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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653205/varicella-zoster-virus-reactivation-in-adult-survivors-of-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-how-do-we-best-protect-our-patients
#1
REVIEW
Catherine J Lee, Bipin N Savani, Per Ljungman
Reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) remains a significant public health burden for long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation. Delayed immune reconstitution after transplantation due to immunosuppression, posttransplant therapies, poor engraftment, and graft-versus-host disease leave a large number of patients at risk for herpes zoster (shingles) and its highly morbid complications. Although prophylaxis with acyclovir or valacyclovir has reduced the incidence of VZV reactivation as long as prophylaxis is continued, the incidence of disease in the late posttransplant period or after stopping prophylaxis is greater in the HCT population than the general public...
April 10, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648682/elderly-onset-varicella-pneumonia-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-taking-tofacitinib
#2
Nobuya Abe, Takashi Kudo, Satoshi Jodo
A 68-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis, who was treated with tofacitinib, a type of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, was admitted for dyspnea and generalized purpuric vesicular rash, following 3 days of fever and malaise. She developed hypoxia from respiratory insufficiency. On physical examination, the systemic eruptions had an erythematous base and were present in various stages, from maculopapular to vesicular and pustular, with crusting (left). Chest radiograph demonstrated diffuse infiltrates with reticular and nodular lesions in the bilateral lung fields (right)...
April 12, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642603/acyclovir-loaded-chitosan-nanospheres-from-nano-emulsion-templating-for-the-topical-treatment-of-herpesviruses-infections
#3
Manuela Donalisio, Federica Leone, Andrea Civra, Rita Spagnolo, Ozgen Ozer, David Lembo, Roberta Cavalli
Acyclovir is not a good candidate for passive permeation since its polarity and solubility limit is partitioning into the stratum corneum. This work aims to develop a new topical formulation for the acyclovir delivery. New chitosan nanospheres (NS) were prepared by a modified nano-emulsion template method. Chitosan NS were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and an in vitro release study. The in vitro skin permeation experiment was carried out using Franz cells and was equipped with porcine skin...
April 10, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625169/effects-of-cationic-liposomes-with-stearylamine-against-virus-infection
#4
Kohei Tahara, Manami Kobayashi, Satoko Yoshida, Risako Onodera, Naoki Inoue, Hirofumi Takeuchi
In this study, we demonstrated that cationic liposomes with incorporated stearylamine (SA) inhibit viral infectivity without preloaded active pharmaceutical ingredients. Specifically, we correlated physiochemical properties of liposomes, such as zeta potentials and particle sizes, with virus infectivity using the BacMam™ reagent, which is based on recombinant baculovirus (BV). Compared with neutral or negatively-charged liposomes, SA liposomes suppressed BV infectivity in several mammalian cell lines, including A549 cells...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604421/study-on-antiviral-activities-drug-likeness-and-molecular-docking-of-bioactive-compounds-of-punica-granatum-l-to-herpes-simplex-virus-2-hsv-2
#5
Jagadheesan Arunkumar, Swaminathan Rajarajan
Herpes simplex virus - 2 (HSV-2) causes lifelong persisting infection in the immunocompromised host and intermittent in healthy individuals with high morbidity and also increase the transmission of HIV. Acyclovir is widely used drug to treat HSV-2 infection but is unable to control viral latency and recurrent infection and prolonged usage lead to drug resistance. Plant-based bioactive compounds are the lead structural bio-molecules play an inevitable role as a potential antiviral agent with reduced toxicity...
March 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602924/the-study-of-leukocyte-phagocytic-activity-in-the-presence-of-herpetic-infection-and-stroke
#6
Natalia V Motorna, Svetlana L Rybalko, Daria B Starosyla, Mykhailo M Guzyk, Iryna G Strokina, Rostyslav F Kaminsky, Alina V Korsak, Sergey I Savosko, Liudmyla M Sokurenko, Yurii B Chaikovsky
OBJECTIVE: Inrtoduction: Post-stroke complications are one of the urgent and insufficiently resolved problems. According to different literature data 23% to 65% of patients suffer from the post-stroke development of an infectious process. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 can also be etiological factors of stroke development, however their reactivation is seldom mentioned in clinical observations. The development of immune suppression is considered to be the cause of these complications...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602045/chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-new-derivatives-of-glycyrrhetinic-acid-with-antiviral-activity-molecular-docking-study
#7
M Antonela Zígolo, Maximiliano Salinas, Laura Alché, Alicia Baldessari, Guadalupe García Liñares
We present an efficient approach to the synthesis of a series of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives. Six derivatives, five of them new compounds, were obtained through chemoenzymatic reactions in very good to excellent yield. In order to find the optimal reaction conditions, the influence of various parameters such as enzyme source, nucleophile:substrate ratio, enzyme:substrate ratio, solvent and temperature was studied. The excellent results obtained by lipase catalysis made the procedure very efficient considering their advantages such as mild reaction conditions and low environmental impact...
