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Qian Chen, Mengyang Liu, Haiyang Yu, Jian Li, Sijian Wang, Yi Zhang, Feng Qiu, Tao Wang
Scutellaria baicalensis has been reported to improve the lipid metabolism of high-fat diet-induced liver dysfunction, but direct evidence is rare. This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of S. baicalensis and its major constituent baicalin on hepatic lipotoxicity. KK-Ay mice and orotic acid (OA)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats were used to evaluate lipid metabolism regulatory effects. Sodium oleate-induced triglyceride-accumulated HepG2 cells were used for the mechanism study, pretreated with or without compound C or STO-609 or transfected with liver kinase B1 (LKB1) siRNA...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Rohit A Gupta, Meha N Motiwala, Ujawala N Mahajan, Sapna S Sabare
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plant Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) belonging to the family Fabaceae is commonly known as sesbania, agathi, and katurai. The plant is accredited for alleviating a spectrum of ailments including inflammation, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, gout, rheumatism, jaundice, bronchitis, convulsion and anxiety. It is also used as antitumour, anthelmintic, and laxatives in Ayurveda and Siddha system of Indian traditional medicine. AIM: To reveal protective effect of Sesbania grandiflora in acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in mice...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sharma Bhavya, Pei San Lew, Tooru M Mizuno
Xenin is a gastrointestinal hormone that belongs to the neurotensin family. Central administration of xenin to obese mice reduces food intake and body weight gain and causes alterations in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, it has not been tested whether or not xenin directly acts on adipose tissue and alters lipid metabolism. The present study was performed to address this possibility by examining the effect of xenin treatment on the levels of glycerol and free fatty acids (FFA) and expression levels of lipolysis marker proteins ex vivo in cultured mouse WAT...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Aizuri Murad, Wilma Bergfeld
BACKGROUND: Treatment for frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is challenging and its treatment regimen often mirrors other lymphocytic-predominant cicatricial alopecia. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) has been reported with some treatment success in severe cases of FFA. OBJECTIVE: To carry out evidence-based analysis of articles published on treatment efficacy and safety of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor for the treatment of FFA. METHODS: Articles published on the use of 5ARI to treat FFA between 2005 to 2017 were reviewed, analysed and graded according to the American College of Physicians outcome study grading system...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
A R Ramirez, O L Acosta, M B Maya, M El-Hafidi
In metabolic diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes, the over-expression of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in a response to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by mitochondrial respiratory complexes, and to the excess of free fatty acid (FFA) supply from adipose tissue, may protect cells from oxidative stress, lipotoxicity and in turn from death. UCPs by reducing superoxide anion and H2O2 generation trigger several signals to cell for their adaptation to the lipotoxic microenvironment...
March 7, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
Jia Ni, Lei Chen, Sulan Zhong, Qiaoxue Chai, Lin Zhang, Dan Wang, Shaobing Li, Jincai Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the influence of periodontitis and scaling and root planning on insulin resistance and hepatic CD36 in obese rats with periodontitis. METHODS: Thirty-two specific pathogen free Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each as follows: healthy rats (healthy group), obese rats (obesity group), obese rats with periodontitis (non-therapy group), and obese rats with periodontitis who underwent periodontal scaling and root planning (SRP) (therapy group)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Tracy M Centanni, Elizabeth S Norton, Anne Park, Sara D Beach, Kelly Halverson, Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Nadine Gaab, John DE Gabrieli
A functional region of left fusiform gyrus termed "the visual word form area" (VWFA) develops during reading acquisition to respond more strongly to printed words than to other visual stimuli. Here, we examined responses to letters among 5- and 6-year-old early kindergarten children (N = 48) with little or no school-based reading instruction who varied in their reading ability. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure responses to individual letters, false fonts, and faces in left and right fusiform gyri...
March 5, 2018: Developmental Science
Fatma Yılmaz, Neşe Yılmaz Tuncel, N Barış Tuncel
Immature rice grain is one of the underutilized by-products of paddy milling process. Despite its high potential of use as a food ingredient, it is mainly utilized as feed due to the rancidity problem. In the present study, the composition of immature rice grain, the potential of using infrared (IR) radiation for stabilization, and the effects of IR stabilization on color, fatty acid composition, tocopherol and γ-oryzanol contents of the grain were investigated. The free fatty acid (FFA) value of the unprocessed immature rice grain was 5...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Insha Kousar Kalem, Z F Bhat, Sunil Kumar, Sabahu Noor, Ajay Desai
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of calcium alginate edible films incorporated with Terminalia arjuna on the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of chevon sausages. Chevon sausages were aerobically packaged in the edible films containing different concentrations of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.0%), T2 (0.50%) and T3 (1.0%) and were stored under refrigerated (4±1 °C) conditions. A significant improvement was observed in the lipid oxidative stability and microbial quality of the products...
February 19, 2018: Meat Science
José Vilaça-Alves, Fernanda Muller, Claudio Rosa, Rita Payan-Carreira, Rafael Lund, Filipe Matos, Nuno Garrido, Francisco José Saavedra, Victor Machado Reis
The aim of the present study was to observe whether performing a low intensity endurance exercise following an overnight fasted (FAST) or fed (FED) condition promotes different cardiorespiratory, enzymatic and hormonal responses. Nine male physical active subjects, (age 21.89 ± 2.52 years old, height 175.89 ± 5.16 cm, weight 72.10 ± 4.31 kg, estimated body fat 7.25 ± 2.11%), randomly performed two sessions of 45 minutes' low intensity exercise (individual ventilator threshold) interspersed by seven days, differentiated only in whether they were provided with a standardized meal or not...
