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Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
J Mulinari, B Venturin, M Sbardelotto, A Dall Agnol, T Scapini, A F Camargo, D P Baldissarelli, T A Modkovski, V Rossetto, C Dalla Rosa, F W Reichert, S M Golunski, I Vieitez, G D L P Vargas, C Dalla Rosa, A J Mossi, H Treichel
This study aimed to evaluate the waste cooking oil (WCO) hydrolysis in ultrasonic system using lipase as catalyst. Lipase was produced by the fungus Aspergillus niger via solid state fermentation (SSF) using canola meal as substrate. Prior to the hydrolysis reaction, the lipase behavior when subjected to ultrasound was evaluated by varying the temperature of the ultrasonic bath, the exposure time and the equipment power. Having optimized the treatment on ultrasound, the WCO hydrolysis reaction was carried out by evaluating the oil:water ratio and the lipase concentration...
October 8, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Hyo Min Park, Kim A Russo, Grigory Karateev, Michael Park, Elena Dubikovskaya, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Andreas Stahl
Alterations in hepatic free fatty acid (FFA) uptake and metabolism contribute to development of prevalent liver disorders such as hepatosteatosis. However, detecting dynamic changes in FFA uptake by the liver in live model organisms has proven difficult. To enable non-invasive real-time imaging of FFA flux in the liver, we generated transgenic mice with liver-specific expression of luciferase and performed bioluminescence imaging with an FFA probe. Our approach enabled us to observe the changes in FFA hepatic uptake under different physiological conditions in live animals...
October 11, 2016: Gastroenterology
J Tyler Youngquist, Travis C Korosh, Brian F Pfleger
Free fatty acids (FFA) are an attractive platform chemical that serves as a functional intermediate in metabolic pathways for producing oleochemicals. Many groups have established strains of Escherichia coli capable of producing various chain-length mixtures of FFA by heterologous expression of acyl-ACP thioesterases. For example, high levels of dodecanoic acid are produced by an E. coli strain expressing the Umbellularia californica FatB2 thioesterase, BTE. Prior studies achieved high dodecanoic acid yields and productivities under phosphate-limiting media conditions...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ryuji Hori, Takashi Sano, Jun Imagi, Yomi Watanabe
Crude soybean and rapeseed oils were subjected to the method to determine FA distributions in TAG using Candida antarctica lipase B, giving similar results to those for refined oils. Minor components in crude oils, such as percentages of FFA or phospholipids were indicated not to affect 1(3)-selective transesterification by the lipase and FA compositional analysis of the resulting 2-MAG fraction significantly. Phospholipids were confirmed not to contaminate the 2-MAG fraction. Oxidized soybean oil with a PV of 10 meq/kg also gave similar results to the ones for refined oil...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Abdul Sattar Chang, Syed Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Aftab Ahmed Kandhro, Sarfaraz Ahmed Mahesar, Fouzia Chang, Syed Nasrullah Shah, Zahid Hussain Laghari, Tarique Panhwar
Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is cheap and valuable byproduct of edible oil processing industries. This study was designed to characterize PFAD collected from different local oil industries. AOCS methods were used for the determination of physicochemical parameters such as free fatty acid (FFA), saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV) and moisture content. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GC-MS. Moisture content of samples was found to be in the range between 0.06-7.50%, while FFA, SV, IV and PV were found to be 65...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Heidi A Baseler, Andrew W Young, Rob Jenkins, A Mike Burton, Timothy J Andrews
Familiar face recognition is remarkably invariant across huge image differences, yet little is understood concerning how image-invariant recognition is achieved. To investigate the neural correlates of invariance, we localized the core face-responsive regions and then compared the pattern of fMR-adaptation to different stimulus transformations in each region to behavioural data demonstrating the impact of the same transformations on familiar face recognition. In Experiment 1, we compared linear transformations of size and aspect ratio to a non-linear transformation affecting only part of the face...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Kazuo Erami, Yasutake Tanaka, Sayaka Kawamura, Motonori Miyago, Ai Sawazaki, Katsumi Imaizumi, Masao Sato
Egg yolk is an important source of nutrients and contains different bioactive substances. In the present study, we studied the benefits of egg yolk in preventing low-protein-diet-induced fatty liver in rats. Rats were fed the following diets, which were based on the AIN-76 formula, for 2 wk: an adequate-protein diet containing 20% casein (C), a low-protein diet containing 5% casein (LP-C), a low-protein diet supplemented with 12.5% egg yolk (LP-EY), and a low-protein diet supplemented with 4.1% egg yolk oil (LP-EYO)...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Lingman Ma, Lifen Qian, Qidi Ying, Yan Zhang, Changlin Zhou, Guanzhong Wu
Here, we investigated whether I4, which was initially developed as a hypoglycemic agent, possesses anti-atherosclerotic activity and attempted to elucidate the probable mechanism of action underlying this activity. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet and simultaneously administered I4, glimepiride, or pioglitazone once daily for 12 weeks, and the atherosclerotic vascular lesions, lipid content, and expression levels of LOX-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and Bax/Bcl-2 in mouse aortas were assessed. RAW264.7 macrophage-derived foam cells were obtained via ox-LDL stimulation to investigate the lipid-lowering, anti-atherosclerotic inflammation and anti-apoptotic effect of I4...
