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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823129/effect-of-different-grinding-levels-of-corn-grain-on-ruminal-fermentation-and-blood-metabolites-of-holstein-steers-fed-total-mixed-ration-as-a-basal
#1
Do Hyung Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Sung Kwon Park, Sung Sill Lee, Chang Weon Choi
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect different grinding levels of corn grain on ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in Holstein steers fed TMR as a basal diet in order to provide fundamental data of corn grain for cattle in Korea. Methods: Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW 592 ± 29.9 kg) fed TMR as a basal diet were used and housed individually in an auto temperature and humidity modulated chamber (24ºC and 60% for 22 h/d)...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801297/-effect-of-metformin-on-insulin-resistance-during-catch-up-growth-in-mice-with-fetal-growth-restriction
#2
Ping Peng, Chun-Ling Ma, Shu-Mei Wan, Wen-Sheng Jin, Yan Gao, Tian-Qing Huang, Qi Cheng, Chang-Lan Ye
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of metformin intervention on insulin resistance during catch-up growth in mice with fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: Mouse models of FGR were established by low protein diet feeding of the pregnant mice. Both the newborn female mice with FGR and normal control (NC) mice were randomized for feeding with a standard diet (SF) or a high-fat diet (HF) after weaning and treatment with gavage of either metformin or normal saline...
August 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776730/effect-of-feed-deprivation-on-selected-parameters-of-lipid-mobilisation-and-hepatic-function-in-healthy-akhal-teke-horses
#3
B Tóth, A Auth, L Rompos, Z Bakos
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal and other systemic diseases of Equidae are often characterised by partial or complete inappetence. The catabolic processes may lead to lipid mobilisation and other metabolic disturbances. Evidence from earlier studies has revealed that during feed deprivation/inappetence, the conjugation of bilirubin is reduced causing a substantial rise of the total bilirubin and its unconjugated fraction. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that during feed deprivation, the serum concentration of free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total bilirubin (tBIL) total bile acids (tBA) and activity of GGT and GLDH increase, while the concentration of insulin and direct bilirubin (dBIL) decrease...
August 4, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776273/combining-metabolomics-and-network-analysis-to-improve-tacrolimus-production-in-streptomyces-tsukubaensis-using-different-exogenous-feedings
#4
Cheng Wang, Jiao Liu, Huanhuan Liu, Shaoxiong Liang, Jianping Wen
Tacrolimus is widely used as an immunosuppressant in the treatment of various autoimmune diseases. However, the low fermentation yield of tacrolimus has thus far restricted its industrial applications. To solve this problem, the time-series response mechanisms of the intracellular metabolism that were highly correlated with tacrolimus biosynthesis were investigated using different exogenous feeding strategies in S. tsukubaensis. The metabolomic datasets, which contained 93 metabolites, were subjected to weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), and eight distinct metabolic modules and seven hub metabolites were identified to be specifically associated with tacrolimus biosynthesis...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768192/time-restricted-feeding-shifts-the-skin-circadian-clock-and-alters-uvb-induced-dna-damage
#5
Hong Wang, Elyse van Spyk, Qiang Liu, Mikhail Geyfman, Michael L Salmans, Vivek Kumar, Alexander Ihler, Ning Li, Joseph S Takahashi, Bogi Andersen
The epidermis is a highly regenerative barrier protecting organisms from environmental insults, including UV radiation, the main cause of skin cancer and skin aging. Here, we show that time-restricted feeding (RF) shifts the phase and alters the amplitude of the skin circadian clock and affects the expression of approximately 10% of the skin transcriptome. Furthermore, a large number of skin-expressed genes are acutely regulated by food intake. Although the circadian clock is required for daily rhythms in DNA synthesis in epidermal progenitor cells, RF-induced shifts in clock phase do not alter the phase of DNA synthesis...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754262/a-comparison-of-three-peyer-s-patch-m-like-cell-culture-models-particle-uptake-bacterial-interaction-and-epithelial-histology
#6
Tauseef Ahmad, Martina Gogarty, Edwin Walsh, David J Brayden
Intestinal Peyer's patch (PP) microfold (M) cells transport microbes and particulates across the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) as part of the mucosal immune surveillance system. In vitro human M-like cell co-culture models are used as screens to investigate uptake of antigens-in-nanoparticles, but the models are labour-intensive and there is inter-laboratory variability. We compared the three most established filter-grown Caco-2/Raji B cell co-culture systems. These were Model A (Kerneis et al, 1997), Model B (Gullberg et al...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728389/influence-of-substituting-steam-flaked-corn-for-dry-rolled-corn-on-feedlot-cattle-growth-performance-when-cattle-are-allowed-either-ad-libitum-or-restricted-access-to-the-finishing-diet
#7
Víctor Manuel González-Vizcarra, Alejandro Plascencia, Daniel Ramos-Aviña, Richard Avery Zinn
Objective: The influence of substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) for dry rolled corn (DRC) on feedlot cattle growth performance and dietary net energy when cattle are allowed either ad libitum or 2-h restricted access to the finishing diet was evaluated. Methods: Treatment effects were tested using 96 crossbred steers (251 ±2 kg) during the initial 56 d of the finishing phase. Cattle were blocked by weight and randomly assigned within blocks to 16 pens (4 pens/treatment)...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715993/metabolic-effects-of-intermittent-fasting
