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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802185/diagnostic-yield-and-clinical-impact-of-routine-cell-culture-for-respiratory-viruses-among-children-with-a-negative-multiplex-rt-pcr-result
#1
M AlGhounaim, Y Xiao, C Caya, J Papenburg
BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the reference standard for respiratory virus testing. However, cell culture may still have added value in identifying viruses not detected by PCR. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the yield and clinical impact of routine respiratory virus culture among children with a negative PCR result. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was performed from Jan. 2013 to Sept. 2015. Respiratory samples from hospitalized or immunocompromised patients <18years old were routinely inoculated on traditional tube cell culture monolayers if they tested negative by a PCR assay for 12 respiratory viruses...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801835/fabrication-of-acyclovir-loaded-flexible-membrane-vesicles-fmvs-evidence-of-preclinical-efficacy-of-antiviral-activity-in-murine-model-of-cutaneous-hsv-1-infection
#2
Gajanand Sharma, Kanika Thakur, Arvind Setia, Basant Amarji, Mini P Singh, Kaisar Raza, Om Prakash Katare
The present investigation focuses on the development and evaluation of acyclovir-loaded flexible membrane vesicles (ACY-FMVs) and evaluates their targeting potential to localize the drug into skin layers. The drug-loaded FMVs were prepared by thin-film hydration method and characterized for various attributes including micromeritics, entrapment efficiency, vesicle shape, size, and degree of deformability. The values of particle size and zeta potential of the developed carrier system were found to be 453.7 nm and - 11...
August 11, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801087/cause-of-acute-encephalitis-encephalopathy-in-japanese-children-diagnosed-by-a-rapid-and-comprehensive-virological-detection-system-and-differences-in-their-clinical-presentations
#3
Kei Takasawa, Ryuichi Nakagawa, Shigeru Takishima, Kengo Moriyama, Ken Watanabe, Koji Kiyohara, Takeshi Hasegawa, Masahiro Shimohira, Kenichi Kashimada, Norio Shimizu, Tomohiro Morio
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis/encephalopathy (AE/E) is a rare and severe complication of common childhood infections; however, a treatment strategy based on clinical and pathological evidence has not been established. METHODS: The clinical data and aetiological results using a rapid and comprehensive virological detection system of 62 Japanese children diagnosed with AE/E from 2010 to 2014 were collected. We assessed clinical differences between causes and effectiveness of our multiplex PCR system to establish a pathogen-based treatment strategy for AE/E...
August 8, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783595/surfactants-enhance-recovery-of-poorly-soluble-drugs-during-microdialysis-sampling-implications-for-in-vitro-dissolution-permeation-studies
#4
Sebastian Koplin, Mont Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Annette Bauer-Brandl, Martin Brandl
Aim of this project was to investigate the applicability of a recently developed in vitro microdialysis-sampling approach in connection with a dissolution-/permeation (D/P) system, especially the impact of surfactants within the perfusion fluid. The D/P-system is based on side-by-side chambers, separated by a barrier that simulates the intestinal barrier. Here, in contrast to conventional D/P-systems, the dissolution of the drug (donor chamber concentration) is followed by microdialysis sampling. This approach appears promising, because it is expected not to disturb the dynamic interplay between drug-dissolution (-release) and drug permeation...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780467/in-vitro-schistosomicidal-and-antiviral-activities-of-arctium-lappa-l-asteraceae-against-schistosoma-mansoni-and-herpes-simplex-virus-1
#5
Mirna Meana Dias, Ohana Zuza, Lorena R Riani, Priscila de Faria Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva Pinto, Marcos P Silva, Josué de Moraes, Ana Caroline Z Ataíde, Fernanda de Oliveira Silva, Alzira Batista Cecílio, Ademar A Da Silva Filho
Schistosomiasis and herpes diseases represent serious issues to the healthcare systems, infecting a large number of people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), known as "bardana" and "burdock", is a medicinal plant popularly used for several purposes, including as antiseptic. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of the crude extract of A. lappa, which have not yet been described. Fruits of A. lappa L. were extracted by maceration with ethanol: H2O (96:4 v/v) in order to obtain the hydroalcoholic extract of A...
August 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770489/in-silico-absorption-analysis-of-valacyclovir-in-wildtype-and-pept1-knockout-mice-following-oral-dose-escalation
#6
Bei Yang, David E Smith
PURPOSE: We developed simulation and modeling methods to predict the in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of acyclovir, following escalating oral doses of valacyclovir, in wildtype and Pept1 knockout mice. We also quantitated the contribution of specific intestinal segments in the absorption of valacyclovir in these mice. METHODS: Simulations were conducted using a mechanistic advanced compartmental absorption and transit (ACAT) model implemented in GastroPlus™. Simulations were performed for 3 h post-dose in wildtype and Pept1 knockout mice following single oral doses of 10, 25, 50 and 100 nmol/g valacyclovir, and compared to experimentally observed plasma concentration-time profiles of acyclovir...
