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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199923/assistance-at-mealtimes-in-hospital-settings-and-rehabilitation-units-for-patients-65years-from-the-perspective-of-patients-families-and-healthcare-professionals-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Deborah Edwards, Judith Carrier, Jane Hopkinson
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is one of the key issues affecting the health of older people (>65years). With an aging population the problem is expected to increase further since the prevalence of malnutrition increases with age. Studies worldwide have identified that some older patients with good appetites do not receive sufficient nourishment because of inadequate feeding assistance. Mealtime assistance can enhance nutritional intake, clinical outcomes and patient experience. OBJECTIVES/AIM: To determine the effectiveness of meal time assistance initiatives for improving nutritional intake and nutritional status for older adult patients (>65years) in hospital settings and rehabilitation units...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197795/effect-of-habitat-fragmentation-on-ranging-behavior-of-white-headed-langurs-in-limestone-forests-in-southwest-china
#2
Zhonghao Huang, Peisong Yuan, Henglian Huang, Xiaoping Tang, Weijian Xu, Chengming Huang, Qihai Zhou
The critically endangered white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is confined to fragmented karst forests of southwest Guangxi Province, China. A lack of information on the influence of habitat fragmentation on langur behavior has prevented a comprehensive understanding of their ranging behavior and the development of effective langur conservation strategies. We collected comparative data on time budgets, daily path lengths, home range and diets of four langur groups inhabiting the lightly fragmented Fusui forest (G1, G2) and the more heavily fragmented Chongzuo forest (G3, G4)...
February 14, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196553/association-between-body-energy-content-in-the-dry-period-and-post-calving-production-disease-status-in-dairy-cattle
#3
G L Smith, N C Friggens, C J Ashworth, M G G Chagunda
The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse...
February 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177396/growth-heterogeneity-in-broiler-breeder-pullets-is-settled-before-the-onset-of-feed-restriction-but-is-not-predicted-by-size-at-hatch
#4
C Lindholm, J Jönsson, A Calais, A Middelkoop, N Yngwe, E Berndtson, J J Lees, E Hult, J Altimiras
Uniform growth is a desirable trait in all large-scale animal production systems because it simplifies animal management and increases profitability. In parental broiler flocks, so-called broiler breeders, low growth uniformity is largely attributed to the feed competition that arises from quantitatively restricted feeding. As feed restriction is crucial to maintaining healthy and fertile breeders, several practices for reducing feed competition and the associated growth heterogeneity have been suggested and range from nutrient dilution by increasing fiber content in feed to intermittent fasting with increased portion size ("skip a day"), but no practice appears to be entirely effective...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151828/nutrition-in-the-critically-ill-patient
#5
Kristine W A C Koekkoek, Arthur R H van Zanten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent relevant studies regarding nutrition during critical illness and provide recommendations for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently acquired knowledge regarding nutritional status and risk assessment, body composition, gastric residual volume, prokinetics, tube positioning, enteral vs parenteral nutrition, nutritional dose and timing of initiation, pharmaconutrition, dysbiosis and probiotics are discussed. SUMMARY: Body composition especially lean body mass is associated with clinical outcomes...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138826/association-between-maternal-stress-work-status-concern-about-child-weight-and-restrictive-feeding-practices-in-preschool-children
#6
Katheryn Swyden, Susan B Sisson, Amanda S Morris, Karina Lora, Ashley E Weedn, Kristen A Copeland, Beth DeGrace
Objectives To examine the relationship between maternal stress, work status, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive feeding practices among mothers of preschool children. Methods 285 mothers of 2-to-5-year-old children completed an on-line survey. Questions included demographics, items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Linear regression and ANOVA examined the relationship between maternal stress, work hours, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive practices for one 2-to-5-year-old child living within the home...
January 30, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138819/asymmetric-competition-for-nectar-between-a-large-nectar-thief-and-a-small-pollinator-an-energetic-point-of-view
#7
Eliška Padyšáková, Jan Okrouhlík, Mark Brown, Michael Bartoš, Štěpán Janeček
There are two alternative hypotheses related to body size and competition for restricted food sources. The first one supposes that larger animals are superior competitors because of their increased feeding abilities, whereas the second one assumes superiority of smaller animals because of their lower food requirements. We examined the relationship between two unrelated species of different size, drinking technique, energy requirements and roles in plant pollination system, to reveal the features of their competitive interaction and mechanisms enabling their co-existence while utilising the same nectar source...