#8
Ruth E Patterson, Dorothy D Sears
The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715779/mechanisms-underlying-the-acute-toxicity-of-fullerene-to-daphnia-magna-energy-acquisition-restriction-and-oxidative-stress
#9
Xiaohui Lv, Boming Huang, Xiaoshan Zhu, Yuelu Jiang, Baiyang Chen, Yi Tao, Jin Zhou, Zhonghua Cai
The toxicity of fullerene (C60) to Daphnia magna has been a subject with increasing concerns. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated various aspects of the toxicological impacts of C60 on daphnia. After a 72-h exposure, the 50% effective concentration of C60 was 14.9 mg/L for immobilization, and 16.3 mg/L for mortality. Daphnia exhibited a quick uptake of C60 with a body burden value of 413 μg/g in wet weight in the 1 mg/L C60 treatment group...
July 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713778/tick-virus-interactions-toll-sensing
#10
Nicholas Johnson
Ticks are important vectors of viruses that infect and cause disease in man, livestock, and companion animals. The major focus of investigation of tick-borne viruses has been the interaction with the mammalian host, particularly the mechanisms underlying disease and the development of vaccines to prevent infection. Only recently has research begun to investigate the interaction of the virus with the tick host. This is striking when considering that the virus spends far more time infecting the tick vector relative to the vertebrate host...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709906/effects-of-feeding-time-on-daily-rhythms-of-neuropeptide-and-clock-gene-expression-in-the-rat-hypothalamus
#11
Dawei Wang, Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Jane Reznick, Nigel Turner, Yan Su, Gregory J Cooney, Andries Kalsbeek
Shiftworkers are exposed to several adverse health conditions, one being eating at night. Food consumption at an unnatural time-of-day is thought to be one of the main factors responsible for the increased risk of developing metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. The underlying mechanism is considered to include disruption of the circadian organization of physiology, leading to disruption of metabolism. When food is consumed at night, the hypothalamus, a brain region central to homeostasis, receives contradicting input from the central clock and the systemic circulation...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701319/low-carbohydrate-diet-induces-metabolic-depression-a-possible-mechanism-to-conserve-glycogen
#12
Hugh Stirling Winwood-Smith, Craig E Franklin, Craig R White
Long-term studies have found low carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than calorie restricted diets in the short-term, but equally or only marginally more effective in the long-term. Low carbohydrate diets have been linked to reduced glycogen stores and increased feelings of fatigue. We propose that reduced physical activity in response to lowered glycogen explains the diminishing weight loss advantage of low carbohydrate compared to low calorie diets over longer time scales. We explored this possibility by feeding adult Drosophila melanogaster either a standard or low carbohydrate diet for nine days and measured changes in metabolic rate, glycogen stores, activity, and body mass...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690792/the-most-common-diet-results-in-low-reproduction-in-a-generalist-seabird
#13
Susanne van Donk, Kees C J Camphuysen, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Jaap van der Meer
Dietary specialization has been described across a wide range of taxa in the animal kingdom. Fitness consequences are, however, not well documented. We examined the reproductive consequences of different dietary specializations in the herring gull Larus argentatus, an omnivorous seabird, using an extensive dataset which includes breeding and dietary data of 10 successive years. We hypothesized that pairs that focused on prey of higher energetic value would yield higher fledging rates. An alternative hypothesis is that pairs that relied on more resources simultaneously would reproduce better...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683292/mice-under-caloric-restriction-self-impose-a-temporal-restriction-of-food-intake-as-revealed-by-an-automated-feeder-system
#14
Victoria A Acosta-Rodríguez, Marleen H M de Groot, Filipa Rijo-Ferreira, Carla B Green, Joseph S Takahashi
Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in mammals, yet the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain unknown. The manner in which CR has been implemented in longevity experiments is variable, with both timing and frequency of meals constrained by work schedules. It is commonplace to find that nocturnal rodents are fed during the daytime and meals are spaced out, introducing prolonged fasting intervals. Since implementation of feeding paradigms over the lifetime is logistically difficult, automation is critical, but existing systems are expensive and not amenable to scale...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679529/timing-of-caloric-intake-during-weight-loss-differentially-affects-striatal-dopamine-transporter-and-thalamic-serotonin-transporter-binding
#15
Ruth I Versteeg, Anouk Schrantee, Sofie M Adriaanse, Unga A Unmehopa, Jan Booij, Liesbeth Reneman, Eric Fliers, Susanne E la Fleur, Mireille J Serlie
Recent studies have shown that meal timing throughout the day contributes to maintaining or regaining weight after hypocaloric diets. Although brain serotonin and dopamine are well known to be involved in regulating feeding, it is unknown whether meal timing during energy restriction affects these neurotransmitter systems. We studied the effect of a 4 wk hypocaloric diet with either 50% of daily calories consumed at breakfast (BF group) or at dinner (D group) on hypothalamic and thalamic serotonin transporter (SERT) binding and on striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding...