August 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765478/valacyclovir-associated-neurotoxicity-treated-with-intensification-of-peritoneal-dialysis
#7
Bhanu Prasad, Mark McIsaac, Julie Toppings
We report a 57-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD), who presented to the emergency room (ER) by ambulance with complaints of confusion and altered sensorium for 48 hours. She had been reviewed in a walk-in clinic 72 hours earlier and had been prescribed the standard 1000 mg three times per day of valacyclovir for an acute attack of shingles instead of 500 mg once a day on ESRD. In the ER, she received further 500 mg of intravenous acyclovir as herpes encephalitis was clinically suspected...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740102/niosomes-a-strategy-toward-prevention-of-clinically-significant-drug-incompatibilities
#8
Hebatallah B Mohamed, Sohair M El-Shanawany, Mostafa A Hamad, Mahmoud Elsabahy
Drug incompatibilities are considered as one of the most critical problems in intensive care units. In the current study, the ability of nanomaterials to prevent drug incompatibilities in clinical settings has been investigated. As a proof-of-concept, the ability of niosomes to prevent physical and chemical incompatibilities that occur upon mixing acyclovir and vancomycin during management of acute meningitis has been explored. Nanosized spherical particles loaded separately with either vancomycin or acyclovir, with high entrapment efficiency (ca...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735059/too-young-to-be-vaccinated-hospitalizations-caused-by-varicella-among-children-in-the-first-year-of-life
#9
Ewelina Gowin, Jacek Wysocki, Michał Michalak, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the causes of hospitalization in the course of varicella in children during the first year of life. METHODS: An analysis was performed of the medical documentation of 359 children hospitalized for varicella on the infectious diseases ward at the Children's Hospital in Poznan (Poland) between January 2007 and August 2015. RESULTS: Of the 359 children in the study group, 96 were younger than 1 year old...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733481/focal-cerebral-arteriopathy-do-steroids-improve-outcome
#10
Maja Steinlin, Sandra Bigi, Belinda Stojanovski, Jay Gajera, Maria Regényi, Marwan El-Koussy, Mark T Mackay
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Focal cerebral arteriopathy accounts for up to 35% of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in children and is the most important predictor of stroke recurrence. The study objective was to compare outcomes for children with focal cerebral arteriopathy treated with combined corticosteroid antithrombotic treatment (CAT) to those receiving antithrombotic treatment (AT) alone. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective Swiss/Australian cohort study analyzed consecutive children, aged 1 month to 18 years, presenting with first AIS because of a focal cerebral arteriopathy from 2000 to 2014...
July 21, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725322/recurrent-body-rash-warranted-second-desensitization-with-acyclovir-in-a-myeloma-patient-a-case-report
#11
Jack T Seki, Pamela Ng, Wallace Lam, Julie Cote, Anca Prica
A 75-year-old woman developed a moderately severe rash about a week and a half after the start of bortezomib (Btb)-based chemotherapy for IgG lambda multiple myeloma; at the time, she was also receiving acyclovir as antiviral prophylaxis in addition to herpes zoster (HZ) vaccination. HZ reactivation rate is high in Btb recipients; therefore, the timing of antiviral prevention is critical in relation to Btb. Attempts were made to identify the offending agent based on the timing of drugs administered and the appearance of skin lesions in relation to other drugs...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722502/chemical-analysis-and-antiviral-activity-evaluation-of-baccharis-anomala
#12
Caroline Rita Venturi, Srgio Augusto De Loreto Bordignon, Paulo Michel Roehe, Jarbas Alves Montanha, Samuel Paulo Cibulski, Grace Gosmann
The chemical composition and antiviral activity of aqueous extract from Baccharis anomala was studied by bioactivity-guided fractionation. Ethanol precipitation and fractionation by molecular permeation allowed the separation of the anti-herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) active fraction from aqueous extract (Fraction B). Natural Product Reagent A, FeCl3 and thin-layer chromatography indicated the presence of phenolic compounds in the aqueous extract. Fraction B showed pronounced antiviral activity when tested with HSV-1 strains VR733/ATCC and Acyclovir-resistant 29-R, displaying virucidal but not virustatic activity...
July 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717975/development-of-a-novel-polymeric-nanocomposite-complex-for-drugs-with-low-bioavailability
#13
Mduduzi N Sithole, Yahya E Choonara, Lisa C du Toit, Pradeep Kumar, Thashree Marimuthu, Pierre P D Kondiah, Viness Pillay
Semi-synthetic biopolymer complex (SSBC) nanoparticles were investigated as a potential oral drug delivery system to enhance the bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble model drug acyclovir (ACV). The SSBCs were prepared from cross-linking of hydroxyl groups on hyaluronic acid (HA) with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) resulting in ether linkages. Thereafter, conjugation of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) onto HA-PAA was accomplished using a 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-promoted coupling reaction...
