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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637212/survival-and-feeding-rates-of-four-aphid-species-hemiptera-aphididae-on-various-sucrose-concentrations-in-diets
#1
Gary J Puterka, Scott J Nicholson, W R Cooper
Different concentrations of sucrose were used to investigate how survival and feeding was affected in four species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Seven sucrose concentrations were evaluated in feeding chambers fitted with parafilm membranes and infested with nymphs of Aphis glycines Matsumura, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, Myzus persicae Sulzer, or Schizaphis graminum Rondani at 25 °C and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Survival on each diet was recorded 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 d. Diet volumes (μl) consumed and amounts of honeydew produced were then determined...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632204/successful-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-feeding-aversion-with-mechanistic-insights-from-cross-species-neuronal-remodeling
#2
W G Sharp, A G Allen, K H Stubbs, K K Criado, R Sanders, C E McCracken, R G Parsons, L Scahill, S L Gourley
Pediatric feeding disorders affect up to 5% of children, causing severe food intake problems that can result in serious medical and developmental outcomes. Behavioral intervention (BI) is effective in extinguishing feeding aversions, and also expert-dependent, time/labor-intensive and not well understood at a neurobiological level. Here we first conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing BI with BI plus d-cycloserine (DCS). DCS is a partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist shown to augment extinction therapies in multiple anxiety disorders...
June 20, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601458/ad-libitum-milk-replacer-feeding-but-not-butyrate-supplementation-affects-growth-performance-as-well-as-metabolic-and-endocrine-traits-in-holstein-calves
#3
D Frieten, C Gerbert, C Koch, G Dusel, K Eder, E Kanitz, J M Weitzel, H M Hammon
The enhanced growth performance of calves fed a higher plane of nutrition pre-weaning is well documented, and the effect of butyrate on the development of the gastrointestinal tract in calves has been evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine the synergistic effects of ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding and butyrate supplementation on growth performance and energy metabolism in calves. Sixty-four (32 male, 32 female) Holstein calves were examined from birth until wk 11 of life. Calves received MR either ad libitum (Adl) or restrictively (Res) with (AdlB+, ResB+) or without (AdlB-, ResB-) 0...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594962/effects-of-bilateral-anterior-agranular-insula-lesions-on-food-anticipatory-activity-in-rats
#4
Alex M Gavrila, Suzanne Hood, Barry Robinson, Shimon Amir
Food anticipatory activity (FAA) refers to a daily rhythm of locomotor activity that emerges under conditions of food restriction, whereby animals develop an intense, predictable period of activity in the few hours leading up to a predictable, daily delivery of food. The neural mechanisms by which FAA is regulated are not yet fully understood. Although a number of brain regions appear to be involved in regulating the development and expression of FAA, there is little evidence to date concerning the role of the anterior agranular insular cortex (AICa)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582252/teleexercise-for-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-case-series
#5
Byron Lai, James Rimmer, Beth Barstow, Emil Jovanov, C Scott Bickel
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in significant loss of function below the level of injury, often leading to restricted participation in community exercise programs. To overcome commonly experienced barriers to these programs, innovations in technology hold promise for remotely delivering safe and effective bouts of exercise in the home. OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of a remotely delivered home exercise program for individuals with SCI as determined by (1) implementation of the intervention in the home; (2) exploration of the potential intervention effects on aerobic fitness, physical activity behavior, and subjective well-being; and (3) acceptability of the program through participant self-report...
July 14, 2016: JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576427/-food-diet-and-dietetic-in-treatment-of-urinary-tract-dysfunctions-a-review
#6
N Turmel, C Hentzen, C Chesnel, A Charlannes, F Le Breton, G Amarenco
Overactive bladder symptoms (OAB) are frequent and can impact quality of life for these patients. Numerous and various treatments could be proposed in order to improve well-being and quality of life, but all these treatments have side effects and determine for many patients, important care constraints. We present here a review of food and diet in OAB. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature review from PubMed Medline database and Google scholar to August 2016, without time restriction. Two hundred and ninety-six articles were screened, in English and in French, and finally, 10 were retained...
May 30, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554338/the-development-of-an-intraruminal-nylon-bag-technique-using-non-fistulated-animals-to-assess-the-rumen-degradability-of-dietary-plant-materials
#7
J H Pagella, R W Mayes, F J Pérez-Barbería, E R Ørskov
Although the conventional in situ ruminal degradability method is a relevant tool to describe the nutritional value of ruminant feeds, its need for rumen-fistulated animals may impose a restriction on its use when considering animal welfare issues and cost. The aim of the present work was to develop a ruminal degradability technique which avoids using surgically prepared animals. The concept was to orally dose a series of porous bags containing the test feeds at different times before slaughter, when the bags would be removed from the rumen for degradation measurement...
