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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446325/-current-status-and-future-perspectives-of-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-review
#1
Yan Li, Li Yu
Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies. Primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) is effective for decreasing incidence of IFD, and the patients will be more tolerable to chemotherapy with less cost and better prognosis. Antifungal drugs as fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and micafungin are all recommended for PAP by many consensus and guidelines. The PAP will be more scientific, appropriate and effective with the development of studies about predicting risk-stratification for IFD, new drugs, pharmacokinetics and integrated prophylaxis...
April 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443986/minimal-inhibitory-concentration-distributions-and-epidemiological-cutoff-values-of-five-antifungal-agents-against-sporothrix-brasiliensis
#2
Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Fábio Brito-Santos, Maria Helena Galdino Figueiredo-Carvalho, Ana Caroline Sá Machado, Manoel Marques Evangelista Oliveira, Sandro Antonio Pereira, Maria Clara Gutierrez-Galhardo, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) support the detection of identification of resistant strains. OBJECTIVES: To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S...
May 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433743/the-antibiotic-polymyxin-b-exhibits-novel-antifungal-activity-against-fusarium-species
#3
Li-Hang Hsu, Hsuan-Fu Wang, Pei-Lun Sun, Fung-Rong Hu, Ying-Lien Chen
The genus Fusarium comprises many species, including Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides, and causes severe infections in plants and humans. In clinical settings, Fusarium is the third most frequent mould to cause invasive fungal infections after Aspergillus and the Mucorales. Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum are the most prevalent Fusarium spp. causing clinical disease. However, few effective antifungal drugs are available to treat human and plant Fusarium infections...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427354/unique-case-report-of-a-chromomycosis-and-listeria-in-soft-tissue-and-cerebellar-abscesses-after-kidney-transplantation
#4
J Tourret, N Benabdellah, S Drouin, F Charlotte, J Rottembourg, N Arzouk, A Fekkar, B Barrou
BACKGROUND: Chromomycosis is a rare mycotic infection encountered in tropical and subtropical regions. The disease presents as a slowly-evolving nodule that can become infected with bacteria. Here, we describe a unique association of abscesses caused by a chromomycosis and Listeria monocytogenes in a kidney transplant recipient, and didactically expose how the appropriate diagnosis was reached. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year old male originating from the Caribbean presented a scalp lesion which was surgically removed in his hometown where it was misdiagnosed as a sporotrichosis on histology, 3 years after he received a kidney transplant...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420334/mucormycosis-in-renal-transplant-recipients-review-of-174-reported-cases
#5
Yan Song, Jianjun Qiao, Gaffi Giovanni, Guangjun Liu, Hao Yang, Jianyong Wu, Jianghua Chen
BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a highly lethal fungal infection especially in immunocompromised individuals. METHODS: In order to review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of mucormycosis in renal transplant recipients we searched publications of mucormycosis cases in renal transplant recipients in PUBMED database up to December 2015. RESULTS: A total of 174 cases in renal transplant recipients were included in this review. Most of the cases (76%) were male...
April 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419092/a-multi-centric-study-of-candida-bloodstream-infection-in-lima-callao-peru-species-distribution-antifungal-resistance-and-clinical-outcomes
#6
Lourdes Rodriguez, Beatriz Bustamante, Luz Huaroto, Cecilia Agurto, Ricardo Illescas, Rafael Ramirez, Alberto Diaz, Jose Hidalgo
BACKGROUND: The incidence of candidemia is increasing in developing countries. Very little is known about the epidemiology of candidemia in Peru. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence, microbiology, clinical presentation and outcomes of Candida bloodstream infections in three Lima-Callao hospitals. METHODS: Candida spp. isolates were identified prospectively at participant hospitals between November 2013 and January 2015. Susceptibility testing for amphotericin B, fluconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole and anidulafungin was performed using broth microdilution method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416539/candida-auris-comparison-of-the-eucast-and-clsi-reference-microdilution-mics-for-eight-antifungal-compounds-and-associated-tentative-ecoffs
#7
M C Arendrup, Anupam Prakash, Joseph Meletiadis, Cheshta Sharma, Anuradha Chowdhary
C. auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast. So far, all but two susceptibility testing studies have examined ≤50 isolates and mostly with the CLSI method. We investigated CLSI and EUCAST MICs for 123 C. auris isolates and eight antifungals and evaluated various methods for ECOFF determination.MICs (mg/L) were determined using CLSI M27-A3 and EUCAST E.Def 7.3. ANOVA analysis with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and Pearson analysis were used on log2MICs (significant, p<0.05). The percent agreement (±0->2 two-fold dilutions) between the methods was calculated...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416538/susceptibility-testing-of-common-and-uncommon-aspergillus-species-against-posaconazole-and-other-mold-active-antifungal-azoles-using-the-sensititre-method
#8
Enrica Mello, Brunella Posteraro, Antonietta Vella, Elena De Carolis, Riccardo Torelli, Tiziana D'Inzeo, Paul E Verweij, Maurizio Sanguinetti
We tested 59 common and 27 uncommon Aspergillus species isolates for the susceptibility to the mold-active azole antifungal agents, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, using the Sensititre method. The overall essential agreement with the CLSI reference method was 96.5% for itraconazole and posaconazole, and 100% for voriconazole. By Sensititre, as well as CLSI, all of 10 A. fumigatus isolates with a cyp51 mutant genotype were classified as being non-wild-type (MIC > ECV) to triazoles.
