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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772372/palmitate-induces-nitric-oxide-production-and-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-zebrafish
#1
Seon-Heui Cha, Yongha Hwang, Kil-Nam Kim, Hee-Sook Jun
Inflammation markers in zebrafish embryos reflect a toxic response that is common to other animal models and humans. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are known to cause damage in various tissues by inducing inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether a FFA (palmitate) induces inflammation in zebrafish embryos. Nitrous oxide (NO) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression were increased in palmitate-treated zebrafish embryos in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), were also increased...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769417/lactate-in-cardiogenic-shock-current-understanding-and-clinical-implications
#2
G M Kubiak, A R Tomasik, K Bartus, R Olszanecki, P Ceranowicz
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an essential substrate metabolite in human beings. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation provides > 95% of ATP with the remainder derived from glycolysis or tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). In normal hearts, acetyl-CoA is synthesized from the β-oxidation of free fatty acids (FFA) and the oxidation of pyruvate. Pyruvate is synthesized from glycolysis and can be submitted either for decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA or for dehydrogenation to lactate. Moreover, pyruvate, as well as lactate, plays a key role in aerobic glucose metabolism which is highly dependent on ubiquitous regulatory mechanisms...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769067/antioxidant-capacity-of-cinnamon-extract-for-palm-oil-stability
#3
Muhammad Zia Shahid, Hafiza Saima, Adeela Yasmin, Muhammad Tahir Nadeem, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Afzaal
BACKGROUND: Spices and their bioactive components are more promising attractions for their inclusion in diet-based regimes to improve human health. These are sources of natural antioxidants and play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases and aging. The aim of the current study was to explore the antioxidant potential of cinnamon; a widely used spice throughout the world. METHODS: The current research was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of cinnamon extract...
May 16, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764424/long-non-coding-rna-neat1-modulated-abnormal-lipolysis-via-atgl-drives-hepatocellular-carcinoma-proliferation
#4
Xirui Liu, Yingjian Liang, Ruipeng Song, Guangchao Yang, Jihua Han, Yaliang Lan, Shangha Pan, Mingxi Zhu, Yao Liu, Yan Wang, Fanzheng Meng, Yifeng Cui, Jiabei Wang, Bo Zhang, Xuan Song, Zhaoyang Lu, Tongsen Zheng, Lianxin Liu
BACKGROUND: Abnormal metabolism, including abnormal lipid metabolism, is a hallmark of cancer cells. Some studies have demonstrated that the lipogenic pathway might promote the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of the lipolytic pathway in HCC has not been elucidated. METHODS: We compared levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in human HCC and healthy liver tissues by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. We measured diacylglycerol(DAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in HCC cells driven by the NEAT1-ATGL axis and in HCC tissues...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762253/glucose-tolerance-is-linked-to-postprandial-fuel-use-independent-of-exercise-dose
#5
Nicole M Gilbertson, Natalie Z M Eichner, Monique Francois, Julian M Gaitán, Emily M Heiston, Arthur Weltman, Steven K Malin
PURPOSE: The optimal short-term exercise dose to improve glucose tolerance in relation to metabolic flexibility and/or insulin resistance is unknown. Therefore, we tested if short-term, work-matched continuous (CONT) versus interval (INT) exercise training improves glucose tolerance in part by reducing insulin resistance and increasing metabolic flexibility independent of clinically meaningful fat loss in adults with prediabetes. METHODS: Subjects (age 60.9±1.4y; BMI 33...