2018: PloS One
Shuhui Wang, Yuqin Zuo, Ning Wang, Bin Tong
Objective: To investigate the manifestation characteristics of fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and its values in diagnosing diabetic retinopathy through comparing direct ophthalmoscopy. Methods: Two hundred fifty patients (500 eyes) who were suspected as diabetic retinopathy and admitted to the hospital between February 2015 and December 2016 were selected. They underwent direct ophthalmoscopy and FFA. The manifestation characteristics of FFA in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy were summarized...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Min Zhao, Wankun Xie, Shu-Huai Tsai, Travis W Hein, Brent A Rocke, Lih Kuo, Robert H Rosa
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1), a photoreceptor-protective glycoprotein, on the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in relation to VEGF and its main receptor (VEGFR2) expression after laser injury. Methods: In rats, CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in both eyes, followed by intravitreal injection of STC-1 in the right eye and vehicle or denatured STC-1 injection in the left eye as control...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Neha Goel, Vinod Kumar, Supriya Arora, Pooja Jain, Basudeb Ghosh
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe macular changes in treatment-naïve eyes with Eales disease using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 79 eyes of 66 patients with Eales disease. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit-lamp biomicroscopy (SLB), indirect ophthalmoscopy, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and quantitative (central macular thickness [CMT]) and qualitative analysis on SD-OCT were performed...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Lakshman Singh, Sonia Tyagi, Damian Myers, Gustavo Duque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone marrow fat expresses mixed characteristics, which could correspond to white, brown, and beige types of fat. Marrow fat could act as either energy storing and adipokine secreting white fat or as a source of energy for hematopoiesis and bone metabolism, thus acting as brown fat. However, there is also a negative interaction between marrow fat and other elements of the bone marrow milieu, which is known as lipotoxicity. In this review, we will describe the good and bad roles of marrow fat in the bone, while focusing on the specific components of the negative effect of marrow fat on bone metabolism...
February 23, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Rupesh Agrawal, Sai Bo Bo Tun, Praveen Kumar Balne, Hong-Yuan Zhu, Neha Khandelwal, Veluchamy A Barathi
PURPOSE: To study the effect of anti-VEGF treatment on retinal inflammation in a laser-induced CNV rodent model. METHODS: Leukocytes labeled with 1% sodium fluorescein were injected into the laser-induced CNV (wild type C57BL/6) mice at days 4 (baseline), 7, 14, and 19. At baseline intravitreally 3 mice received 1× PBS, and 3 mice received anti-VEGF. FFA, OCT, and SLO were performed at each time point to assess the CNV pathophysiology and inflammatory response...
February 22, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Nicola Maggio, Efrat Shavit Stein, Menahem Segal
Epilepsy is a devastating disease, with cognitive and emotional consequences that are not curable. In recent years, it became apparent that cannabinoids help patients to cope with epilepsy. We have studied the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the ability to produce long term potentiation (LTP) in stratum radiatum of CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. Exposure to seizure-producing pilocarpine reduced the ability to generate LTP in the slice. Pre-exposure to CBD prevented this effect of pilocarpine. Furthermore, CBD caused a marked increase in ability to generate LTP, an effect that was blocked by calcium store antagonists as well as by a reduction in serotonin tone...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Eric Wang, Jeffery B Klauda
The barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) is intimately related to the structure of the lipid matrix, which is composed of ceramides (Cer), cholesterol (Chol), and free fatty acid (FFA). In this study, the all-atom CHARMM36 (C36) force field is used to simulate bilayers of N-palmitoylsphingosine (Cer16), N-lignoceroylsphingosine (Cer24), Chol, and lignoceric acid (LA) as simple models of the SC. Equimolar mixtures of Cer, Chol, and LA are replicated from experiment for comparison and validation of the C36 force field, and the effect of lipid diversity and temperature is studied...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Uri Rozovski, David M Harris, Ping Li, Zhiming Liu, Preetesh Jain, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Jan Burger, Phillip Thompson, Nitin Jain, William Wierda, Michael J Keating, Zeev Estrov
Unlike normal B-cells, and similar to fat cells, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells aberrantly express lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which contributes to free fatty acids (FFAs) metabolism. Here we show that, in CLL cells, the B-cell receptor (BCR) inhibitor ibrutinib reduced LPL mRNA and protein levels and inhibited FFA metabolism in vitro. Likewise, in CLL cells from ibrutinib-treated patients, FFA metabolism was reduced and eventually stopped. Because ibrutinib disrupts CLL cells' ability to use FFAs for energy production, and because various BCR-dependent cellular functions rely on a continuous supply of chemical energy, ibrutinib interrupts several pathways imperative for cellular function in CLL cells...
February 21, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Sabahu Noor, Z F Bhat, Sunil Kumar, Reshan J Mudiyanselage
Asparagus racemosus was used as a bioactive ingredient for the development of a novel calcium alginate edible film with preservative potential for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of meat products. Chevon sausages were used as a model system and were aerobically packaged in the edible films incorporated with A. racemosus viz. T0 (0.0%), T1 (1.0%) and T2 (2.0%) and were stored under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C) conditions. Products packaged in T1 and T2 edible films exhibited significantly (P < 0...
February 2, 2018: Meat Science
Jessica Cervantes, Mariya Miteva
The trichoscopic features of frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) have been described in the frontotemporal area, yet there is no data detailing the trichoscopic features of the sideburns, which can be the initial or exclusive area of involvement. In this retrospective cohort study, 236 trichoscopic images of the frontotemporal and sideburn area obtained via dry trichoscopy from patients with biopsy-proven FFA were examined by two independent researchers to determine the trichoscopic features of FFA in the sideburns...
January 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
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