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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643544/varicella-zoster-meningovasculitis-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-patient-treated-with-natalizumab
#1
Patricia Mulero, Cristina Auger, Laura Parolin, Elena Fonseca, Manuel Requena, Jordi Rio, Mar Tintoré, Alex Rovira, Xavier Montalban
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab is associated with the occasional occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). While natalizumab-associated PML is well described in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, herpes and other infections have rarely been reported. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of varicella-zoster (VZV) meningovasculitis in a MS patient treated with natalizumab. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 48-year-old woman diagnosed with MS in treatment with natalizumab (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): 4...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638546/comparing-the-effect-of-diode-laser-against-acyclovir-cream-for-the-treatment-of-herpes-labialis
#2
Marieh Honarmand, Leila Farhadmollashahi, Ehsan Vosoughirahbar
BACKGROUND: Recently alternative therapies such as the use of diode laser therapy have been introduced for recurrent herpes labial infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diode laser for treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was single-blind randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of diode laser for the treatment of recurrent herpes labial. In total, 60 patients whit recurrent herpes simplex labialis were selected and randomly divided in to three groups...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637937/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-presenting-as-stroke-like-symptoms-with-atypical-mri-findings-and-lacking-cerebrospinal-fluid-pleocytosis
#3
Shintaro Tsuboguchi, Takahiro Wakasugi, Yoshitaka Umeda, Maiko Umeda, Mutsuo Oyake, Nobuya Fujita
A 73-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of right hemiparesis and was diagnosed as having cerebral infarction on the basis of diffusion-weighted brain MRI, which demonstrated lesions in the left parietal cortex. On the 3rd day, the patient developed right upper limb myoclonus, aphasia, and disturbance of consciousness with high fever. On the 6th day, she was transferred to our hospital with suspected viral encephalitis, and treatment with acyclovir was started. By the 6th day, the lesions detected by MRI had expanded to the gyrus cinguli, insula and thalamus, but not to the temporal lobe...
June 21, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637759/role-of-jnk-pathway-in-varicella-zoster-virus-lytic-infection-and-reactivation
#4
Sravya Kurapati, Tomohiko Sadaoka, Labchan Rajbhandari, Balaji Jagdish, Priya Shukla, Yong Jun Kim, Gabsang Lee, Jeffrey I Cohen, Arun Venkatesan
Mechanisms of neuronal infection by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have been challenging to study due to the relatively strict human tropism of the virus and the paucity of tractable experimental models. Cellular mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to play a role in VZV infection of non-neuronal cells, with distinct consequences on infectivity in differing cell types. Here, we utilize several human neuronal culture systems to investigate the role of one such MAPK, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in VZV lytic infection and reactivation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629987/anti-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-activity-of-houttuynoid-a-a-new-flavonoid-from-houttuynia-cordata-thunb
#5
Ting Li, Libao Liu, Hongling Wu, Shaodan Chen, Qinchang Zhu, Hao Gao, Xiongtao Yu, Yi Wang, Wenhan Su, Xinsheng Yao, Tao Peng
Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection reactivate latent human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human papillomavirus in the presence of acyclovir (ACV). The common use of nucleoside analog medications, such as ACV and pencyclovir, has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant HSV-1 strains in clinical therapy. Therefore, new antiherpetics that can inhibit early events in HSV-1 infection should be developed. An example of this treatment is Houttuynia cordata Thunb. water extract, which can inhibit HSV-1 infection through multiple mechanisms...
June 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628881/photodegradation-and-ecotoxicology-of-acyclovir-in-water-under-uv254-and-uv254-h2o2-processes
#6
Danilo Russo, Antonietta Siciliano, Marco Guida, Emilia Galdiero, Angela Amoresano, Roberto Andreozzi, Nuno M Reis, Gianluca Li Puma, Raffaele Marotta
The photochemical and ecotoxicological fate of acyclovir (ACY) through UV254 direct photolysis and in the presence of hydroxyl radicals (UV254/H2O2 process) were investigated in a microcapillary film (MCF) array photoreactor, which provided ultrarapid and accurate photochemical reaction kinetics. The UVC phototransformation of ACY was found to be unaffected by pH in the range from 4.5 to 8.0 and resembled an apparent autocatalytic reaction. The proposed mechanism included the formation of a photochemical intermediate (ϕACY = (1...
June 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619012/genetic-analysis-of-varicella-zoster-virus-in-the-aqueous-humor-in-uveitis-with-severe-hyphema
#7
Mayumi Hosogai, Yoko Nakatani, Kensuke Mimura, Shoji Kishi, Hideo Akiyama
BACKGROUND: Genetic variations have been identified in the genome of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strains using vesicle fluid, varicella scabs and throat swab samples. We report a rare case of VZV-associated uveitis with severe hyphema, which was immediately diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the aqueous humor, in which we were able to analyze the VZV genotype for the first time. CASE PRESENTATION: A 16-year-old Japanese boy was referred to our hospital with a 20-day history of unilateral anterior uveitis and 11-day history of hyphema...
