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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549984/smfm-special-report-the-development-and-implementation-of-checklists-in-obstetrics
#1
Peter S Bernstein, C Andrew Combs, Laurence E Shields, Steven L Clark, Catherine S Eppes
Checklists have been long used as a cognitive aid in various high-stakes environments to improve the reliability and performance of individuals and teams. When designed well, implemented thoughtfully, and monitored closely, they offer the opportunity to improve the performance of health care teams and advance patient safety. There are different types of checklists; examples include task lists, troubleshooting lists, coordination lists, discipline lists, and to-do lists. Each is useful in different situations and requires different implementation strategies...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549829/impact-of-chlorpyrifos-on-human-villous-trophoblasts-and-chorionic-villi
#2
M E Ridano, A C Racca, J B Flores-Martin, R Fretes, C L Bandeira, L Reyna, E Bevilacqua, S Genti-Raimondi, G M Panzetta-Dutari
Placental barrier regulates maternal-fetal interchange protecting the baby from damage caused by substances found in the uterine environment or circulating in the vascular system. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are a paramount group of environmental pollutants used in intensive agriculture for protection against diseases and pests. While many studies have reported an increased risk of pregnancy alterations in pregnant women exposed to OPs, few have analyzed the effects caused by these pesticides in the placenta...
May 23, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545834/the-relationship-of-the-subtypes-of-preterm-birth-with-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#3
Anne M Lynch, Brandie D Wagner, Jennifer K Hodges, Tamara S Thevarajah, Emily A Mccourt, Ashlee M Cerda, Naresh Mandava, Ronald S Gibbs, Alan G Palestine
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an adverse outcome of preterm birth (PTB) and is a leading cause of childhood blindness. The relationship between the subtypes of PTB with ROP is understudied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if there is a difference in the incidence of type 1 or type 2 ROP in infants with PTB resulting from spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), a medical indication (MIPTB), or preterm-premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of 827 infants screened for ROP who delivered at a single tertiary care center in Colorado...
May 22, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542585/highly-efficient-maternal-fetal-zika-virus-transmission-in-pregnant-rhesus-macaques
#4
Sydney M Nguyen, Kathleen M Antony, Dawn M Dudley, Sarah Kohn, Heather A Simmons, Bryce Wolfe, M Shahriar Salamat, Leandro B C Teixeira, Gregory J Wiepz, Troy H Thoong, Matthew T Aliota, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Kim L Weisgrau, Logan J Vosler, Mariel S Mohns, Meghan E Breitbach, Laurel M Stewart, Mustafa N Rasheed, Christina M Newman, Michael E Graham, Oliver E Wieben, Patrick A Turski, Kevin M Johnson, Jennifer Post, Jennifer M Hayes, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Michele L Schotzko, Josh A Eudailey, Sallie R Permar, Eva G Rakasz, Emma L Mohr, Saverio Capuano, Alice F Tarantal, Jorge E Osorio, Shelby L O'Connor, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor, Thaddeus G Golos
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with human congenital fetal anomalies. To model fetal outcomes in nonhuman primates, we administered Asian-lineage ZIKV subcutaneously to four pregnant rhesus macaques. While non-pregnant animals in a previous study contemporary with the current report clear viremia within 10-12 days, maternal viremia was prolonged in 3 of 4 pregnancies. Fetal head growth velocity in the last month of gestation determined by ultrasound assessment of head circumference was decreased in comparison with biparietal diameter and femur length within each fetus, both within normal range...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540847/risk-factors-for-transmission-of-hiv-from-mother-to-child-in-bangui
#5
S C H Diemer, R N Ngbale, J D D Longo, O Bami Dienhot, C E Gaunefet
the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in pregnant women in Central Africa is 4.5%. Although a program to prevent mother-child transmission of HIV has been implemented throughout the country, the number of infected infants continues to increase. In this context, our study sought to determine the rate of mother-child transmission of HIV and to identify the main risk factors. this prospective cross-sectional study took place from November 1, 2014, to November 1, 2015, in all 16 maternal and child health centers in Bangui...