March 19, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601626/successful-therapy-of-severe-oro-labial-herpes-simplex-with-muco-adhesive-acyclovir
#8
Ted Rosen
Although muco-adhesive acyclovir 50mg tablets are only approved for the management of recurrent oro-labial HSV-1 infections, their ability to achieve extremely high concentrations in saliva and oral tissues suggests the potential for other uses. In this case, the agent was successfully utilized as a single tablet monotherapy leading to rapid clinical resolution of severe post-operative oro-labial infection. <p><em>J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):479-480.</em></p>.
April 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571124/prevention-and-management-of-genital-herpes-simplex-infection-during-pregnancy-and-delivery-guidelines-from-the-french-college-of-gynaecologists-and-obstetricians-cngof
#9
REVIEW
Marie-Victoire Sénat, Olivia Anselem, Olivier Picone, Laurent Renesme, Nicolas Sananès, Christelle Vauloup-Fellous, Yann Sellier, Jean-Pierre Laplace, Loïc Sentilhes
OBJECTIVE: Identify measures to diagnose, prevent, and treat genital herpes infection during pregnancy and childbirth as well as neonatal herpes infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bibliographic search from the Medline and Cochrane Library databases and review of international clinical practice guidelines. RESULTS: Genital herpes lesions are most often due to HSV-2 (LE2). The risk of HSV seroconversion during pregnancy is 1-5% (LE2). Genital herpes lesions during pregnancy in a woman with a history of genital herpes is a recurrence...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565203/management-of-herpes-zoster-shingles-during-pregnancy
#10
Khalea Hayward, Abigail Cline, Angela Stephens, Linda Street
An infection with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella and herpes zoster (HZ). Although rare, the development of HZ does occur during pregnancy. Maternal HZ does not result in increased foetal mortality, and the passage of VZV to the foetus rarely occurs. However, HZ does increase maternal morbidity. Upon infection with HZ, patients typically present with a viral prodrome preceding the appearance of the characteristic zoster rash. HZ is usually diagnosed clinically by the zoster rash, but can also be confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564192/herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-atypical-presentation-as-a-right-middle-cerebral-artery-stroke
#11
Maria Shoaib, Jacqueline J Kraus, Muhammad T Khan
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is a medical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. Definitive diagnosis is established by history, clinical examination, neuroimaging studies, supportive electroencephalogram (EEG) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. We report a case of HSVE presenting as a stroke mimic in a 76-year-old female with a history of atrial fibrillation on warfarin. She was admitted to our medical intensive care unit with intermittent fever, lethargy, and new onset left-sided hemiparesis...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563125/sequential-retinal-necrosis-secondary-to-varicella-zoster-in-unrecognised-long-standing-hiv-infection-patient-safety-report
#12
Brigid Ky Ning, Simon P Kelly, Celia Chu, Emile Morgan
A retired woman with left ophthalmic shingles of over 2 years' duration attended with bilateral vision loss and systemic upset. Acute retinal necrosis with detachment was detected on right fundus examination. Cataract in left eye precluded funduscopy. Ocular ultrasonography revealed fibrotic retinal detachment in the left eye. MRI brain and orbits also showed signals of retinal detachment. No abnormal MRI signal within the optic nerve or brain was found. Varicella zoster virus was detected in ocular aqueous and blood samples...
March 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554007/case-series-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus-with-acute-orbital-inflammation
#13
Eunoo Bak, Namju Kim, Sang In Khwarg, Ho-Kyung Choung
SIGNIFICANCE: Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) has variable initial manifestations, and acute orbital inflammation may be the first sign without apparent zoster rash. This case series is significant for presenting diverse clinical features and treatment options of HZO with acute orbital inflammation. PURPOSE: To report a case series of patients diagnosed as HZO with acute orbital inflammation including two cases with unique presentations. CASE REPORTS: Medical records of four patients of HZO with acute orbital inflammation were reviewed...