June 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618165/herpes-simplex-virus-2-transmission-following-solid-organ-transplantation-donor-derived-infection-and-transplantation-from-prior-organ-recipients
#8
Nenad Macesic, Ian J Abbott, Matthew Kaye, Julian Druce, Allan R Glanville, Paul J Gow, Peter D Hughes, Tony M Korman, William R Mulley, Phillip J O'Connell, Helen Opdam, Miranda Paraskeva, Matthew C Pitman, Stella Setyapranata, William D Rawlinson, Paul D R Johnson
BACKGROUND: Owing to limited availability of donor organs, previous solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are increasingly considered as potential organ donors. We report donor-derived transmission of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) to two clusters of SOT recipients with transmission from the original donor and an HSV-2-infected recipient who subsequently became a donor. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of the donors and recipients in both clusters. Pre-transplant serology and virological features of HSV-2 were characterized...
June 15, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616693/-tinea-barbae-profunda-due-to-trichophyton-mentagrophytes-after-journey-to-thailand-case-report-and-review
#9
REVIEW
G Wendrock-Shiga, D Mechtel, S Uhrlaß, D Koch, C Krüger, P Nenoff
Tinea barbae represents a very rare dermatophytosis. We report on a tinea barbae profunda following a journey to Southeast Asia. After travel to Thailand, a businessman was affected by a foudroyant proceeding abscessing infection of the upper lip and beard area. The initial therapy with oral acyclovir and oral ciprofloxacin, which later was changed to ampicillin plus sulbactam, intravenously, was unsuccessful. In a biopsy sample, histologically, with Grocott-Gomori's methenamine silver stain, fungal mycelium was apparent in the tissue...
June 14, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605929/tissue-necrosis-following-extravasation-of-acyclovir-in-an-adolescent-a-case-report
#10
Charalambos Neocleous, Eleni Andonopoulou, Alkistis Adramerina, Antigoni Pegkou, Olga Savelieva, Petroula Georgiadou, Ioannis Drikos
OBJECTIVE: Extravasation of intravenously infused vesicant solutions is a common problem in medical practice, which can lead to severe and progressive tissue dysfunction, ranging from persistent tissue oedema and fibrosis to delayed tissue necrosis. Acyclovir is a known vesicant medication administrated in paediatric patients, which appears to irritate venous and soft tissue if extravasated. CASE REPORT: We present the first case involving the extravasation of intravenously infused acyclovir in a female adolescent patient, which caused tissue necrosis and left behind a residual scar lesion...
May 2017: Acta Medica Academica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605686/solid-state-cocrystal-formation-between-acyclovir-and-fumaric-acid-terahertz-and-raman-vibrational-spectroscopic-studies
#11
Qiang Cai, Jiadan Xue, Qiqi Wang, Yong Du
The vibrational spectra of solid-state acyclovir, fumaric acid and their cocrystal have been investigated by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. In experimental THz spectra, the cocrystal has absorption peaks in 0.65, 0.94 and 1.10THz respectively, while the raw materials are absolutely different in this region. Raman spectra also show similar results about differences between the cocrystal and raw materials. Density functional theory (DFT) was performed to simulate vibrational modes of different theoretical forms between acyclovir and fumaric acid...
June 9, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601523/effect-of-grinding-on-the-solid-state-stability-and-particle-dissolution-of-acyclovir-polymorphs
#12
Federico Magnoni, Maria Rosa Gigliobianco, Dolores Vargas Peregrina, Roberta Censi, Piera Di Martino
The present work investigated the solid state change of four acyclovir polymorphs when ground at room temperature (Method A) and under cryo-grinding in the presence of liquid nitrogen (Method B). Modifications in particle size and shape (evaluated by scanning electron microscopy) and in the water content (evaluated by thermal analysis) were related to transitions at the solid state, as confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometry. Anhydrous Form I was stable under grinding by both methods A and B. The anhydrous Form II was stable during grinding under Method A, while it was progressively converted to the hydrate Form V during grinding under Method B...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594343/modeling-hsv-1-latency-in-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#13
Aldo Pourchet, Aram S Modrek, Dimitris G Placantonakis, Ian Mohr, Angus C Wilson
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) uses latency in peripheral ganglia to persist in its human host, however, recurrent reactivation from this reservoir can cause debilitating and potentially life-threatening disease. Most studies of latency use live-animal infection models, but these are complex, multilayered systems and can be difficult to manipulate. Infection of cultured primary neurons provides a powerful alternative, yielding important insights into host signaling pathways controlling latency. However, small animal models do not recapitulate all aspects of HSV-1 infection in humans and are limited in terms of the available molecular tools...