January 30, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117494/the-seasonal-feeding-ecology-of-the-javan-slow-loris-nycticebus-javanicus
#8
Francis Cabana, Ellen Dierenfeld, Wirdateti Wirdateti, Giuseppe Donati, K A I Nekaris
OBJECTIVES: To describe the strategy employed by exudativorous primates during seasonal shifts in food abundance using the Javan slow loris as a model. Males and females may cope differently as well as exploit fallback foods in different proportions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observing 15 free ranging Javan slow lorises over a year, we quantified their seasonal diet and nutrient intake using intake rates. For gum intake rates, we conducted a trial with 10 captive Javan slow lorises measuring the length of time it took for them to ingest 10 g of gum...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109602/strategies-to-gain-body-condition-score-in-pasture-based-dairy-cows-during-late-lactation-and-the-far-off-nonlactating-period-and-their-interaction-with-close-up-dry-matter-intake
#9
J R Roche, A Heiser, M D Mitchell, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, J K Kay, M Vailati Riboni, J J Loor, S Meier
In pasture-based systems, cows are generally thinner at the end of lactation than cows fed total mixed rations and, as a result, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off nonlactating period is a standard management policy to achieve optimum calving body condition score (BCS). An alternative would be to manage cows to gain BCS through late lactation, such that cows ended lactation close to optimum calving BCS and maintenance of BCS through to calving. We sought to quantify the effect of moderate or excessive ME intakes during the far-off nonlactating period in cows that had been managed to gain or maintain BCS through late lactation and whether the far-off management strategy interacted with close-up level of feeding...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099496/plasticity-of-daily-behavioral-rhythms-in-foragers-and-nurses-of-the-ant-camponotus-rufipes-influence-of-social-context-and-feeding-times
#10
Stephanie Mildner, Flavio Roces
Daily activities within an ant colony need precise temporal organization, and an endogenous clock appears to be essential for such timing processes. A clock drives locomotor rhythms in isolated workers in a number of ant species, but its involvement in activities displayed in the social context is unknown. We compared locomotor rhythms in isolated individuals and behavioral rhythms in the social context of workers of the ant Camponotus rufipes. Both forager and nurse workers exhibited circadian rhythms in locomotor activity under constant conditions, indicating the involvement of an endogenous clock...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091348/effects-of-intermittent-fasting-on-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#11
Rona Antoni, Kelly L Johnston, Adam L Collins, M Denise Robertson
Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism...
January 16, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079776/enhanced-recovery-program-and-length-of-stay-after-laparotomy-on-a-gynecologic-oncology-service-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Elizabeth L Dickson, Erica Stockwell, Melissa A Geller, Rachel Isaksson Vogel, Sally A Mullany, Rahel Ghebre, Boris J N Witherhoff, Levi S Downs, Linda F Carson, Deanna Teoh, Michelle Glasgow, Matt Gerber, Colleen Rivard, Britt K Erickson, Jacob Hutchins, Peter A Argenta
OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether a rapid recovery program would reduce length of stay among patients undergoing laparotomy on a gynecologic oncology service. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing an enhanced recovery after surgery protocol with routine postoperative care among women undergoing laparotomy on the gynecologic oncology service. Protocol elements included: preoperative counseling, regional anesthesia, intraoperative fluid restriction, and early postoperative ambulation and feeding...
February 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067137/residue-depletion-of-ivermectin-in-broiler-poultry
#13
Nora Mestorino, Daniel Buldain, Andrea Buchamer, Lihuel Gortari, Martín Daniele, María Laura Marchetti
Helminth infections are widespread in the poultry industry. There is evidence of extra-label use of some drugs, such as ivermectin (IVM), in broiler poultry. Pharmacokinetic and residual studies of IVM in poultry, however, are rather scarce. Our aim was to determine time restrictions for broiler chickens fed with balanced feed mixed with IVM for 21 days, and thus achieve acceptable residual levels for consumption as established by the European Union. Sixty 1-day-old chicks were fed with food supplemented with IVM at 5 mg kg(-1) feed for 21 days...
