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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353414/oral-administration-of-compound-probiotics-ameliorates-hfd-induced-gut-microbe-dysbiosis-and-chronic-metabolic-inflammation-via-the-g-protein-coupled-receptor-43-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-rats
#1
Yinji Liang, Shu Liang, Yupei Zhang, Yuanjun Deng, Yifang He, Yanning Chen, Chan Liu, Chenli Lin, Qinhe Yang
The aim of this study was to investigate how the effects of compound probiotics modulate the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), body composition, serum and liver lipids, and inflammatory markers in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats. Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control group (standard feed), high-fat diet (HFD) feeding group (83% standard feed + 10% lard oil + 1.5% cholesterol + 0.5% cholate + 5% sucrose), and compound probiotics intervention group (HFD + 0...
January 20, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350533/development-of-pickering-emulsions-stabilized-by-gliadin-proanthocyanidins-hybrid-particles-gphps-and-the-fate-of-lipid-oxidation-and-digestion
#2
Fu-Zhen Zhou, Li Yan, Shou-Wei Yin, Chuan-He Tang, Xiao-Quan Yang
This work attempted to engineer emulsions' interface using special affinity between proline-rich gliadin and proanthocyanidins (PA), to develop surfactant-free antioxidant Pickering emulsions with digestive-resistant properties. This binding interaction between gliadin and PA benefited the interfacial adsorption of the particles to corn oil droplets. Pickering droplets as building units assembled into interconnected three-dimensional network structure, giving the emulsions viscoelasticity and ultra-stability...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346348/macrophages-regulate-lung-ilc2-activation-via-pla2g5-dependent-mechanisms
#3
M Yamaguchi, S K Samuchiwal, O Quehenberger, J A Boyce, B Balestrieri
Group V phospholipase A2 (Pla2g5) is a lipid-generating enzyme necessary for macrophage effector functions in pulmonary inflammation. However, the lipid mediators involved and their cellular targets have not been identified. Mice lacking Pla2g5 showed markedly reduced lung ILC2 activation and eosinophilia following repetitive Alternaria Alternata inhalation. While Pla2g5-null mice had Wt levels of immediate IL-33 release after one Alternaria dose, they failed to upregulate IL-33 in macrophages following repeated Alternaria administration...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346244/comparing-fundus-fluorescein-angiography-and-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-the-evaluation-of-diabetic-macular-perfusion
#4
Alberto La Mantia, Rengin A Kurt, Samantha Mejor, Catherine A Egan, Adnan Tufail, Pearse A Keane, Dawn A Sim
PURPOSE: To compare fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in the evaluation of macular perfusion in diabetic patients. METHODS: Forty-one eyes (21 diabetic patients) seen at Moorfields Eye Hospital (London) over a 1-month interval underwent color fundus photography, FFA, and SS-OCTA imaging of the capillary superficial plexus using 2 different protocols: 3 × 3 mm and 4.5 × 4.5 mm. Quantitative assessment (foveal avascular zone diameters and area), qualitative analysis (macroscopic and microscopic levels) and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study diabetic macular ischemia grading were performed...
January 16, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345253/3-acetyl-oleanolic-acid-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-high-fat-diet-treated-rats-by-activating-ampk-related-pathways
#5
Qiong Ou-Yang, Chun-Xiao Xuan, Xue Wang, Han-Qiong Luo, Jin-E Liu, Lan-Lan Wang, Ting-Ting Li, Yu-Peng Chen, Jun Liu
3-Acetyl-oleanolic acid (3Ac-OA) is a derivative of oleanolic acid (OA), which has shown therapeutic beneficial effects on diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated whether 3Ac-OA exerted beneficial effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and its potential underlying mechanisms. Treatment with 3Ac-OA (1-100 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the intracellular levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in FFA-treated primary rat hepatocytes and human HepG2 cell lines in vitro...