March 16, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544668/neonatal-herpes-simplex-virus-infections
#14
REVIEW
Swetha G Pinninti, David W Kimberlin
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an uncommon but devastating infection in the newborn, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of PCR for identification of infected infants and acyclovir for treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for affected infants. The subsequent use of suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir following completion of parenteral treatment of acute disease has further enhanced the long-term prognosis for these infants. This review article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and routes of acquisition, clinical presentation, and evaluation of an infant suspected to have the infection, and treatment of proven neonatal HSV disease...
March 12, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536938/not-all-that-vesicles-is-herpes
#15
Robert R Gruhl, Andrew Wu, Micah Niermann, Andrew Olson
BACKGROUND: Eczema coxsackium (EC) can manifest in patients with underlying atopic dermatitis (AD) as a diffuse vesicular rash in a febrile child. The presentation overlaps clinically with the feared diagnosis of eczema herpeticum (EH), which makes differentiating between the conditions very important. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6-month-old girl with known AD presented with fever and rapidly spreading vesicular rash. The patient had multiple exposures including a new antibiotic prescription, introduction of new foods, 6-month vaccinations and a sick contact...
November 27, 2017: Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532442/vernet-syndrome-resulting-from-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-a-very-rare-clinical-presentation-of-a-common-viral-infection
#16
João Ferreira, Ana Franco, Tiago Teodoro, Miguel Coelho, Luísa Albuquerque
Vernet syndrome is a unilateral palsy of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has rarely been described as a possible cause. A 76-year-old man presented with 1-week-long symptoms of dysphonia, dysphagia, and weakness of the right shoulder elevation, accompanied by a mild right temporal parietal headache with radiation to the ipsilateral ear. Physical examination showed signs compatible with a right XI, X, and XI cranial nerves involvement and also several vesicular lesions in the right ear's concha...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523605/lead-in-a-case-of-encephalopathy
#17
Amy Talbot, Carys Lippiatt, Avanish Tantry
A 2-year-old boy with a history of pica was admitted with vomiting and treated overnight for viral tonsillitis. A week later, he presented with a prolonged afebrile seizure and required intubation and ventilation. Antibiotics and acyclovir were started. Despite extensive investigations including MRI head, no cause was identified. Four days later, he deteriorated with signs of raised intracranial pressure. On day 5, blood lead concentration in the sample collected at admission was reported as grossly elevated, consistent with a diagnosis of severe lead poisoning from ingesting lead-containing paint at the family home...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521211/acyclovir-in-the-treatment-of-herpes-viruses-a-review
#18
Katarzyna Klysik, Aneta Pietraszek, Anna Karewicz, Maria Nowakowska
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex (HSV) viruses are widely spread, highly contagious human pathogens. The statistics indicate that 50-90% of adults worldwide are seropositive for these viruses, mainly HSV-1 and HSV-2. The primary infection results in the appearance of watery blisters (cold sores) on the skin, lips, tongue, buccal mucosa or genitals. The ocular infection is the major cause of corneal blindness in the Western World. Once the HSV virus enters human body it cannot be completely eradicated because HSV viruses are able to change into their latent form which can survive the treatment...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519969/-an-autopsy-case-of-meningoencephalitis-and-cerebral-infarction-that-developed-with-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-and-disseminated-herpes-zoster
#19
Nobuo Yamashiro, Takamura Nagasaka, Naoki Ooishi, Mai Tsuchiya, Ryusuke Takaki, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Kazumasa Shindo, Yoshihisa Takiyama
We report here the clinical presentation and subsequent autopsy of a 90-year-old man who developed small papules with pain and swelling in his right ear. On admission, he exhibited right facial nerve paralysis, neck stiffness and Kernig's sign. The cell count was elevated and the varicella-zoster virus-PCR was positive in the CSF. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in the left pons and left temporal lobe, in FLAIR images. We diagnosed the patient with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and meningoencephalitis due to varicella-zoster virus...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503961/shingles-as-the-underlying-cause-of-orbital-myositis-in-an-adolescent-a-case-report
#20
Christopher D Conrady, Richard M Feist, Alison Crum
Purpose: Orbital myositis is characterized by pain with eye movements, gaze restriction, diplopia, and enlargement of extraocular muscles on imaging. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an extremely rare cause of the disease in the elderly and has never been reported in a patient younger than forty-five years old such as the adolescent described herein. We present this case to raise awareness of an entity that will likely become more prevalent due to current vaccine strategies. Observation: We present the case of a 13-year-old girl with VZV-associated orbital myositis and meningitis that had a quick and complete recovery following IV acyclovir and oral steroids...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
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