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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684414/examining-variability-in-parent-feeding-practices-within-a-low-income-racially-ethnically-diverse-and-immigrant-population-using-ecological-momentary-assessment
#1
Jerica M Berge, Allan Tate, Amanda Trofholz, Katie Loth, Michael Miner, Scott Crow, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
BACKGROUND: Current measures of parent feeding practices are typically survey-based and assessed as static/unchanging characteristics, failing to account for fluctuations in these behaviors across time and context. The current study uses ecological momentary assessment to examine variability of, and predictors of parent feeding practices within a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, and immigrant sample. METHODS: Children ages 5-7 years old and their parents (n = 150 dyads) from six racial/ethnic groups (n = 25 from each; Black/African American, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, White) were recruited for this mixed-methods study through primary care clinics...
April 20, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658290/dietary-restriction-slightly-affects-glucose-homeostasis-and-delays-plasma-cholesterol-removal-in-rabbits-with-dietary-lipid-lowering
#2
Qi Yu, Ruihan Liu, Lijuan Han, Guangwei Zhang, Hua Guan, Qi Pan, Siwang Wang, Enqi Liu
Dietary restriction (DR) has been reported to promote the beneficial effects on atherosclerotic progression, lipid and glucose metabolism, but little is known about these effects can be enhanced or weakened by dietary lipid lowering. After 12 weeks of the high-cholesterol diet (HCD) feeding, hypercholesterolemic rabbits were fed with either a chow diet ad libitum (AL) or a chow diet with DR for 16 weeks of dietary lipid lowering. Here, we found the DR group exhibited a loss in body weight, small internal organs and the reduced fat mass, but the AL group accumulated more subcutaneous fat than the baseline group...
April 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627395/impact-of-the-mother-nurse-partnership-programme-on-mother-and-infant-outcomes-in-paediatric-cardiac-intensive-care-unit
#3
Ju-Yeon Uhm, Hee Soon Kim
OBJECTIVES: To identify the effects of a mother-nurse partnership programme based on the core components of information sharing, negotiation and participation in care. Specifically, we examined the programme's effects on parental satisfaction, parental self-efficacy, perceived partnership and anxiety, as well as infants' time to reach full oral feeding and length of postoperative hospital stay, following cardiac surgery on infants at a paediatric intensive care unit with a restrictive visiting policy...
April 4, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627250/invited-review-current-perspectives-on-eating-and-rumination-activity-in-dairy-cows
#4
K A Beauchemin
Many early studies laid the foundation for our understanding of the mechanics of chewing, the physiological role of chewing for the cow, and how chewing behavior is affected by dietary characteristics. However, the dairy cow has changed significantly over the past decades, as have the types of diets fed and the production systems used. The plethora of literature published in recent years provides new insights on eating and ruminating activity of dairy cows. Lactating dairy cows spend about 4.5 h/d eating (range: 2...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627248/a-canonical-discriminant-analysis-to-study-the-association-between-milk-fatty-acids-of-ruminal-origin-and-milk-fat-depression-in-dairy-cows
#5
G Conte, C Dimauro, A Serra, N P P Macciotta, M Mele
Although milk fat depression (MFD) has been observed and described since the beginning of the last century, all the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. Some fatty acids (FA) originating during rumen biohydrogenation have been proposed as causative elements of MFD. However, contradictory results were obtained when studying the effect of single FA on MFD. An alternative could be the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of many FA using a multivariate approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between individual milk FA of ruminal origin and MFD using canonical discriminant analysis, a multivariate technique able to distinguish 2 or more groups on the basis of a pool of variables...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620597/early-serum-gut-hormone-concentrations-associated-with-time-to-full-enteral-feedings-in-preterm-infants
#6
Kristen H Shanahan, Xinting Yu, Laura G Miller, Steven D Freedman, Camilia R Martin
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate early postnatal serum gut hormone concentrations in preterm infants as predictors of time to full enteral feedings. The secondary objective was to identify infant characteristics and nutritional factors that modulate serum gut hormone concentrations and time to full enteral feedings. METHODS: Sixty-four preterm infants less than 30 weeks of gestation were included in this retrospective cohort study...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615477/leptin-stimulates-aromatase-in-the-growth-plate-limiting-catch-up-growth-efficiency