May 24, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539446/infectious-prions-in-the-pregnancy-microenvironment-of-cwd-infected-reeves-muntjac-deer
#6
Amy V Nalls, Erin McNulty, Clare E Hoover, Laura A Pulscher, Edward A Hoover, Candace K Mathiason
Ample evidence exists for the presence of infectious agents at the maternal-fetal interface, often with grave outcomes to the developing fetus (i.e. zika virus, brucella, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma). While less studied, pregnancy-related transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have been implicated in several species, including humans. Our previous work has shown that prions can be transferred from mother-to-offspring resulting in the development of clinical TSE disease in offspring born to CWD-infected muntjac dams (64)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539008/position-in-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-women-without-epidural-anaesthesia
#7
REVIEW
Janesh K Gupta, Akanksha Sood, G Justus Hofmeyr, Joshua P Vogel
BACKGROUND: For centuries, there has been controversy around whether being upright (sitting, birthing stools, chairs, squatting, kneeling) or lying down (lateral (Sim's) position, semi-recumbent, lithotomy position, Trendelenburg's position) have advantages for women giving birth to their babies. This is an update of a review previously published in 2012, 2004 and 1999. OBJECTIVES: To determine the possible benefits and risks of the use of different birth positions during the second stage of labour without epidural anaesthesia, on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes...
May 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536839/maternal-fetal-surgery-for-myelomeningocele-some-thoughts-on-ethical-legal-and-psychological-issues-in-a-western-european-situation
#8
Frank Van Calenbergh, Luc Joyeux, Jan Deprest
BACKGROUND: The results of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) randomized controlled trial have demonstrated that maternal-fetal surgery (MFS) for myelomeningocele (MMC) compared to postnatal MMC repair has clear neurological benefits for the child at 12 and 30 months of age. Level I evidence nevertheless does not provide answers to many questions in this delicate field. Since the beginning of 2012, our fetal center has been offering MFS for spina bifida aperta (SBA) to patients from different European and non-European countries, in a societal context where termination of pregnancy is the option chosen by most patients when being informed of this diagnosis...
May 23, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536811/listeriosis-during-pregnancy
#9
REVIEW
Mitko Madjunkov, Shahnaz Chaudhry, Shinya Ito
PURPOSE: Listeriosis is a rare foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes. It can be transmitted by consuming contaminated ready-to-eat food, long shelf-life products, deli meats, and soft cheeses. Listeria has a predilection to affect immunocompromised patients, elderly people, pregnant women and neonates. In particular, pregnant women are at ~18 times greater risk of infection than general population due to specific pregnancy-related suppressed cell-mediated immunity and placental tropism of L...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534929/teratogens-a-public-health-issue-a-brazilian-overview
#10
Thiago Mazzu-Nascimento, Débora Gusmão Melo, Giorgio Gianini Morbioli, Emanuel Carrilho, Fernanda Sales Luiz Vianna, André Anjos da Silva, Lavinia Schuler-Faccini
Congenital anomalies are already the second cause of infant mortality in Brazil, as in many other middle-income countries in Latin America. Birth defects are a result of both genetic and environmental factors, but a multifactorial etiology has been more frequently observed. Here, we address the environmental causes of birth defects - or teratogens - as a public health issue and present their mechanisms of action, categories and their respective maternal-fetal deleterious effects. We also present a survey from 2008 to 2013 of Brazilian cases involving congenital anomalies (annual average of 20,205), fetal deaths (annual average of 1,530), infant hospitalizations (annual average of 82,452), number of deaths of hospitalized infants (annual average of 2,175), and the average cost of hospitalizations (annual cost of $7,758)...