May 30, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553673/fractal-regulation-in-temporal-activity-fluctuations-a-biomarker-for-circadian-control-and-beyond
#8
Peng Li, Tommy To, Wei-Yin Chiang, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs, Kun Hu
Motor activity in humans and other animals possesses fractal temporal fluctuations that co-exists with circadian or daily activity rhythms. The perturbations in fractal activity patterns are often accompanied by altered circadian/daily rhythms. The goal of this study is to test whether fractal regulation in motor activity provides physiological information independent from 24-h/circadian rhythmicity. To achieve the goal, we studied locomotor activity recordings of rats with the lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that are known to have diminished circadian/daily activity rhythms and perturbed fractal regulation...
2017: JSM Biomark
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545102/effect-of-dietary-restriction-and-subsequent-re-alimentation-on-the-transcriptional-profile-of-bovine-ruminal-epithelium
#9
Kate Keogh, Sinead M Waters, Paul Cormican, Alan K Kelly, Emma O'Shea, David A Kenny
Compensatory growth (CG) is utilised worldwide in beef production systems as a management approach to reduce feed costs. However the underlying biology regulating the expression of CG remains to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG on the global gene expression profile of ruminal epithelial papillae. Holstein Friesian bulls (n = 60) were assigned to one of two groups: restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30) for 125 days (Period 1) followed by ad libitum access to feed for 55 days (Period 2) or (ii) ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB; n = 30)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535183/time-caloric-restriction-inhibits-the-neoplastic-transformation-of-cirrhotic-liver-in-rats-treated-with-diethylnitrosamine
#10
Christian Molina-Aguilar, María de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre, Sitlali Olguin-Reyes, Thania Castro-Belio, Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Julieta Berenice Rivera-Zavala, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Hepatocellular cancer is the most common type of primary liver cancer. Cirrhosis is the main risk factor that generates this malady. It has been proven that caloric restriction protocols and restricted feeding schedules are protective in experimental carcinogenic models. We tested the influence of a time-caloric restriction protocol (2 h of food access during the daytime for 18 weeks) in an experimental model of cirrhosis-hepatocarcinoma produced by weekly administration of diethylnitrosamine. Our results indicate that time-caloric restriction reduced hepatomegaly and prevented the increase in blood leukocytes promoted by diethylnitrosamine...
May 23, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532842/effects-of-diet-and-arginine-treatment-during-the-luteal-phase-on-ovarian-no-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-in-ewes
#11
Yi-Xuan Guo, Hai-Tao Nie, Ling-Wei Sun, Guo-Min Zhang, Kai-Ping Deng, Yi-Xuan Fan, Feng Wang
The aim of this study was to determine whether arginine (Arg) supplementation of malnourished ewes affects the expression of key NO/PGC-1α signaling pathway genes in the ovary. On Day 6-15 of the estrous cycle, 24 multiparous Hu sheep (BW = 43.56 ± 1.53 kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: control group (CG; n = 6), restriction group (RG; n = 9) and l-arginine group (AG; n = 9), and administered Arg treatment (or vehicle) three times per day. The ewes were slaughtered at the end of treatment, and blood samples and ovaries were collected for analysis...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490447/plant-spines-deter-herbivory-by-restricting-caterpillar-movement
#13
Rupesh R Kariyat, Sean B Hardison, Consuelo M De Moraes, Mark C Mescher
The spines of flowering plants are thought to function primarily in defence against mammalian herbivores; however, we previously reported that feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars on the leaves of horsenettle plants (Solanum carolinense) induces increased development of internode spines on new growth. To determine whether and how spines impact caterpillar feeding, we conducted assays with three Solanaceous plant species that vary in spine numbers (S. carolinense, S. atropurpureum and S. aethiopicum) and also manipulated spine numbers within each species...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482939/daytime-restricted-feeding-modifies-the-daily-regulation-of-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-and-the-lipoprotein-profile-in-rats
#14
J B Rivera-Zavala, C Molina-Aguilar, M Pérez-Mendoza, M Olguín-Martínez, R Hernández-Muñoz, G A Báez-Ruiz, M Díaz-Muñoz
Daytime restricted feeding (2 h of food access from 12.00 to 14.00 hours for 3 weeks) is an experimental protocol that modifies the relationship between metabolic networks and the circadian molecular clock. The precise anatomical locus that controls the biochemical and physiological adaptations to optimise nutrient use is unknown. We explored the changes in liver oxidative lipid handling, such as β-oxidation and its regulation, as well as adaptations in the lipoprotein profile. It was found that daytime restricted feeding promoted an elevation of circulating ketone bodies before mealtime, an altered hepatic daily rhythmicity of 14CO2 production from radioactive palmitic acid, and an up-regulation of the fatty acid oxidation activators, the α-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the deacetylase silent mating type information regulation homolog 1, and the transcriptional factor PPARγ-1α coactivator...