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412452/enhancement-of-dissolution-rate-through-eutectic-mixture-and-solid-solution-of-posaconazole-and-benznidazole
#9
Camila Bezerra Melo Figueirêdo, Daniela Nadvorny, Amanda Carla Quintas de Medeiros Vieira, José Lamartine Soares Sobrinho, Pedro José Rolim Neto, Ping I Lee, Monica Felts de La Roca Soares
Benznidazole (BNZ), the only commercialized antichagasic drug, and the antifungal compound posaconazole (PCZ) have shown synergistic action in the therapy of Chagas disease, however both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) exhibit low aqueous solubility potentially limiting their bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In this paper, we report for the first time the formation of a eutectic mixture as well as an amorphous solid solution of PCZ and BNZ (at the same characteristic ratio of 80:20wt%), which provided enhanced solubility and dissolution rate for both APIs...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409094/successful-treatment-of-azole-resistant-invasive-aspergillosis-in-a-bottlenose-dolphin-with-high-dose-posaconazole
#10
Paulien E Bunskoek, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Steven J M Gans, Peter B J van Vierzen, Willem J G Melchers, Cornelis E van Elk, Johan W Mouton, Paul E Verweij
Invasive aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is difficult to manage. We describe a case of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a female bottlenose dolphin, who failed to respond to voriconazole and posaconazole therapy. As intravenous therapy was precluded, high dose posaconazole was initiated aimed at achieving trough levels exceeding 3 mg/l. Posaconazole serum levels of 3-9.5 mg/l were achieved without significant side-effects. Follow-up bronchoscopy and computed tomography showed complete resolution of the lesions...
June 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405168/the-black-evil-affecting-patients-with-diabetes-a-case-of-rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis-causing-garcin-syndrome
#11
Santhosh Narayanan, Geetha Panarkandy, Gomathy Subramaniam, Chandni Radhakrishnan, N K Thulaseedharan, Neeraj Manikath, Sreejith Ramaswamy, Suma Radhakrishnan, Danish Ekkalayil
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection affecting patients with diabetes. It is an angioinvasive disease often resistant to treatment with a debilitating course and high mortality. Here, we report a case of a 45 year old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented to us with history of right-sided ptosis and facial palsy, and subsequently developed loss of vision and palatal palsy. She was in diabetic ketoacidosis. Nervous system examination revealed involvement of right second, third, fourth, sixth, seventh, ninth, and tenth cranial nerves, suggestive of Garcin syndrome...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381607/antifungal-susceptibility-testing-of-malassezia-spp-with-an-optimized-colorimetric-broth-microdilution-method
#12
Cheryl Leong, Antonino Buttafuoco, Martin Glatz, Philipp P Bosshard
Malassezia is a genus of lipid dependent yeasts. It is associated with common skin diseases such as pityriasis versicolor or atopic dermatitis and can cause systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Owing to slow growth and lipid requirements of these fastidious yeasts, convenient and reliable antifungal drug susceptibility testing assays for Malassezia spp. are not widely available. We have therefore optimized a broth microdilution assay for the testing of Malassezia that is based on the assays from CLSI and EUCAST for Candida and other yeasts...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379304/changes-in-in-vitro-susceptibility-patterns-of-aspergillus-to-triazoles-and-correlation-with-aspergillosis-outcome-in-a-tertiary-care-cancer-center-1999-2015
#13
Sang Taek Heo, Alexander M Tatara, Cristina Jiménez-Ortigosa, Ying Jiang, Russell E Lewis, Jeffrey Tarrand, Frank Tverdek, Nathaniel D Albert, Paul E Verweij, Jacques F Meis, Antonios G Mikos, David S Perlin, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Background.: Azole-resistant aspergillosis in high risk patients with hematological malignancy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a cause of concern. Methods.: We examined changes over time in triazole MICs (CLSI method) of 290 sequential Aspergillus isolates recovered from respiratory sources from 1999-2002 (before introduction of the Aspergillus-potent triazoles voriconazole and posaconazole) and 2003-2015 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. We also tested for polymorphisms in ergosterol biosynthetic genes (cyp51A, erg3C, erg1) in the 37 A...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373148/evaluation-of-the-in-vitro-activity-of-isavuconazole-and-comparator-voriconazole-against-2635-contemporary-clinical-candida-and-aspergillus-isolates
#14
K M T Astvad, R K Hare, M C Arendrup
OBJECTIVE: The in vitro activity of isavuconazole was determined for 1677 Candida and 958 Aspergillus isolates from 2012-2014 with voriconazole as comparator. METHODS: Aspergillus isolates were screened for resistance using azole-agar. Screening positive Aspergillus and all Candida isolates underwent EUCAST broth-microdilution testing. Isolates were categorised as wild-type (wt) or non-wt, adopting EUCAST ECOFFs (where available) or wt upper limits (wtULs; two 2-fold dilutions above the MIC50)...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369489/clinical-effectiveness-of-early-posaconazole-suspension-pre-emptive-therapy-in-lung-transplant-recipients-the-alfred-s-experience