#7
Majdi Masarwi, Raanan Shamir, Moshe Phillip, Galia Gat-Yablonski
Catch-up growth (CUG) in childhood is defined as periods of growth acceleration, after the resolution of growth attenuation causes, bringing the children back to their original growth trajectory. Sometimes, however, CUG is incomplete, leading to permanent growth deficit and short stature. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms that limit nutritional-CUG. Specifically, we focused on the crosstalk between leptin, increased by re-feeding, and sex hormones, which increase with age. In-vivo studies were performed in young male Sprague Dawley rats fed ad libitum or subjected to 10/36 days of 40% food restriction followed by 90-120 days of re-feeding...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597061/individuality-of-masticatory-performance-and-of-masticatory-muscle-temporal-parameters
#8
Claire D Tewksbury, Kathryn X Callaghan, Brent A Fulks, Geoffrey E Gerstner
OBJECTIVE: Mammalian mastication serves to improve intra-oral food reduction. Insufficient food reduction creates potential swallowing problems, whereas over-reduction may accelerate tooth wear and increase feeding time. Either extreme has consequences. The study's objectives were: (1) to study the relationship between food reduction, number of chews in a sequence, and chewing rate, (2) to study how controlling the number of chews and chewing rate variability affects food reduction, and (3) to assess how dentoskeletal morphological and electromyographical (EMG) characteristics impact food reduction...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574216/activity-based-anorexia-activates-crf-immunoreactive-neurons-in-female-rats
#9
Sophie Scharner, Tiemo Friedrich, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Peter Kobelt, Matthias Rose, Andreas Stengel
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a well-established animal model mimicking the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). Since the pathophysiology of AN is yet poorly understood and specific drug treatments are lacking so far, animal models might be useful to further understand this disease. ABA consists of time-restricted access to food for 1.5 h/day and the possibility to exercise in a running wheel for 24 h/day. This combination leads to robust body weight loss as observed in AN. Here, we investigated the activation of brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons, a transmitter involved in the response to stress, emotional processes and also food intake...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573021/manipulation-of-parental-nutritional-condition-reveals-competition-among-family-members
#10
Eva M Keppner, Manfred Ayasse, Sandra Steiger
Parental care is thought to be costly, as it consumes time and energy. Such costs might be reduced in animal parents that raise their young on valuable food sources such as dung or carcasses, as parents are able to invest in self-maintenance by feeding from the same resource. However, this might lower the nutritional value for other family members and, as a consequence, food competition might arise. To promote our understanding of the outcome of such competition, we manipulated the necessity of parents to feed from the resource...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571007/time-restricted-feeding-influences-immune-responses-without-compromising-muscle-performance-in-older-men
#11
Maha Gasmi, Maha Sellami, Joshua Denham, Johnny Padulo, Goran Kuvacic, Walid Selmi, Riadh Khalifa
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of 12 wk of time-restricted feeding (TRF) on complete blood cell counts, natural killer cells, and muscle performance in 20- and 50-year-old men. METHODS: Forty active and healthy participants were randomly divided into young experimental, young control, aged experimental, and aged control group. Experimental groups participated in TRF. Before (P1) and after (P2) TRF, participants performed a maximal exercise test to quantify muscle power...
February 3, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568028/breastfeeding-and-occlusal-development
#12
Felicity Borrie
Data sourcesPubmed, Embase, Scopus databases and New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report. There were no restrictions on language and publication dates.Study selectionTwo reviewers selected both prospective and retrospective studies of children who had either been exclusively breastfed or were mixed breastfed; who were in either the primary or mixed dentition, and malocclusion was assessed. The following malocclusion traits were included; Class 2 molar, open-bite, non-spaced dentition and posterior crossbite...