May 9, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478774/supplementing-high-quality-fresh-forage-to-growing-lambs-fed-a-total-mixed-ration-diet-led-to-higher-intake-without-altering-nutrient-utilization
#15
A Pérez-Ruchel, J L Repetto, C Cajarville
The effect of supplementing high-quality fresh forage, mainly based on alfalfa, to growing lambs fed with decreasing levels of total mixed ration (TMR) was studied on intake, digestion and ruminal environment. In total, 24 catheterized lambs (25.2±3.67 kg) housed in individual metabolism cages were assigned to one of four treatment diets: 'TMR100': TMR offered ad libitum; 'TMR75' and 'TMR50': TMR at a level of 0.75 and 0.50 of potential intake, respectively, complemented with fresh forage without restriction; 'TMR0': only fresh forage ad libitum...
May 8, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476590/automating-mouse-weighing-in-group-homecages-with-raspberry-pi-micro-computers
#16
Omid Noorshams, Jamie D Boyd, Timothy H Murphy
BACKGROUND: Operant training systems make use of water or food restriction and make it necessary to weigh animals to ensure compliance with experimental endpoints. In other applications periodic weighing is necessary to assess drug side-effects, or as an endpoint in feeding experiments. Periodic weighing while essential can disrupt animal circadian rhythms and social structure. NEW METHOD: Automatic weighing system within paired mouse homecages. Up to 10 mice freely move between two cages (28×18×9cm) which were connected by a weighing chamber mounted on a load cell...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473865/artificial-neural-networks-in-image-processing-for-early-detection-of-breast-cancer
#17
REVIEW
M M Mehdy, P Y Ng, E F Shair, N I Md Saleh, C Gomes
Medical imaging techniques have widely been in use in the diagnosis and detection of breast cancer. The drawback of applying these techniques is the large time consumption in the manual diagnosis of each image pattern by a professional radiologist. Automated classifiers could substantially upgrade the diagnosis process, in terms of both accuracy and time requirement by distinguishing benign and malignant patterns automatically. Neural network (NN) plays an important role in this respect, especially in the application of breast cancer detection...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470003/optimizing-fluorescein-isothiocyanate-dextran-measurement-as-a-biomarker-in-a-24-h-feed-restriction-model-to-induce-gut-permeability-in-broiler-chickens
#18
Mikayla F A Baxter, Ruben Merino-Guzman, Juan D Latorre, Brittany D Mahaffey, Yichao Yang, Kyle D Teague, Lucas E Graham, Amanda D Wolfenden, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Lisa R Bielke, Billy M Hargis, Guillermo Tellez
Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) is a 3-5 kDa marker used to measure tight junction permeability. We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction (FR), resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. However, further optimization adjustments of the current FITC-d methodology are possible to enhance precision and efficacy of results in future. The objective of the present study was to optimize our current model to obtain a larger difference between control and treated groups, by optimizing the FITC-d measurement as a biomarker in a 24-h FR model to induce gut permeability in broiler chickens...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465827/does-level-of-motivation-for-change-impact-post-treatment-outcomes-in-the-eating-disorders-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-quantitative-analysis
#19
Jeanne Sansfaçon, Howard Steiger, Lise Gauvin, Émilie Fletcher, Mimi Israël
BACKGROUND: Eating Disorders are highly prevalent and widespread mental health problems, with marked risk of chronicity and refractoriness to treatment. Affected individuals are hesitant to change their behaviours and therefore struggle to maintain motivation for therapy. This review aims to produce the first high-quality meta-analysis of the literature on the impact of level of motivation for change on post-treatment outcomes in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED)...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464090/genetic-variance-and-covariance-and-breed-differences-for-feed-intake-and-average-daily-gain-to-improve-feed-efficiency-in-growing-cattle
#20
K J Retallick, J M Bormann, R L Weaber, M D MacNeil, H L Bradford, H C Freetly, K E Hales, D W Moser, W M Snelling, R M Thallman, L A Kuehn
Feed costs are a major economic expense in finishing and developing cattle; however, collection of feed intake data is costly. Examining relationships among measures of growth and intake, including breed differences, could facilitate selection for efficient cattle. Objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth and intake traits and compare indices for feed efficiency to accelerate selection response. On-test ADFI and on-test ADG (TESTADG) and postweaning ADG (PWADG) records for 5,606 finishing steers and growing heifers were collected at the U...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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