June 8, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576448/stepwise-characterization-of-non-synonymous-mutations-in-the-hsv-1-thymidine-kinase-gene-by-different-functional-assays
#14
Marisa Kaspar, Kathrin Bohn-Wippert, Peter Bellstedt, Sabine Häfner, Matthias Görlach, Andreas Sauerbrei
Twenty amino acid substitutions in the thymidine kinase (TK) of clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 strains were assessed for conferring acyclovir (ACV) resistance. Site-directed mutagenesis, cell-free protein synthesis and protein expression in Escherichia coli were performed to obtain recombinant TK proteins, which were authenticated by Western blotting. A modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to determine the phosphorylation activity of the mutants towards 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570955/-1-h-nmr-spectral-identification-of-medication-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-pediatric-meningitis
#15
Shayne Mason, Carolus J Reinecke, Regan Solomons, Ron A Wevers, Udo F H Engelke
Exploratory metabolomics studies of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, hold major potential application in neurodiagnostics. Such studies, however, rely upon established databases of known metabolites. Here we address the 'unknowns' in the (1)H NMR spectra of CSF from treated pediatric meningitis cases. Through knowledge of the clinical information given by the pediatrician and analytical application of (1)H NMR spectroscopy on pure reference compounds of the medication used, we identified four of the previously unknown compounds in the (1)H NMR CSF spectra - the drugs pyrazinamide, isoniazid, acyclovir, and sulfamethoxazole...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545483/encephalitis-associated-with-human-herpesvirus-7-infection-in-an-immunocompetent-adult
#16
Mónica Parra, Adoración Alcala, Cristina Amoros, Anna Baeza, Antonio Galiana, David Tarragó, Miguel Ángel García-Quesada, Victoria Sánchez-Hellín
BACKGROUND: Primary Human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) infection usually occurs during childhood and causes several clinical manifestations: mainly exanthem subitum (roseola infantum), followed by a lifelong latent state with possible reactivation in case of immunodeficiency. Nevertheless, some considerably different approaches exist regarding the natural history of HHV-7 and the possible consequences of HHV-7 infection in immunocompetent adults. In particular, little is known about its pathogenic role in central nervous system (CNS) disease in nonimmunosuppressed adults...
May 25, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539913/herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-myelitis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Raffaele Nardone, Viviana Versace, Francesco Brigo, Frediano Tezzon, Giulio Zuccoli, Slaven Pikija, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner
Non-traumatic myelopathies can result from a wide spectrum of conditions including inflammatory, ischemic, and metabolic disorders. Here, we describe the case of a 60-year old immunocompetent woman who developed acute back pain followed by rapidly ascending flaccid tetraparesis, a C6 sensory level, and sphincter dysfunction within 8 h. Acyclovir and steroids were started on day 2 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bilateral anterior horn tractopathy expanding from C2 to T2 and cervicothoracic cord swelling...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536762/bilateral-acute-retinal-necrosis-after-bilateral-cataract-surgery-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-a-case-report
#18
Chun Yue Mak, Helena Pui-Yee Sin, Mary Ho, Vesta Cheuk-Ki Chan, Alvin Lerrmann Young, Marten Erik Brelen
PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral varicella zoster virus (VZV)-associated acute retinal necrosis (ARN) occurring after both eyes sequential cataract surgery in an elderly immunocompromised patient. METHODS: Medical records and investigation results of the patient were reviewed. RESULTS: Patient experienced floaters and blurring of vision in both eyes 4 weeks after her second uncomplicated cataract surgery. Clinical signs of granulomatous keratic precipitates, prominent vitritis, retinitis and vascular thrombosis were noted in both eyes...
May 23, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536235/a-case-of-acyclovir-neurotoxicity-presenting-with-atypical-cerebrospinal-fluid-findings
#19
Guramrinder Singh Thind, Richard Roach
An 82-year-old man with a history of end-stage renal disease presented with progressively worsening confusion and somnolence for the past 4-5 days. The patient was diagnosed with herpes zoster by his primary care physician 5 days ago and was started on a course of valacyclovir 1 g three times a day (dose not adjusted for renal impairment).A lumbar puncture was performed and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies revealed 37 white blood cells (WBCs)/hpf (100% monocytes), protein 64 mg/dL and glucose 52 mg/dL...
May 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534040/elsberg-syndrome-a-rarely-recognized-cause-of-cauda-equina-syndrome-and-lower-thoracic-myelitis
#20
Filippo Savoldi, Timothy J Kaufmann, Eoin P Flanagan, Michel Toledano, Brian G Weinshenker
OBJECTIVE: Elsberg syndrome (ES) is an established but often unrecognized cause of acute lumbosacral radiculitis with myelitis related to recent herpes virus infection. We defined ES, determined its frequency in patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) with myelitis, and evaluated its clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic features and outcomes. METHODS: We searched the Mayo Clinic medical records for ES and subsequently for combinations of index terms to identify patients with suspected CES and myelitis...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
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