October 7, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Jon Andoni Sánchez, Amparo Alfonso, Olivier P Thomas, Luís M Botana
Previous works with autumnalamide reported that Store Operated Calcium (SOC) channels were blocked through mitochondrial modulation. In the present paper we studied the effect of autumnalamide on ionomycin Ca(2+) fluxes. Thus, autumnalamide did not modify ionomycin-sensitive intracellular pools while the ionomycin-induced Ca(2+) influx was blocked with similar potency whether the incubation was done before or after ionomycin-sensitive pools depletion. Nevertheless, autumnalamide was not able to inhibit ionomycin-induced Ca(2+) influx once the membrane channels were activated...
September 28, 2016: Immunobiology
Agnieszka Mikłosz, Bartłomiej Łukaszuk, Małgorzata Żendzian-Piotrowska, Justyna Brańska-Januszewska, Halina Ostrowska, Adrian Chabowski
The Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) is a key regulator of GLUT4 translocation from intracellular depots to the plasma membrane in myocytes. Likely, AS160 also controls LCFAs transport, which requires relocation of fatty acid transporters. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of AS160 knockdown on lipid milieu in L6 myotubes incubated with palmitate (PA). Therefore, we compared two different settings, namely: 1) AS160 knockdown prior to palmitate incubation (pre-PA-silencing, AS160(-) /PA); 2) palmitate incubation with subsequent AS160 knockdown (post-PA-silencing, PA/AS160(-) )...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Cuizhe Wang, Xiaodan Ha, Wei Li, Peng Xu, Yajuan Gu, Tingting Wang, Yan Wang, Jianxin Xie, Jun Zhang
Objective Recent studies have revealed a link between toll-like receptors (TLRs), Kruppel-like factors (KLFs), and the adipose tissue inflammation associated with obesity. TLR4 is associated with chronic inflammation in obesity. KLF7 is known to play an important role in the differentiation of adipocytes, but its role in visceral adipose tissue inflammation has not yet been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the correlation of TLR4 and KLF7 in inflammation induced by obesity. Methods A total of 32 Wistar male rat subjects were fed in the center for experimental animals of Shihezi University...
October 6, 2016: Inflammation
Shahin Nasr, Herminia D Rosas
: The caudate nucleus is a part of the visual corticostriatal loop (VCSL), receiving input from different visual areas and projecting back to the same cortical areas via globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and thalamus. Despite perceptual and navigation impairments in patients with VCSL disruption due to caudate atrophy (e.g., Huntington's disease, HD), the relevance of the caudate nucleus and VCSL on cortical visual processing is not fully understood. In a series of fMRI experiments, we found that the caudate showed a stronger functional connection to parahippocampal place area (PPA) compared with adjacent regions (e...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kouji Kojima, Sumie Keta, Kazuma Uesaka, Akihiro Kato, Nobuyuki Takatani, Kunio Ihara, Tatsuo Omata, Makiko Aichi
Cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (Aas) secrete free fatty acids (FFAs) into the external medium and hence have been used for the studies aimed at photosynthetic production of biofuels. While the wild-type strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is highly sensitive to exogenously added linolenic acid, mutants defective in the aas gene are known to be resistant to the externally provided fatty acid. In this study, the wild-type Synechocystis cells were shown to be sensitive to lauric, oleic, and linoleic acids as well, and the resistance to these fatty acids was shown to be enhanced by inactivation of the aas gene...