May 14, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753852/color-fundus-photography-optical-coherence-tomography-and-fluorescein-angiography-in-diagnosing-polypoidal-choroidal-vasculopathy
#6
Voraporn Chaikitmongkol, Preeyanuch Khunsongkiet, Direk Patikulsila, Mansing Ratanasukon, Nawat Watanachai, Chaisiri Jumroendararasame, Catherine B Mayerle, Ian C Han, Connie J Chen, Pawara Winaikosol, Chutikarn Dejkriengkraikul, Janejit Choovuthayakorn, Paradee Kunavisarut, Neil M Bressler
PURPOSE: To determine sensitivity and specificity of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) diagnosis using color fundus photography (CFP), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) without indocyanine-green angiography (ICGA). DESIGN: Validity analysis. METHODS: Treatment-naïve eyes with serous/serosanguinous maculopathy undergoing CFP, OCT, FFA and ICGA imaging before treatment at a university-hospital in Thailand (January 2013 to June 2015) were identified...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750914/pro-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-on-immune-and-endothelial-cells
#7
Meng Li, Betty C A M van Esch, Gerry T M Wagenaar, Johan Garssen, Gert Folkerts, Paul A J Henricks
In the gastro-intestinal tract, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have protective effects on epithelial cells. However, their effects on inflammatory cytokine production by endothelial and immune cells and the recruitment of immune cells and their trans-migration across the endothelial layer remain controversial. Both cell types are associated with the initiation and development of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and sepsis. SCFAs modulate immune and inflammatory responses via activation of free fatty acid (FFA) receptors type 2 and 3 (FFA2 and FFA3 receptors), G protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) and inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749466/upregulated-14%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-3%C3%AE-aggravates-restenosis-by-promoting-cell-migration-following-vascular-injury-in-diabetic-rats-with-elevated-levels-of-free-fatty-acids
#8
Lishuai Feng, Chaoran Dou, Jianbo Wang, Chunyu Jiang, Xu Ma, Jingjing Liu
Mono‑unsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) can serve as a predictive indicator of vascular restenosis following interventional therapy, particularly in individuals with high‑fat diet‑induced type 2 diabetes. However, the pathogenic mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the levels of tyrosine 3‑monooxygenase/tryptophan 5‑monooxygenase activation protein β (YWHAB; also known as 14‑3‑3β), in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) treated with different concentrations of oleic acid (OA) were examined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747369/-the-relationship-between-optical-coherence-tomography-performance-and-visual-acuity-of-acute-retinal-necrosis
#9
Y Di, J J Ye, D H Li
Objective: To analyze the relationship between optical coherence tomography(OCT) performance and visual acuity of patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN). Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on the patients diagnosed with ARN at the ophthalmology department of Peking union hospital during October 2011 and May 2016. Fourteen patients (15 eyes), 9 males and 5 females, whose anterior and posterior inflammation disappeared and the retinal necrosis lesion in the fundus of the eye subsided were included...
May 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743097/changes-in-energy-metabolism-and-levels-of-stress-related-hormones-and-electrolytes-in-horses-after-intravenous-administration-of-romifidine-and-the-peripheral-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-antagonist-vatinoxan
#10
Soile Anja Eliisa Pakkanen, Annemarie de Vries, Marja Riitta Raekallio, Anna Kristina Mykkänen, Mari Johanna Palviainen, Satu Marja Sankari, Outi Maritta Vainio
BACKGROUND: Romifidine, an α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, is a widely-used sedative in equine medicine. Besides the desired sedative and analgesic actions, α-2 adrenoceptor agonists have side effects like alterations of plasma concentrations of glucose and certain stress-related hormones and metabolites in various species. Vatinoxan (previously known as MK-467), in turn, is an antagonist of α-2 adrenoceptors. Because vatinoxan does not cross the blood brain barrier in significant amounts, it has only minor effect on sedation induced by α-2 adrenoceptor agonists...
May 9, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742407/mechanism-of-long-chain-free-fatty-acid-protonation-at-the-membrane-water-interface
#11
Alina A Pashkovskaya, Mario Vazdar, Lars Zimmermann, Olga Jovanovic, Peter Pohl, Elena E Pohl
Long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) play an important role in several physiological and pathological processes such as lipid fusion, adjustments of membrane permeability and fluidity, and the regulation of enzyme and protein activities. FFA-facilitated membrane proton transport (flip-flop) and FFA-dependent proton transport by membrane proteins (e.g., mitochondrial uncoupling proteins) are governed by the difference between FFA's intrinsic pKa value and the pH in the immediate membrane vicinity. Thus far, a quantitative understanding of the process has been hampered, because the pKa value shifts upon moving the FFA from the aqueous solution into the membrane...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739585/comparison-of-methylation-methods-for-fatty-acid-analysis-of-milk-fat
#12
Zhiqian Liu, Vilnis Ezernieks, Simone Rochfort, Ben Cocks
Three acid- and alkaline-catalysed transesterification methods were compared with the aim to validate a simple yet reliable protocol for fatty acid (FA) profiling of milk fat. While both the acid- and alkaline-catalysed methods were able to convert completely triglycerides and phospholipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), the acid catalyst caused significant degradation of conjugated linoleic acid C18:2c9t11 at high temperature. Although a milder temperature can mitigate this negative impact, a long reaction time (2 h) is required to achieve full methylation...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737489/functional-neural-correlates-of-facial-affect-recognition-impairment-following-tbi
#13
Arianna Rigon, Michelle W Voss, Lyn S Turkstra, Bilge Mutlu, Melissa C Duff
Facial affect recognition deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been well documented, as has their relationship with impairment in several other cognitive domains. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying affect recognition deficits, in particular mechanisms underlying different aspects of facial affect recognition (e.g., perceptual and interpretive processes). In the current study, 33 adults with moderate-to-severe TBI and 24 demographically matched healthy comparison (HC) participants completed an fMRI facial affect recognition study...
