska, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan Miguel Mancera, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha
This study describes the responses of the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems to food deprivation and re-feeding processes in immature gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The animals were subjected to the following experimental treatments: (1) normal feeding (control), (2) food deprivation for 21 days; and (3) re-feeding for 7 days, beginning 14 days after starvation. The animals were sampled at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days from the beginning of the trial. The pituitary and plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) levels and the hypothalamic pro-vasotocin and pro-isotocin mRNA expression levels were measured...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248982/a-dual-pathways-transfer-model-to-account-for-changes-in-the-radioactive-caesium-level-in-demersal-and-pelagic-fish-after-the-fukushima-da%C3%A3-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#17
Bruno Fiévet, Pascal Bailly-du-Bois, Philippe Laguionie, Mehdi Morillon, Mireille Arnaud, Pascal Cunin
The Fukushima Daï-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in radioactive Cs being discharged into the local marine environment. While Cs bioaccumulates in biota and slowly depurates, the Cs concentrated in biota constitutes a source of Cs for animals feeding on each other. The marine biota therefore serves as a pool that recycles Cs, and this recycling process delays depuration in the fish feeding on this biota pool. Because the continental shelf is squeezed between the coast and very deep sea, the demersal marine species are confined to a narrow strip along the coast, close to the source of the radioactive input...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242469/time-restricted-feeding-on-weekdays-restricts-weight-gain-a-study-using-rat-models-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#18
Magnus Kringstad Olsen, Man Hung Choi, Bård Kulseng, Chun-Mei Zhao, Duan Chen
A recent study reported that a special weekly scheduled time-restricted feeding regimen (TRF), i.e., no food consumption for 15h during the light (inactive) phase per day for 5 weekdays, attenuated the outcome of diverse nutritional challenges in response to high-fat diet in mice. In the present study, we wanted to further test whether this TRF could restrict body weight gain in both juvenile and adult animals when fed a high-fat diet. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats at ages from 5 to 27weeks were used. First, we found that freely fed rats with 60% fat diet gained weight significantly, which was associated with more calorie intake (particularly during light phase) than those fed standard food (7% fat)...
February 24, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241986/short-fasting-does-not-protect-perfused-ex%C3%A2-vivo-rat-liver-against-ischemia-reperfusion-on-the-importance-of-a-minimal-cell-energy-charge
#19
Bérengère Papegay, Michaela Stadler, Vincent Nuyens, Véronique Kruys, Jean G Boogaerts, Joseph Vamecq
OBJECTIVE: Dietary restriction or reduced food intake was supported to protect against renal and hepatic ischemic injury. In this vein, short fasting was recently shown to protect in situ rat liver against ischemia-reperfusion. Here, perfused ex vivo instead of in situ livers were exposed to ischemia-reperfusion to study the impact of disconnecting liver from extrahepatic supply in energetic substrates on the protection given by short-term fasting. METHODS: Perfused ex vivo livers using short (18 h) fasted compared with fed rats were submitted to ischemia-reperfusion and studied for release of cytolysis markers in the perfusate...
March 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199923/assistance-at-mealtimes-in-hospital-settings-and-rehabilitation-units-for-patients-65years-from-the-perspective-of-patients-families-and-healthcare-professionals-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Deborah Edwards, Judith Carrier, Jane Hopkinson
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is one of the key issues affecting the health of older people (>65years). With an aging population the problem is expected to increase further since the prevalence of malnutrition increases with age. Studies worldwide have identified that some older patients with good appetites do not receive sufficient nourishment because of inadequate feeding assistance. Mealtime assistance can enhance nutritional intake, clinical outcomes and patient experience. OBJECTIVES/AIM: To determine the effectiveness of meal time assistance initiatives for improving nutritional intake and nutritional status for older adult patients (>65years) in hospital settings and rehabilitation units...
April 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
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