May 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534810/non-invasive-fetal-monitoring-a-maternal-surface-ecg-electrode-placement-based-novel-approach-for-optimization-of-adaptive-filter-control-parameters-using-the-lms-and-rls-algorithms
#11
Radek Martinek, Radana Kahankova, Homer Nazeran, Jaromir Konecny, Janusz Jezewski, Petr Janku, Petr Bilik, Jan Zidek, Jan Nedoma, Marcel Fajkus
This paper is focused on the design, implementation and verification of a novel method for the optimization of the control parameters (such as step size μ and filter order N) of LMS and RLS adaptive filters used for noninvasive fetal monitoring. The optimization algorithm is driven by considering the ECG electrode positions on the maternal body surface in improving the performance of these adaptive filters. The main criterion for optimal parameter selection was the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). We conducted experiments using signals supplied by the latest version of our LabVIEW-Based Multi-Channel Non-Invasive Abdominal Maternal-Fetal Electrocardiogram Signal Generator, which provides the flexibility and capability of modeling the principal distribution of maternal/fetal ECGs in the human body...
May 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526846/nk-cell-derived-il-10-is-critical-for-dc-nk-cell-dialogue-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface
#12
Sandra M Blois, Nancy Freitag, Irene Tirado-González, Shi-Bin Cheng, Markus M Heimesaat, Stefan Bereswill, Matthias Rose, Melanie L Conrad, Gabriela Barrientos, Surendra Sharma
DC-NK cell interactions are thought to influence the development of maternal tolerance and de novo angiogenesis during early gestation. However, it is unclear which mechanism ensures the cooperative dialogue between DC and NK cells at the feto-maternal interface. In this article, we show that uterine NK cells are the key source of IL-10 that is required to regulate DC phenotype and pregnancy success. Upon in vivo expansion of DC during early gestation, NK cells expressed increased levels of IL-10. Exogenous administration of IL-10 was sufficient to overcome early pregnancy failure in dams treated to achieve simultaneous DC expansion and NK cell depletion...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524771/mercury-levels-in-parturient-and-newborns-from-aveiro-region-portugal
#13
Ana Catarina Alves, Marta S Monteiro, Ana Luísa Machado, Mário Oliveira, Ana Bóia, Ana Correia, Nuno Oliveira, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
Since the outbreak of methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning in Japan and Iraq, mercury (Hg) is classified as well-established teratogen. The Portuguese region of Aveiro faced some decades ago an environmental Hg contamination due to activities from a chlor-alkali plant. Until now, no apparent evaluation was conducted regarding prenatal exposure to Hg in this area. The main objectives of this study were to: i) assess maternal and fetal exposure to Hg in the Aveiro region using noninvasive biological matrices; ii) examine the influence of variables that may contribute to Hg exposure during pregnancy; and iii) improve knowledge regarding metal accumulation and distribution over the maternal-fetal-placental unit...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522317/the-association-between-cytochrome-p450-3a-progesterone-receptor-polymorphisms-plasma-17-ohpc-concentrations-and-spontaneous-preterm-birth
#14
Martha L Bustos, Steve N Caritis, Kathleen A Jablonski, Uma M Reddy, Yoram Sorokin, John M Thorp, Michael W Varner, Ronald J Wapner, Jay D Iams, Marshall W Carpenter, Alan M Peaceman, Brian M Mercer, Anthony Sciscione, Dwight J Rouse, Susan M Ramin
BACKGROUND: Infants born before 37 weeks' gestation are of public health concern since complications associated with preterm birth are the leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age and a major cause of morbidity and lifelong disability. The administration of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) reduces preterm birth by 33% in women with history spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). We demonstrated previously that plasma concentrations of 17-OHPC vary widely among pregnant women and that women with 17-OHPC plasma concentrations in the lowest quartile had SPTB rates of 40% vs rates of 25% in those women with higher concentrations...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509324/three-dimensional-neurosonography-a-novel-field-in-fetal-medicine
#15
Michał Lipa, Ritsuko Kimata Pooh, Mirosław Wielgoś
Neurosonography is a promising technique for prenatal diagnosis, combining features of ultrasound imaging with fetal neurology. The brain is a three-dimensional structure, therefore observing brain structure in the three basic planes (sagittal, coronal and axial) is mandatory. The anterior fontanelle and sagittal suture may serve as acoustic ultrasound windows in the transvaginal brain scan, allowing to obtain high-resolution neuroimages of the intracranial structures. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound combined with the transvaginal brain approach provides detailed and sophisticated neuroimages...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506493/strategies-for-investigating-the-maternal-fetal-interface-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-what-can-we-learn-about-pathology
#16
Judith E Cartwright, Guy StJ Whitley
The pathologies of the pregnancy complications pre-eclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are established in the first trimester of human pregnancy. In a normal pregnancy, decidual spiral arteries are transformed into wide diameter, non-vasoactive vessels capable of meeting the increased demands of the developing fetus for nutrients and oxygen. Disruption of this transformation is associated with PE and FGR. Very little is known of how these first trimester changes are regulated normally and even less is known about how they are compromised in complicated pregnancies...