March 23, 2018: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554129/identification-of-aanat5b-as-a-spermine-n-acetyltransferase-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#13
Huai Guan, Maoying Wang, Chenghong Liao, Jing Liang, Prajwalini Mehere, Meiling Tian, Hairong Liu, Howard Robinson, Jianyong Li, Qian Han
Mosquitoes transmit a number of diseases in animals and humans, including Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses that affect millions of people each year. Controlling the disease-transmitting mosquitoes has proven to be a successful strategy to reduce the viruses transmission. Polyamines are required for the life cycle of the RNA viruses, Chikungunya virus and Zika virus, and a depletion of spermidine and spermine in the host via induction of spermine N-acetyltransferase restricts their replication. Spermine N-acetyltransferase is a key catabolic enzyme in the polyamine pathway, however there is no information of the enzyme identification in any insects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554113/effect-of-dietary-restriction-and-subsequent-re-alimentation-on-the-transcriptional-profile-of-bovine-jejunal-epithelium
#14
Kate Keogh, Sinead M Waters, Paul Cormican, Alan K Kelly, David A Kenny
Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is utilised worldwide in animal production systems as a management practise to lower feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of jejunal epithelial to CG in cattle through transcriptional profiling following a period of dietary restriction as well as subsequent re-alimentation induced CG. Sixty Holstein Friesian bulls were separated into two groups; RES and ADLIB, with 30 animals in each...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549334/evaluation-of-a-miniaturized-biologically-vascularized-scaffold-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Sebastian Kress, Johannes Baur, Christoph Otto, Natalie Burkard, Joris Braspenning, Heike Walles, Joachim Nickel, Marco Metzger
In tissue engineering, the generation and functional maintenance of dense voluminous tissues is mainly restricted due to insufficient nutrient supply. Larger three-dimensional constructs, which exceed the nutrient diffusion limit become necrotic and/or apoptotic in long-term culture if not provided with an appropriate vascularization. Here, we established protocols for the generation of a pre-vascularized biological scaffold with intact arterio-venous capillary loops from rat intestine, which is decellularized under preservation of the feeding and draining vascular tree...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543392/selectivity-underlies-the-dissociation-between-seasonal-prey-availability-and-prey-consumption-in-a-generalist-predator
#16
Thomas D Whitney, Michael I Sitvarin, Edward A Roualdes, Simon J Bonner, James D Harwood
Generalist predators are capable of selective foraging, but are predicted to feed in close proportion to prey availability to maximize energetic intake especially when overall prey availability is low. By extension, they are also expected to feed in a more frequency-dependent manner during winter compared to the more favorable foraging conditions during spring, summer and fall seasons. For 18 months, we observed the foraging patterns of forest-dwelling wolf spiders from the genus Schizocosa (Araneae: Lycosidae) using PCR-based gut-content analysis and simultaneously monitored the activity-densities of two common prey: springtails (Collembola) and flies (Diptera)...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535328/use-of-quercetin-in-animal-feed-effects-on-the-p-gp-expression-and-pharmacokinetics-of-orally-administrated-enrofloxacin-in-chicken
#17
Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto, Fang He, Mire Zloh, Jing Yang, Jinhu Huang, Tingting Guo, Liping Wang
Modulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by Mdr1) by xenobiotics plays central role in pharmacokinetics of various drugs. Quercetin has a potential to modulate P-gp in rodents, however, its effects on P-gp modulation in chicken are still unclear. Herein, study reports role of quercetin in modulation of P-gp expression and subsequent effects on the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in broilers. Results show that P-gp expression was increased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to quercetin in Caco-2 cells and tissues of chicken...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534989/-that-s-enough-now-a-prospective-study-of-the-effects-of-maternal-control-on-children-s-snack-intake
#18
Samantha B Boots, Marika Tiggemann, Nadia Corsini
The aim of this study was to investigate maternal feeding strategies as prospective predictors of young children's snack intake. Participants were 252 mothers of children aged 3-11 years old who completed questionnaire measures of parent feeding strategies (Restriction and Covert Control) and reported on their child's healthy and unhealthy snack intake at two time points separated by three years. Longitudinal regression models showed no prediction of healthy snack food intake. However, Time 1 parental restrictive feeding predicted greater unhealthy snack intake at Time 2, while Time 1 covert feeding strategies predicted lower unhealthy snack intake at Time 2...
March 10, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534082/differential-transcript-abundance-in-adipose-tissue-of-mature-beef-cows-during-feed-restriction-and-realimentation
#19
Hannah Crocker Cunningham, Kristi M Cammack, Kristin E Hales, Harvey C Freetly, Amanda K Lindholm-Perry
Feed costs account for over 70% of the annual expenditures in cow/calf production. During the production year the cow uses nutrients to support conceptus growth, milk production, work (grazing and locomotion), and maintenance requirements. The majority of the nutrients are used to support maintenance. Substrate cycling has been identified as one of the major contributors toward energy expenditure associated with maintenance in mature cows. The objective of this study was to determine whether beef cows that differ in the efficiency of weight gain differ in the relative abundance of transcripts for metabolic regulation in adipose tissue...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531267/traumatic-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-recovery-of-penetration-aspiration-and-functional-feeding-outcome
#20
Tiina Ihalainen, Teemu M Luoto, Irina Rinta-Kiikka, Antti Ronkainen, Anna-Maija Korpijaakko-Huuhka
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: This prospective cohort study aims to evaluate the recovery of penetration/aspiration and functional feeding outcome in patients with acute TCSCI. SETTING: Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland METHODS: Forty-six patients with TCSCI were enrolled. All the patients received speech therapeutic interventions based on their clinical needs and were examined with a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) at enrollment...
March 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
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