January 18, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341265/cicatricial-alopecia-research-foundation-meeting-may-2016-progress-towards-the-diagnosis-treatment-and-cure-of-primary-cicatricial-alopecias
#6
John P Sundberg, Maria K Hordinsky, Wilma Bergfeld, Yolanda M Lenzy, Amy J McMichael, Angela M Christiano, Tracy McGregor, Kurt S Stenn, Raja K Sivamani, C Herbert Pratt, Lloyd E King
Primary Cicatricial Alopecias (PCAs) are a group of skin diseases in which there is progressive and permanent destruction of hair follicles followed by replacement with fibrous tissue. Unfortunately, by the time patients seek clinical evaluation of their hair loss, the skin is already inflamed and/or scarred, so there is little hope for a return to their normal hair growth pattern. Clinical and basic science investigations are now focusing on three forms of human PCA, lichen planopilaris (LPP), frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA)...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338749/interleukin-6-induces-fat-loss-in-cancer-cachexia-by-promoting-white-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-browning
#7
Jun Han, Qingyang Meng, Lei Shen, Guohao Wu
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a progressive and multi-factorial metabolic syndrome characterized by loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. White adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis and white-to-brown transdifferentiation of WAT (WAT browning) are proposed to contribute to WAT atrophy in cancer cachexia. Chronic inflammation, mediated by cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been reported to promote cancer cachexia. However, whether chronic inflammation promotes cancer cachexia by regulating WAT metabolism and the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
January 16, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329848/utilization-of-mixed-adsorbents-to-extend-frying-oil-life-cycle-in-poultry-processing
#8
Patchimaporn Udomkun, Bhundit Innawong, Chatchalai Siasakul, Christopher Okafor
The effects were studied of two different adsorbent combinations (com I; bentonite: activated carbon: celite = 3:4:1 and com II; bentonite: activated clay: celite = 3:4:1 + 1% citric acid) on the physico-chemical changes of oil used continuously for deep-fat frying of chicken drumsticks. The results showed that the % FFA was reduced by 44.3, PV by 50.2, and FOS reading by 40.1% in com I whereas reductions of 41.6, 44.9, and 32.8%, respectively, were found in com II. The oil treated with com II exhibited a lighter color than with com I...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329746/evaluation-of-a-transtympanic-delivery-system-in-mus-musculus-for-extended-release-steroids
#9
Nathan H Dormer, Jennifer Nelson-Brantley, Hinrich Staecker, Cory J Berkland
OBJECTIVE: The current investigation evaluated a novel extended release delivery system for treating inner ear diseases. The platform technology consists of a film forming agent (FFA) and microsphere component to localize and extend drug delivery within the ear. STUDY DESIGN: Studies evaluated dissolution kinetics of microspheres with multiple encapsulates, testing of a variety of FFAs, and ability to localize to the round window membrane in mice in vivo. SETTING: Studies were completed at Orbis Biosciences and The University of Kansas Medical Center...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325757/the-role-of-fatty-acids-and-their-endocannabinoid-like-derivatives-in-the-molecular-regulation-of-appetite
#10
REVIEW
Renger F Witkamp
Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the oronasal cavity and along the entire gastrointestinal tract, in various other tissues, and, for some receptors also in brain...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322140/development-of-antioxidant-gliadin-particle-stabilized-pickering-high-internal-phase-emulsions-hipes-as-oral-delivery-systems-and-the-in-vitro-digestion-fate
#11
F Z Zhou, T Zeng, S W Yin, C H Tang, D B Yuan, X Q Yang
In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the use of gliadin particles to structure algal oil (rich in DHA) and to exert chemical stability against lipid oxidation via the Pickering high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) strategy. The gliadin/chitosan colloid particles (GCCPs) were effectively adsorbed and anchored at the algal oil-water interface. Concomitantly, the particle-coated droplets as building blocks constructed a percolating 3D-network framework, endowing Pickering HIPEs with viscoelastic and self-supporting attributes...
January 11, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322108/production-of-biodiesel-by-enzymatic-transesterification-of-waste-sardine-oil-and-evaluation-of-its-engine-performance
#12
A Arumugam, V Ponnusami
Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA) content (32 mg KOH/g of oil). Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321243/adipose-depot-specific-effects-of-ileal-interposition-surgery-in-ucd-t2d-rats-unexpected-implications-for-obesity-and-diabetes
#13
Connie Hung, Casey Bronec, Eleonora Napoli, James Graham, Kimber L Stanhope, Ilaria Marsilio, Maria Cecilia Giron, Peter J Havel, Cecilia Giulivi
Ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of diabetes in a rat model of type-2 diabetes (UCD-T2DM). Here, to gain a deeper understanding of the molecular events underlying the effects of IT surgery, we examined the changes in the proteome of 4 white adipose depots (retroperitoneal, mesenteric, inguinal, and epididymal), and plasma free fatty acid profile in pre-diabetic rats 1.5 months following IT or sham surgery. The IT-mediated changes were exerted mainly in mesenteric fat, and spanned from delayed adipocyte maturation to a neuroendocrine remodeling...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320678/effect-of-ceramide-tail-length-on-the-structure-of-model-stratum-corneum-lipid-bilayers
#14
Timothy C Moore, Remco Hartkamp, Christopher R Iacovella, Annette L Bunge, Clare McCabe
Lipid bilayers composed of non-hydroxy sphingosine ceramide (CER NS), cholesterol (CHOL), and free fatty acids (FFAs), which are components of the human skin barrier, are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. Since mixtures of these lipids exist in dense gel phases with little molecular mobility at physiological conditions, care must be taken to ensure that the simulations become decorrelated from the initial conditions. Thus, we propose and validate an equilibration protocol based on simulated tempering, in which the simulation takes a random walk through temperature space, allowing the system to break out of metastable configurations and hence become decorrelated from its initial configuration...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315235/response-of-fibroblasts-mrc-5-to-flufenamic-acid-grafted-mcm-41-nanoparticles
#15
Giovanna Gomes Lara, Marcelo Fernandes Cipreste, Gracielle Ferreira Andrade, Wellington Marcos da Silva, Edésia Martins Barros de Sousa
Recently, flufenamic acid (FFA) was discovered among fenamates as a free radical scavenger and gap junction blocker; however, its effects have only been studied in cancer cells. Normal cells in the surroundings of a tumor also respond to radiation, although they are not hit by it directly. This phenomenon is known as the bystander effect, where response molecules pass from tumor cells to normal ones, through communication channels called gap junctions. The use of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, through which drug-loaded nanoparticles smaller than 200 nm may accumulate around a tumor, can prevent the local side effect upon controlled release of the drug...