May 6, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501365/why-natural-killer-cells-are-not-enough-a-further-understanding-of-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-and-human-leukocyte-antigen
#17
REVIEW
Diana Alecsandru, Juan A García-Velasco
The immune system's role in recurrent reproductive failure is a controversial issue in assisted reproduction. Most studies into immune system implication in reproduction have focused on finding markers of peripheral blood and less on the uterine environment. Peripheral blood natural killer cells have become an "immune study core" for women with recurrent miscarriage or recurrent implantation failure, based on the mistaken notion that they cause reproductive failure by killing or "rejecting" the embryo. Maternal-fetal tolerance begins at the uterine level, so successful adaptation to the fetus occurs after a complicated process...
May 10, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494174/human-endometrial-stromal-cell-plasticity-reversible-sflt1-expression-negatively-coincides-with-decidualization
#18
Hanh N Cottrell, JuanJuan Wu, Bassam H Rimawi, Juan Manuel Duran, Jessica B Spencer, Neil Sidell, Augustine Rajakumar
Preeclampsia (PE) is a major complication of pregnancy in which the placenta is known to have shallow implantation into the uterine decidua. Studies have implicated soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1), a soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor protein, in the pathogenesis of PE. sFlt1 has the ability to bind to and neutralize the angiogenic functions of VEGF and placental growth factor (PlGF). The presence of sFlt1 and its action in the endometrium is yet to be determined. We hypothesize that endometrial stromal cells (ESC) at the maternal-fetal interface may play a role in sFlt-1 regulation during pregnancy...
May 11, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491132/obstetric-medical-care-and-training-in-the-united-kingdom
#19
Adam D Jakes, Ingrid Watt-Coote, Matthew Coleman, Catherine Nelson-Piercy
The UK confidential enquiry into maternal deaths identified poor management of medical problems in pregnancy to be a contributory factor to a large proportion of indirect maternal deaths. Maternal (obstetric) medicine is an exciting subspecialty that encompasses caring for both women with pre-existing medical conditions who become pregnant, as well as those who develop medical conditions in pregnancy. Obstetrics and gynaecology trainees have some exposure to maternal medicine through their core curriculum and can then complete an advanced training skills module, subspecialise in maternal-fetal medicine or take time out to complete the Royal College of Physicians membership examination...
March 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490370/behavioral-interventions-to-promote-adequate-sleep-among-women-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Lydi-Anne Vézina-Im, Jennette Palcic Moreno, Theresa A Nicklas, Tom Baranowski
BACKGROUND: Short and poor sleep have been associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, such as overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes, especially among women. Women therefore represent an important target for interventions aimed at improving sleep and such interventions have been advocated to enhance maternal, fetal, and infant health. This systematic review will assess the efficacy or effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting adequate sleep among women. The primary outcomes will be changes in sleep duration and/or sleep quality from baseline to post-intervention and to the last available follow-up measured either through self-reports or objectively...
May 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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