July 17, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717094/limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-human-herpesvirus-7-hhv-7-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-the-first-reported-case-in-japan
#14
Yoko Aburakawa, Takayuki Katayama, Tsukasa Saito, Jun Sawada, Tatsuo Suzutani, Hitoshi Aizawa, Naoyuki Hasebe
A 35-year-old male who had not previously suffered any major illnesses was admitted to our hospital because of general fatigue, fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disturbance, and seizures. A neurological examination showed that he was in a semi-comatose state and exhibited neck stiffness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging detected high-intensity areas in the bilateral hippocampi and periventricular white matter. A cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mononuclear pleocytosis, an elevated protein level, and positivity for human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) DNA...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711432/inactivated-orf-virus-shows-disease-modifying-antiviral-activity-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-genital-herpesvirus-infection
#15
Astrid Friebe, Angela Siegling, Olaf Weber
BACKGROUND: Inactivated Orf virus (iORFV) has been used as a preventative as well as a therapeutic immunomodulator in veterinary medicine in different species. iORFV elicits strong effects on cytokine secretion in mice and human immune cells leading to an auto-regulated loop of initial up-regulation of inflammatory and Th1-related cytokines followed by Th2-related cytokines that attenuate immunopathology. The therapeutic potential of iORFV has been recognized in several models for difficult-to-treat disease areas such as chronic viral diseases, liver fibrosis or various forms of cancer...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705621/functionalized-pla-peg-nanoparticles-targeting-intestinal-transporter-pept1-for-oral-delivery-of-acyclovir
#16
Betty Gourdon, Caroline Chemin, Amélie Moreau, Thomas Arnauld, Philippe Baumy, Salvatore Cisternino, Jean-Manuel Péan, Xavier Declèves
Targeting intestinal di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1 with prodrugs is a successful strategy to improve oral drug bioavailability, as demonstrated with valacyclovir, a prodrug of acyclovir. The aim of this new drug delivery strategy is to over-concentrate a poorly absorbed drug on the intestinal membrane surface by targeting PepT1 with functionalized polymer nanoparticles. In the present study, poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-ligand (PLA-PEG-ligand) nanoparticles were obtained by nanoprecipitation...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704950/structure-activity-relationships-of-acyclic-selenopurine-nucleosides-as-antiviral-agents
#17
Pramod K Sahu, Tamima Umme, Jinha Yu, Gyudong Kim, Shuhao Qu, Siddhi D Naik, Lak Shin Jeong
A series of acyclic selenopurine nucleosides 3a-f and 4a-g were synthesized based on the bioisosteric rationale between oxygen and selenium, and then evaluated for antiviral activity. Among the compounds tested, seleno-acyclovir (4a) exhibited the most potent anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 (EC50 = 1.47 µM) and HSV-2 (EC50 = 6.34 µM) activities without cytotoxicity up to 100 µM, while 2,6-diaminopurine derivatives 4e-g exhibited significant anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) activity, which is slightly more potent than the guanine derivative 4d, indicating that they might act as prodrugs of seleno-ganciclovir (4d)...
July 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694636/delayed-facial-palsy-after-microvascular-decompression-report-of-two-cases
#18
G Lakshmi Prasad, Vinod Kumar, Girish Menon
Microvascular decompression (MVD) is a novel surgical procedure predominantly performed for treating trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HS). Multiple studies have proven the long-term success of MVD for both these conditions. The most common complications of MVD reported include chemical meningitis, facial hypesthesia, cerebrospinal fluid leak, facial paresis, and hearing loss. Delayed facial palsy (DFP) is an uncommon complication mostly noted in MVD for HS and after the removal of acoustic tumors...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680648/treating-refractory-post-herpetic-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-with-rituximab
#19
Christine Strippel, Constanze Mönig, Kristin S Golombeck, Andre Dik, Kathrin Bönte, Stjepana Kovac, Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth, Andreas Johnen, Catharina C Gross, Nico Melzer
Herpes simplex virus-1 has been identified as the trigger factor in certain cases of NMDA-receptor autoimmune encephalitis. We report on a 67-year-old female patient, who was severely affected by post-herpetic NMDA-receptor autoimmune encephalitis. Her symptoms did not improve under methylprednisolone pulse therapy and plasma exchange under acyclovir prophylaxis. She received protein A immunoadsorption and a long-term immunosuppression with rituximab. Under treatment, activated T-cells as well as B- and plasma cells decreased in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and anti-NMDA-R IgG titers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid declined with near complete cessation of intrathecal autoantibody synthesis...
July 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667541/serotonergic-medications-herbal-supplements-and-perioperative-serotonin-syndrome
#20
Mary E Warner, Julian Naranjo, Emily M Pollard, Toby N Weingarten, Mark A Warner, Juraj Sprung
PURPOSE: Perioperative use of serotonergic agents increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. We describe the occurrence of serotonin syndrome after fentanyl use in two patients taking multiple serotonergic agents. CLINICAL FEATURES: Two patients who had been taking multiple serotonergic medications or herbal supplements (one patient taking fluoxetine, turmeric supplement, and acyclovir; the other taking fluoxetine and trazodone) developed serotonin syndrome perioperatively when undergoing outpatient procedures...
June 30, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
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