January 9, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311488/role-of-supplementary-selenium-on-the-induction-of-insulin-resistance-and-oxidative-stress-in-nsy-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Koichi Murano, Hirofumi Ogino, Tomofumi Okuno, Tomohiro Arakawa, Hitoshi Ueno
The role of supplementary selenium on the induction of insulin resistance and oxidative stress in a diabetic mouse model was investigated in NSY mice on a high fat diet (HFD) and administered seleno-L-methionine (SeMet)-containing water for 12 weeks. Significant increases in oral glucose tolerance-tested (OGTT), insulin tolerance-tested, and non-fasting blood glucose levels were observed in mice on a HFD, as well as the significant increases in OGTT and non-fasting plasma insulin levels. Mice on a HFD had decreased plasma adiponectin levels and increased free fatty acid (FFA) levels...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306761/peptide-nanoparticles-pnps-modified-disposable-platform-for-sensitive-electrochemical-cytosensing-of-dld-1-cancer-cells
#17
Yesim Tugce Yaman, Öznur Akbal, Gulcin Bolat, Betul Bozdogan, Emir Baki Denkbas, Serdar Abaci
A novel diphenylalaninamid (FFA) based peptide nanoparticles (PNPs) modified pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) for construction of electrochemical cytosensor was demonstrated for the first time in this study. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed the spherical nanostructure of the synthesized FFA based PNPs while attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra provided information about the structure and conformation of proteins in their structure...
December 25, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306709/a-face-identity-hallucination-palinopsia-generated-by-intracerebral-stimulation-of-the-face-selective-right-lateral-fusiform-cortex
#18
Jacques Jonas, Hélène Brissart, Gabriela Hossu, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Bruno Rossion, Louis Maillard
We report the case of a patient (MB, young female human subject) who systematically experienced confusion between perceived facial identities specifically when electrically stimulated inside the lateral section of the right fusiform gyrus. In the presence of a face stimulus (an experimenter or a photograph), intracerebral electrical stimulation in this region generated a perceptual hallucination of an individual facial part integrated within the whole perceived face, i.e., facial palinopsia. In the presence of a distracting stimulus (visual scene or object picture), the patient also experienced an individual face percept superimposed on the non-face stimulus...
December 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306619/comparative-study-between-conventional-fasting-versus-overnight-infusion-of-lipid-or-carbohydrate-on-insulin-and-free-fatty-acids-in-obese-patients-undergoing-elective-on-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#19
Hisham Hosny, Mohamed Ibrahim, Wael El-Siory, Amr Abdel-Monem
OBJECTIVES: Postoperative insulin resistance represents a major component of postoperative metabolic disorder. The authors compared the effects of preoperative infusion of lipid emulsion or carbohydrate to conventional preoperative fasting on postoperative insulin and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. DESIGN: A prospective randomized double-blinded study. SETTINGS: Tertiary university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305863/mir-449-overexpression-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-suppressing-sirt1-fra-1-pathway-in-high-glucose-and-free-fatty-acids-microenvironment
#20
Bo Qu, Kai Gong, Hong-Sheng Yang, Yu-Gang Li, Tao Jiang, Zhi-Mou Zeng, Zong-Rui Cao, Xian-Ming Pan
Diabetic osteoporosis is a chronic complication caused by diabetes mellitus, and However, the exact mechanism of diabetes mellitus-induced osteoporosis is still unknown. In this study, we investigate the effect of miR-449 on osteogenic differentiation and its underlying mechanism in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) with high glucose (HG) and free fatty acids (FFA) treatment. Results showed that after culturing for 14 days, high glucose (HG) and free fatty acids (FFA) treatment dramatically decreased mineralization of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) compared with cells treated with osteogenic medium (OM) alone...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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