October 4, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ashok Mandala, Nabanita Das, Sudarshan Bhattacharjee, Bidisha Mukherjee, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Sib Sankar Roy
Insulin resistance (IR) is an important determinant of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Free fatty acids (FFAs) induce IR by various mechanisms. A surfeit of circulating FFA leads to intra-myocellular lipid accumulation that induces mitochondrial ROS generation and worsens IR. However, the molecular mechanisms behind are unclear. We identified thioredoxin interacting protein (TxNIP), which is overexpressed in T2DM, to be a promoter of ROS-induced IR. We observed upregulation of TxNIP upon palmitate treatment in skeletal muscle cells that led to ROS generation and Glut-4 downregulation resulting in impaired glucose-uptake...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Cesar Echavarria, Shahin Nasr, Roger Tootell
In fMRI studies, human lateral occipital (LO) cortex is thought to respond selectively to images of objects, compared with nonobjects. However, it remains unresolved whether all objects evoke equivalent levels of activity in LO, and, if not, which image features produce stronger activation. Here, we used an unbiased parametric texture model to predict preferred versus nonpreferred stimuli in LO. Observation and psychophysical results showed that predicted preferred stimuli (both objects and nonobjects) had smooth (rather than textured) surfaces...
September 2016: ENeuro
Katrin Wilhelm, Jürgen Wilhelm, Manfred Fürll
The present study investigated whether changes of energy metabolism post-partum (pp) are associated with claw health. For this purpose, back-fat-thickness (BFT) was measured and blood samples were taken from 146 cows at four examination times. The serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose were measured. Furthermore, in the first week postpartum (pp) and at 8 weeks pp, a claw trimming was done and the presence and extent of sole haemorrhages (SH) was recorded. Animals with high BFT at calving and therefore high fat mobilisation and whose FFA and BHB levels in the first week pp exceeded the reference values had fewer pathological changes of the claws than thinner animals whose FFA and BHB levels stayed within reference ranges...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Pascal Edouard, Jean-Michel Serra, Pierre Hertert, Emmanuelle Cugy, Nicolas Morel, Martine Prevost, Frédéric Depiesse
OBJECTIVE: The epidemiology of injuries is the first step in the sports injuries prevention. In this context, the IAAF and EA have implemented a prospective injury follow-up during their international athletics championships since 2007, and the FFA initiated since the French championships in 2014. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and characteristics of injuries during the French Elite championships. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the period of the outdoor and indoor French Elite championships, all newly occurring injuries were recorded by the local medical team...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Terri Susan Graham-Paulson, Thomas Andrew William Paulson, Claudio Perret, Keith Tolfrey, Philip Cordery, Victoria Louise Goosey-Tolfrey
PURPOSE: To investigate the absorption curve and acute effects of caffeine at rest in individuals with no spinal cord injury (SCI), paraplegia (PARA) and tetraplegia (TETRA). METHODS: Twenty-four healthy males (8 able-bodied (AB), 8 PARA and 8 TETRA) consumed 3 mg[BULLET OPERATOR]kg caffeine anhydrous (CAF) in a fasted state. Plasma caffeine [CAF], glucose, lactate, free-fatty acid [FFA] and catecholamine concentrations were measured during a 150 min rest period...
September 23, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Y J Deng, S L Zhang, P M Liu, L F Mai, J Y Tang, L Yan
Objective: To compare the incidence of metabolic disorders and uric acid (UA) levels between patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) and essential hypertension (EH), and to explore factors associated with UA levels in these patients. Methods: A total of 117 PA and 117 EH patients individually matched by sex, age, blood pressure and duration of hypertension were recruited from in-hospital patients who were hospitalized in our department because of suspicion of secondary hypertension from January 2008 to December 2014...
September 24, 2016: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
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