May 8, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736671/triple-combination-of-fda-approved-drugs-including-flufenamic-acid-clarithromycin-and-zanamivir-improves-survival-of-severe-influenza-in-mice
#14
Andrew C Y Lee, Kelvin K W To, Anna J X Zhang, Houshun Zhu, Can Li, Ricky R Zhang, Ivan F N Hung, Richard Y T Kao, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Seasonal influenza virus remains a common cause of mortality despite the use of neuraminidase inhibitors. This study evaluated the efficacy of a triple combination of zanamivir, clarithromycin and flufenamic acid (FFA) in the treatment of influenza virus A(H1N1) infection. An in vitro cell protection assay and a multiple-cycle growth assay showed that the antiviral activity of zanamivir was enhanced when combined with clarithromycin or FFA. A mouse challenge model was used here for the evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of the triple combination treatment...
May 7, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730530/fingerprint-profile-and-efficacy-associated-markers-of-nigella-sativa-oil-for-geographical-origin-determination-using-targeted-and-untargeted-hptlc-multivariate-analysis
#15
Eman Shawky, Nihal M El Newehy, Amira M Beltagy, Mohammad M Abd-Alhaseeb, Gamal A Omran, Fathallah M Harraz
Efficacy directed-fingerprint analysis of high-performance thin layer chromatography is proposed to set up fingerprint activity relationship modeling for precise discrimination of chemical and effective consistency of Nigella sativa oils from different geographical origins. A whole of 27 samples of N. sativa oils from three geographical area (Egypt, Ethiopia and Syria) were collected and their antimicrobial, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were measured. The results revealed that there was significant difference in the biological activities of the oils collected...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728577/an-integrated-neural-framework-for-dynamic-and-static-face-processing
#16
Michal Bernstein, Yaara Erez, Idan Blank, Galit Yovel
Faces convey rich information including identity, gender and expression. Current neural models of face processing suggest a dissociation between the processing of invariant facial aspects such as identity and gender, that engage the fusiform face area (FFA) and the processing of changeable aspects, such as expression and eye gaze, that engage the posterior superior temporal sulcus face area (pSTS-FA). Recent studies report a second dissociation within this network such that the pSTS-FA, but not the FFA, shows much stronger response to dynamic than static faces...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727774/effects-of-environmental-stressors-on-lipid-metabolism-in-aquatic-invertebrates
#17
Min-Chul Lee, Jun Chul Park, Jae-Seong Lee
Lipid metabolism is crucial for the survival and propagation of the species, since lipids are an essential cellular component across animal taxa for maintaining homeostasis in the presence of environmental stressors. This review aims to summarize information on the lipid metabolism under environmental stressors in aquatic invertebrates. Fatty acid synthesis from glucose via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathway is mostly well-conserved across animal taxa. The structure of free fatty acid (FFA) from both dietary and DNL pathway could be transformed by elongase and desaturase...
April 25, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725369/ethyl-pyruvate-can-alleviate-alcoholic-liver-disease-through-inhibiting-nrf2-signaling-pathway
#18
Fei Shen, Zhaohong Wang, Wei Liu, Yuji Liang
The effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on alcoholic liver disease and its related mechanism were investigated. Thirty male C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided to three groups: Control (n=10), alcoholic liver disease (ALD, n=10) and ethyl pyruvate group (EP, n=10). EP group was treated with gavage using EP (100 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days. Control and ALD group were treated with the same volume of normal saline. After the last gavage, EP and ALD group were treated with the intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcoholic solution (10 ml/kg)...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725225/quality-characteristics-changes-in-physiochemical-properties-and-functional-properties-of-camembert-cheese-containing-red-ginseng-powder
#19
Jai-Sung Lee, Inhyu Bae
Effects of quality, physicochemical properties and antioxidants in Camembert cheese added with red ginseng powder (RGP) were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% RGP. and then monitored during ripening at 14°C for 28 d. The pH of the RGP amended treatment groups increased during the ripening period relative to the control ( p <0.05). Moreover, the 1,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) was highest in the 0.15% RGP group from 21 d to 28 d. ABTS+ radical scavenging activity was increased just like DPPH as the ripening period passed, 0...
February 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716289/numerical-and-analytic-modelling-of-elastodynamic-scattering-within-polycrystalline-materials
#20
A Van Pamel, G Sha, M J S Lowe, S I Rokhlin
The elastodynamic behavior of polycrystalline cubic materials is studied through the fundamental propagation properties, the attenuation and wave speed, of a longitudinal wave. Predictions made by different analytical models are compared to both numerical and experimental results. The numerical model is based on a three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) simulation which provides a full-physics solution to the scattering problem. The three main analytical models include the Far-Field Approximation (FFA), the Self-Consistent Approximation (SCA) to the reference medium, and the herein derived Second Order Approximation (SOA)...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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