#15
Wirawan Jeong, Greg I Snell, Bronwyn J Levvey, Glen P Westall, C Orla Morrissey, Steven Ivulich, Chin Fen Neoh, Monica A Slavin, David C M Kong
Objectives: This study describes the clinical outcomes and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) following posaconazole suspension pre-emptive therapy in lung transplant (LTx) recipients. Methods: This was a single-centre, retrospective cohort study evaluating posaconazole suspension pre-emptive therapy in LTx recipients between January 2009 and December 2015. Results: Forty-two LTx recipients were prescribed posaconazole suspension pre-emptively...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364558/changing-epidemiology-of-candidaemia-in-australia
#16
Belinda Chapman, Monica Slavin, Debbie Marriott, Catriona Halliday, Sarah Kidd, Ian Arthur, Narin Bak, Christopher H Heath, Karina Kennedy, C Orla Morrissey, Tania C Sorrell, Sebastian van Hal, Caitlin Keighley, Emma Goeman, Neil Underwood, Krispin Hajkowicz, Ann Hofmeyr, Michael Leung, Nenad Macesic, Jeannie Botes, Christopher Blyth, Louise Cooley, C Robert George, Pankaja Kalukottege, Alison Kesson, Brendan McMullan, Robert Baird, Jennifer Robson, Tony M Korman, Stella Pendle, Kerry Weeks, Eunice Liu, Elaine Cheong, Sharon Chen
Objectives: Knowledge of contemporary epidemiology of candidaemia is essential. We aimed to identify changes since 2004 in incidence, species epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida spp. causing candidaemia in Australia. Methods: These data were collected from nationwide active laboratory-based surveillance for candidaemia over 1 year (within 2014-2015). Isolate identification was by MALDI-TOF MS supplemented by DNA sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using Sensititre YeastOne™...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356416/in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-of-the-yeast-and-mould-phases-of-the-dimorphic-fungal-pathogen-emergomyces-africanus-formerly-emmonsia-species-from-hiv-infected-south-african-patients
#17
Tsidiso G Maphanga, Erika Britz, Thokozile G Zulu, Ruth S Mpembe, Serisha D Naicker, Ilan S Schwartz, Nelesh P Govender
Introduction: Disseminated emmonsiosis is an important AIDS-related mycosis in South Africa caused by Emergomyces africanus, a newly-described and -renamed dimorphic fungal pathogen. In vitro antifungal susceptibility data can guide management.Materials and Methods: Identification of invasive clinical isolates was confirmed phenotypically and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region. Yeast and mould-phase MICs for fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, micafungin and flucytosine were determined using custom-made frozen broth microdilution (BMD) panels, as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355463/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-for-invasive-mould-infections-and-disease-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-considerations
#18
Katharine E Stott, William W Hope
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may be required to achieve optimal clinical outcomes in the setting of significant pharmacokinetic variability, a situation that applies to a number of anti-mould therapies. The majority of patients receiving itraconazole should routinely be managed with TDM. Voriconazole exhibits highly variable inter-individual pharmacokinetics, and a trough concentration of 1.0-5.5 mg/L is widely accepted although it is derived from relatively low-quality evidence. The case for TDM of posaconazole is currently in a state of flux following the introduction of a newer tablet formulation with improved oral bioavailability, but it may be indicated when used for either prophylaxis or treatment of established disease...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349614/progressive-histoplasmosis-with-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-and-epithelioid-cell-granulomatosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
A B Schulze, B Heptner, T Kessler, B Baumgarten, V Stoica, M Mohr, R Wiewrodt, V Warneke, W Hartmann, J Wüllenweber, C Schülke, M Schäfers, D Wilmes, K Becker, L H Schmidt, A H Groll, W E Berdel
Histoplasmosis in central Europe is a rare fungal disease with diverse clinical presentations. Apart from acute pulmonary histoplasmosis and involvement of the central nervous system, the most serious clinical presentation is progressive disseminated histoplasmosis which is generally associated with severe immunodeficiency and in particular, advanced HIV-infection. Here we report on an immunocompetent female residing in a non-endemic area, presenting with progressive disseminated histoplasmosis after a remote travel history to Thailand and Costa Rica...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348796/diagnostic-difficulty-identifying-apophysomyces-trapeziformis-septic-arthritis-in-a-patient-with-multiple-myeloma
#20
J Bradford Bertumen, Wiley A Schell, Maria Joyce, Christopher Alley, Christopher W Woods
INTRODUCTION: Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection, but can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Apophysomyces is a mucormycetes species ubiquitous in nature, particularly in soil, decaying wood and other organic matter. Apophysomyces is known to cause cutaneous fungal infections, particularly after penetrating trauma. Septic arthritis is a rare clinical manifestation. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of Apophysomyces trapeziformis causing septic arthritis of the knee of a patient with multiple myeloma...
December 2016: JMM Case Reports
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