July 5, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668528/effect-of-stocking-rate-and-animal-genotype-on-dry-matter-intake-milk-production-body-weight-and-body-condition-score-in-spring-calving-grass-fed-dairy-cows
#16
E L Coffey, L Delaby, S Fitzgerald, N Galvin, K M Pierce, B Horan
The objective of the experiment was to quantify the effect of stocking rate (SR) and animal genotype on milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance, and production efficiency across 2 consecutive grazing seasons (2014 and 2015). A total of 753 records from 177 dairy cows were available for analysis: 68 Holstein-Friesian and 71 Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (JxHF) cows each year of the experiment under a pasture-based seasonal production system. Animals within each breed group were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 whole-farm SR treatments defined in terms of body weight per hectare (kg of body weight/ha): low (1,200 kg of body weight/ha), medium (1,400 kg of body weight/ha), and high (1,600 kg of body weight/ha), and animals remained in the same SR treatments for the duration of the experiment...
September 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659405/fish-oil-contaminated-with-persistent-organic-pollutants-induces-colonic-aberrant-crypt-foci-formation-and-reduces-antioxidant-enzyme-gene-expression-in-rats
#17
Mee Young Hong, Eunha Hoh, Brian Kang, Rebecca DeHamer, Jin Young Kim, Jan Lumibao
Background: Epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental studies have suggested that fish oil (FO), a rich source of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, protects against colon cancer. However, this message is confounded by the FDA's warning that the consumption of certain types of fish should be restricted because of contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides.Objective: We examined FO contaminated with POPs (PCBs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and chlordane) compared with unmodified FO on the risk factors of colon cancer development...
August 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655596/effects-of-macronutrient-distribution-on-weight-and-related-cardiometabolic-profile-in-healthy-non-obese-chinese-a-6-month-randomized-controlled-feeding-trial
#18
Yi Wan, Fenglei Wang, Jihong Yuan, Jie Li, Dandan Jiang, Jingjing Zhang, Tao Huang, Jusheng Zheng, Jim Mann, Duo Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653967/exercise-associated-hyponatremia-in-a-lactating-female
#19
Zach Bailowitz, Raymond Grams, David Teeple, Tamara Hew-Butler
A 37-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with severe headache, which quickly progressed to altered mental status and seizure activity in hospital. Her initial serum sodium concentration ([Na]) was 126 mmol/L. In the 24 hours before admission, she exercised vigorously for 120 minutes (interval training plus yoga) and also consumed more than 4 liters of fluid during that time to both stay hydrated and facilitate milk production because she was actively nursing 2 children. Her serum [Na] and altered mental status corrected slowly over the next 48 hours with furosemide, hypertonic saline, and fluid restriction...
July 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651478/interval-timing-is-preserved-despite-circadian-desynchrony-in-rats-constant-light-and-heavy-water-studies
#20
Christian C Petersen, Ralph E Mistlberger
The mechanisms that enable mammals to time events that recur at 24-h intervals (circadian timing) and at arbitrary intervals in the seconds-to-minutes range (interval timing) are thought to be distinct at the computational and neurobiological levels. Recent evidence that disruption of circadian rhythmicity by constant light (LL) abolishes interval timing in mice challenges this assumption and suggests a critical role for circadian clocks in short interval timing. We sought to confirm and extend this finding by examining interval timing in rats in which circadian rhythmicity was disrupted by long-term exposure to LL or by chronic intake of 25% D2O...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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