January 26, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046182/regulation-in-free-amino-acid-profile-and-protein-synthesis-pathway-of-growing-pig-skeletal-muscles-by-low-protein-diets-for-different-time-periods
#14
Y H Li, H K Wei, F N Li, S W Kim, C Y Wen, Y H Duan, Q P Guo, W L Wang, H N Liu, Y L Yin
The objective of the study was to explore the extent to which the dietary CP level can be reduced for maintaining muscle protein deposition in growing pigs as well as the related mechanism and whether the response to dietary protein restriction is diversely modified throughout the 2 trial periods. A total of 36 pigs (9.57 ± 0.64 kg initial BW) were individually penned and fed 1 of 3 diets for 10 or 25 d. During each period, the diets contained 20, 17, and 14% CP, respectively. Both the 17% CP diet and the 14% CP diet were supplemented with Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp to provide the same total concentrations as those in the 20% CP diet...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043374/the-relationships-between-body-fatness-leptin-testosterone-and-reproductive-performance-in-ram-lambs-as-affected-by-level-and-frequency-of-feeding
#15
Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum, Moez Ayadi, Ibrahim Alhidary, Abdullah Alowaimer, Mohamed Abouheif
This study was carried out using 24 Najdi ram lambs of approximately 6.5 months old to evaluate the effects of feed restriction and frequency of feeding on hormone concentrations of leptin and testosterone, sexual behavior, and semen traits. Ram lambs were allotted equally into three feeding groups. The first group was used as a control and fed ad libitum. The second and third groups were restricted fed at 0.85 ad libitum and fed either once (R1M) or twice daily (R2M). Sexual behavior and semen evaluation were assessed during the sixth, seventh, and eighth weeks of the study...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017879/circadian-rhythms-time-restricted-feeding-and-healthy-aging
#16
REVIEW
Emily N C Manoogian, Satchidananda Panda
Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse these chronic diseases in experimental models...
December 23, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012617/growth-performance-feeding-behavior-and-selected-blood-metabolites-of-holstein-dairy-calves-fed-restricted-amounts-of-milk-no-interactions-between-sources-of-finely-ground-grain-and-forage-provision
#17
M Mirzaei, M Khorvash, G R Ghorbani, M Kazemi-Bonchenari, M H Ghaffari
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006784/long-term-energy-deficit-in-mice-causes-long-lasting-hypothalamic-alterations-after-recovery
#18
Mathieu Méquinion, Ophélia Le Thuc, Sara Zgheib, David Alexandre, Nicolas Chartrel, Carole Rovère, Pierre Hardouin, Odile Viltart, Christophe Chauveau
Although short-term effects on fasting or energy deficit on hypothalamic neuropeptide circuitries are now better understood, the effects of long-term energy deficit and refeeding remain to be elucidated. We showed that after a long-term energy deficit mice exhibited persistent hypoleptinemia following the refeeding period despite restoration of fat mass, ovarian activity and feeding behavior. We aimed to examine the hypothalamic adaptations after 10 weeks of energy deficit and after 10 further weeks of nutritional recovery...
December 23, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998722/intermittent-access-to-a-nutritionally-complete-high-fat-diet-attenuates-alcohol-drinking-in-rats
#19
Sunil Sirohi, Arriel Van Cleef, Jon F Davis
Binge eating disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur in the presence of other psychiatric conditions. Data suggest that binge eating engages similar behavioral and neurochemical processes common to AUD, which might contribute to the etiology or maintenance of alcoholism. However, it is unclear how binge feeding behavior and alcohol intake interact to promote initiation or maintenance of AUD. We investigated the impact of binge-like feeding on alcohol intake and anxiety-like behavior in male Long Evans rats...
February 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988115/effects-of-dietary-physically-effective-neutral-detergent-fiber-content-on-the-feeding-behavior-digestibility-and-growth-of-8-to-10-month-old-holstein-replacement-heifers
#20
H R Wang, Q Chen, L M Chen, R F Ge, M Z Wang, L H Yu, J Zhang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content on the feeding behavior, digestion, ruminal fermentation parameters, and growth of 8- to 10-mo-old dairy heifers and to predict the adequacy of dietary fiber in growing dairy heifers. Twenty-four Holstein dairy heifers (245 ± 10.8 d of age, 305.6 ± 8.5 kg initial live weight) were randomly divided into 4 treatments with 6 replicates as a completely randomized design. During the 60-d period with a 10-d adaptation, heifers were offered 1 of 4 diets, which were chemically identical but included different peNDF8...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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